Friday, 27 November 2009

The London/Essex border - Epping Forest

TQ 96 40
The London/Waltham Forest/Essex boundary comes eastward and then turns due south while still on Chingford Plain. It crosses a path from Connaught Water turns east, then south, keeping to the edge of the forest

Cuckoo Brook flows south west and reaches Connaught Water
River Ching flows from Connaught Water in a southerly direction

Post to the west Stewardstonebury
Post to the south Buckhurst Hill

Sites on the Essex side of the border.

Epping Forest
Epping Forest 1878-1978
Green Ride. This was cut through the Forest in preparation for its official dedication by Queen Victoria in 1882. She was driven along it in an open carriage to High Beech. This part of the Green Ride was an open trackway before the Ride proper was constructed. It was known as the Ridings, and may have been a dividing line in the woodland
Magpie Hill. A name west of Connaught Water near the corner of Chingford Plain although there is no hill there. Maybe it means the rise of the land from the Plain towards Grimston's Oak
Cuckoo Pits. Series of small ponds on the line of the Cuckoo Brook. Only place where Potentilla palustris is found
Long Hills
Grimston’s Oak. Fine tree standing alone in a circular clearing. A solitary full-grown oak, the tree has a circular seat round it named after Mr. Bedford, in recognition of his good work in preserving the people’s forest, but sometimes known as Grimston's Oak. Here five green paths diverge.
Palmers Bridge
Buttonseed Corner
Peartree Plain
Epping New Road
The Warren. The Conservators administer the forest from the Grade II* listed Warren House built around a medieval hunting lodge which they have owned since 1876.. It was also for a while a pub called The Reindeer. The grounds were laid out by Humphrey Repton. T E Lawrence hut from Pole Hill was re-erected at the Warren. Obelisk to a horse owned by Thomas Grosvenor who kept horses for racing there and which was said to have been ridden at Waterloo. The obelisk is a pillar from Wanstead House. The White House.
Connaught Water. Called after Duke of Connaught, Ranger of the Forest. It is an 8 acre stretch of ornamental water opened in 1883 and enlarged in 1893 when the islands made. This lake was formed by the Corporation of London out of a rush filled swamp called Forest Pool which was fed by the drainage from Hill Wood, Fairmead Bottom and Thicket. The Conservators wanted to drain the Forest for the Commoners’ cattle. The catchment area is the area to the north and water enters the lake in two streams at the corners. In March 1880 Mr. E. W. Roberts, a member of the City Corporation, sent a gift of 10,000 fish to stock the waters of Epping Forest, on condition that a proper close season should be observed and that Sunday fishing should not be permitted
The Ching – flows out of Connaught Water

Manor Road
Warren Hill House. Warren Hill House, a Victorian Gothic mansion, owned originally by Sir Daniel Mackinnon, and later by the Lusty family, of Lloyd-loom woven furniture. It is now flats.

The London/Essex border - Sewardstonebury

TQ 39 96
The London/Waltham Forest/Essex boundary runs due east along the southern edge of Hawk Wood, crosses Bury Road and continues east on the same trajectory across the Forest.

Cuckoo Brook flows south west towards  Connaught Water

Post to the west Stewardstonebury
Post to the east Epping Forest
Post to the south Chingford

Sites on the Essex side of the border

Bury Road
Retreat of old Hawkwood Farm. Used as a lodge for Head keeper and then retreat. All this land was farmland is now part of the forest. Gradual acquisition of the area. Used as a fun fair and tea room

Bury Wood
Large wood of tangled hornbeam and oak that stretches for almost half a mile. Dense hornbeam has made it suitable for pollarding trials.
Woodman’s Glade. Longhorn cattle

Cuckoo Brook. The Brook drains the West Essex golf course from Bury Road and from land to the north near the Owl Pub. In the Forest it passes under the three rides before joining the overflow from Connaught Water. It used to be said there were "pot-boilers" in the bed of the stream - large flints cracked and crazed by heat – said to have been used to boil water after they were heated in a fire. it is a 'natural' stream with a disused meander loop.


Sites on the London, Waltham Forest, side of the border

Chingford Plain
Was a farm lane once?

The London/Essex border - Sewardstonebury

TQ 38 96
The London/Waltham Forest./Essex boundary Goes east south of Yardley Hill, across the top of a stream and then curves slightly north west. It then turns abruptly south for a short distance and then north east to meet Yardley Lane. At the corner of Hawk Wood it turns south east along the edge of the wood and at the elbow bend goes east to cross the wood. It emerges, after a blip, going east on the southern boundary of Hawk Wood.

Post to the west King George V Reservoir
Post to the east Stewardstonebury
Post to the south Chingford

Sites on the Essex side of the boundary

Bury Farm
Livery stables
Filter Beds

Sites on the London/Waltham Forest side of the boundary

Hawk Wood
Marked as ‘Hawkwood’ on the Ordnance Survey map of 1883, named from ‘Chyngefordehal 1323, ‘Chyngford Hauke’ 1501 that is 'the nook or corner of Chingford’. The wood lies along the northern parish boundary of Chingford.
Sewage works Centre
Hawkwood School

Yardley Lane

Yardley Hill
Hawkwood Lodge, Locally Listed building. The only surviving structure from the Hawkwood estate erected by Richard Hodgson in the late 1840’s. Now Environmental Education Centre. Hodgson was Lord of the Manor of Chingford St Pauls from 1844 – 1866
Hawkwood House demolished following bomb damage in 1944.
Well in the ruins of Hawkwood House

British History Online. Chingford
London Borough of Waltham Forest. Web site

The London/Essex border - Ponders End

The London/ Enfield/Essex boundary goes south on an eccentric course (presumably the course of the original river) down the reservoir and joins the boundary of Waltham Forest.
The London/Waltham Forest /Essex boundary Goes straight east-west across the reservoir.

Post to the north Brimsdown
Post to the east George V
Post to the south Picketts Lock
Post to the west Ponders End

Sites on the London, Enfield, side of the boundary

Alma Road
Developed from 1855. Redeveloped by the council from the 1950s with tower blocks. The area had been part of an estate attached to Ponders End Mill.
173 Alma pub
Tin tabernacle
Alma Road Secondary SchoolPumping Station. In 1854 the local board opened a water works here.

Conduit Lane
Navigation Inn. This was the Ponders End Pumping Station for the Girling reservoir built by the East London Waterworks Co1899 and designed by W. S. Bryan. The Inn was created in 1995 from parts of the Pumping Station and an extra building in pastiche was added to the north. The style of both buildings is half-timbered with big tiled roofs. This pumping station was for one of five wells sunk by East London Water Works under their Act of 1886. Roughcast below big tiled roofs. Now a Mitchell and Butler Harvester. Formerly 'The Palladium'.
Keid’s Weir . South of Ponder’s End Lock. Intake for East London Waterworks Co. The water is sent in a channel to Chingford Mill. From here the East London Water Co. owned the bed of the stream.

Lea Navigation.
This runs from the Thames to Hertford, Modest improvements to the natural river course began in the late 12th under the Abbot of Waltham and in 1424 an Act of Parliament - the first for this purpose - appointed commissioners to improve the navigable waterway. Following a report in 1766 by John Smeaton, Thomas Yeoman created a series of artificial channels and pound locks of modem type in place of previous flash locks.
The Barge River – its course lies under the reservoirs that flank the east bank all the way to Tottenham from Enfield
Edmonton Cut - one of Yeoman's improvements. Broad and straight five miles long from Tottenham Hale to Ponders End, begun 1770
Enfield Cut. Less regular above Ponders End, following the earlier Enfield millstream.
Ponders End Lock. Until 1861, this lock was also called Enfield Mill Lock after the nearby Mill. It was the first of the Lee locks to be duplicated, in 1959. The Lee Conservancy lock house was demolished to make way for the new, mechanised, chamber. The original lock remains manual.
Ponders End Ferry

Lea Valley Road
Road crosses the River Lea., Mar Dyke, Lea Navigation, and Ponders End Mill. The road was built in the 1870s financed by public subscription,
South Marsh. Mentioned in 1419.
Bridge House. Unexploded bomb,

Morson Road
Riverside Industrial Estate
Valley Link Estate
Columbia Wharf
Wharf Road Industrial Estate

Northampton Road
1/3 Granville. Listed pub.

Overflow channel
Approximately 2 miles long. Flowing from the River Lee Navigation above Ponder's End Lock across South Marsh close to the King George V Reservoir and following the western perimeter of the William Girling Reservoir to merge with the River Lee Diversion at Edmonton.

Ponders End
Ponders End - Marked thus on the Ordnance Survey 1822, earlier ‘Ponders ende’ 1593, that is 'end or quarter’ associated with the Ponder family' from Middle English ‘ende’. John Ponder of Enfield is mentioned in a document of 1373; the surname may well mean 'keeper of, or dweller by, a fish-pond or mill- pond'. Was it where Ponder highwayman was, or J.Ponder lived
Tannery in 1740s
Pub called Pike and Anchor in 19th
Ponders End Station. 15th September 1840. Between Brimsdown and Angel Road on One Railway. Northern and Eastern Railway. Station, built at Ponders End not Enfield because it was flat and therefore cheaper
East London Water Co. sewer from Ponders End to Tottenham Lock. It takes effluent from Cheshunt, Enfield and Edmonton

Wharf Road
Built to replace Marsh Lane. Was Dell’s Ford on it?
Overlooking fragments of water meadows was a Domesday water-mill site on the River Lea with some buildings dating from late 17th . There was a mill on the site in the 16th and some evidence of one in the 14th. Was it a gunpowder mill? It was once called Flanders Mill with seven pairs of stones. Then called Enfield Mill and in the 19th Ponders End Mill. It had been a Leather Mill in the late 18th,
Wright's Mill, established 1867 by George Reynolds Wright, one of the first in country to install roller mills Wright partnership with miller Young and lived in the Mill House. Electric power introduced 1909 replacing water wheels. Tall 600-ton grain silo built 1925, now a local landmark. G. R. Wright & Sons Ltd is still a flourishing concern. . Three-storey mill, barn, sack hoist. c1789. Bought freehold from MWB and rights of passage for barges. Refurbished 1950s. Miller’s house and offices flanking a three-and-a-half-storey water-mill of brick and white weatherboarding, c. 1789. They overlook fragments of water meadows by the Lee. An attractive ensemble, despite the large unloading bays built out in the 1970s in front of the mill. Dark weather boarded sheds of different heights, taller steel-clad silos and milling plant behind.
Lodge with Gothic windows. 19th
Mill House. Queen Anne. At the core is a Georgian brick miller’s house
Mar Dyke Joins the steam near Keid’s Weir. Joined by the Lea.
Ponders End Shell Works. Built here during World War I, a huge munitions factory, which was sold off after the war.

The London/Essex border - King George V

TQ 37 96
The London/ Enfield/Essex boundary goes south on an eccentric course (presumably the course of the original river) down the reservoir and joins the boundary of Waltham Forest.
The London/Waltham Forest /Essex boundary Goes straight east-west across the reservoir with one blip and then turns north up the aqueduct.
The London/Waltham Forest./Essex boundary goes south down the side of woodland at Yardley Hill and turns east, south of the southern border of the wood.

Post to the west Ponders End
Post to the east Stewardstonebury
Post to the south Low Hall Chingford

Sites on the Essex side of the border

King George V Reservoir
King George’s Sailing Club. Founded 1970s. To provide dinghy sailing and windsurfing in the north and east of London.

Sites on the London, Waltham Forest, side of the border

Drysdale Park

Lea Valley Road
Unexploded bomb 30 yards from Lea Bridge and Lea House also at ‘gun site 1250 battery RA KG reservoir

Sewardstone Road
Pitch and Putt

Yardley Hill
Yardley Lane

The London/Essex border - King George V

TQ 37 97
The London/ Enfield/Essex boundary goes south on an eccentric course (presumably the course of the original river) down the reservoir
The London/Waltham Forest./Essex boundary leaves the Aqueduct and goes east, crosses Sewardstone Road and goes down a path eastwards to the edge of woodland at Yardley Hill.

The Lea Navigation and the Flood Relief Channel flow south

Post to the north George V reservoir
Post to the south George V reservoir
Post to the west Brimsdown

Sites on the London/Enfield side of the boundary

Lea Navigation.
Enfield Cut which follows the line of the earlier Enfield Millstream Thomas Yeoman 1770

Went between the River Lee and the navigation before the reservoir was built.

King George V reservoir,
Embankment in the centre to prevent excessive wave action in high winds.

Sites on the Essex side of the boundary

Mill Lane
Sewardstone Mill. Now under the reservoir. . Powder and Dye works. It was also a silk Mill, belonging to Carr and Dobson, Foster Lane, Cheapside, London, and also a flour mill, the property of Mrs. Teush. In, 1777 it was, a ' Blue Mill, a fulling mill.' Later on it was used for the manufacture of silk, and subsequently for dyeing and scouring, by a Mr. Connell with large dyeing sheds. A garden adjoining the mill house was supposed to be Dutch origin, with dykes and foot-bridges. It was owned by the New River Company.

Stewardstone Road
Fox and a school and nursery
Sewardstone Lodge. Derelict at one time.
Lee Valley Campsite

The London/Essex border- King George V

TQ 37 98
The London/ Enfield/Essex boundary goes south on an eccentric course (presumably the course of the original river) down the reservoir

The Lea  Navigation and the Flood Relief Channel flow south

Post to the north Enfield Lock
Post to the south George V Reservoir

Sites on the London, Enfield, side of the border

Lea Navigation.
Enfield Cut which follows the line of the earlier Enfield Millstream. Built Thomas Yeoman 1770

George V Reservoir
Site of common marsh used for Pasturage by Chingford Commoners from to 1906. Cattle marked by Marsh Reeve. Grass cutting rights.
Built by the East London Water Co. In 1898.. It is formed by a continuous embankment on the floodplain of the Lea. An mighty earth embankment divides it into two compartments connected by three large diameter culverts. The external grassed embankment consists of a central puddle clay core with shoulder filling comprising a mixture of river terraced gravels and alluvial deposits. opened in 1913, by the Metropolitan Water Board, covering 420 acres it is the largest in London. It holds 2,729 galls and has a 4 ½ mile perimeter. Water from the Lee is pumped in at the northern end and the for outlet tower is at the southern end. The water goes into a tunnel under the embankment to an open channel to the basin at Chingford Mill.
channel for surface water drainage,
The water is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is a major wintering ground for wildfowl and wetland birds, including nationally important numbers of some species. The water also forms a moult refuge for a large population of wildfowl during the late summer months. A total of 85 wetland species have been recorded here in recent years.
King George V Pumping Station. Built in an individual classical mannerist style, in red brick and Portland stone, by W. S. Bryan. Opened with great publicity by George V on 13th March 1913. Contains the world prototype installation of Herbert Humphrey's thermally efficient pumps patented in 1906. These devices dispense with piston, connecting rod, crank, flywheel and gearing and are powered by producer gas. A Humphrey pump is basically a large U-tube with a combustion chamber at the closed end and a delivery outlet at the other. Water in the U-tube is made to oscillate by combustion of the producer gas at the closed end and water spills out at the other. Thus at the closed end the surface of the water in the tube acts as the piston. Five pumps, made by Siemens of Stafford, were originally installed and three are in situ underground. One was by Coppermill - gone by 1993. Gas came from a Dowson producer gas plant with a small gas holder.
The surge towers of the Humphrey Pumps are surrounded by an elegant brick screen wall with coupled Portland stone Doric columns.

Thursday, 26 November 2009

The London/Essex border - Enfield Lock

The London/ Enfield/Essex boundary goes south on an eccentric course (presumably the course of the original river) parallel to Government Row and the aqueduct.

The flood relief channel flows south. The Lea Navigation and the River Lea flow south and are met by the Turkey Brook from the west.  An eastward channel goes to the pumping station.

Development area of housing on the site of the Ordnance factory, plus the older area of the lock and Government Row

Post to the north Ramney Marsh
Post to the west Enfield Lock
Post to the south King George V

Sites on the London, Enfield side of the border

Aldridge Road

Arnold Avenue

Enfield Lock. Originally built in 1725, and rebuilt in 1768 and 1922, Offices. This was the centre of the management of the Lee Navigation and The Lee Conservancy offices were built here in 1907 on the western side of the river, below the lock. They remained as an office for British Waterways

Enfield Lock Road

Government Row
Terrace of cottages from 1816. Fringing the factory they are plain 19th workers’ cottages, overlooking a branch of the Lee Houses - Two new terraces either side of the new bridge, which in external appearance are almost identical to the 19th ones
71-76, a small group probably dating from 1857. Still in a rural setting by a weir on the Lee Navigation
30-32 listed
Lock House. On east side of the lock. Red-brick. Built by the Lee Conservancy in 1889. There is an early 20th extension to the side.
Lock cottage. Smaller stock-brick house of c1748.
Rifles. This was the Royal Small Arms Tavern, only pub owned by the Government. Built 1916 and opened by the Duke of Connaught. Now closed

King Henry’s Mews

Lea Navigation.
Enfield Cut which follows the line of the earlier Enfield Millstream. Built by Thomas Yeoman 1770

Navigation Drive
Housing on site of the British Waterways Depot
Maintenance Depot of c.1792 with dry dock, Superintendent's House and other buildings, with a clock turret on the office building of 1907.
Toll office of 1889, with fanciful upper storey to the central projecting bay.
Swan and Pike pool has become a bathing area.
Waterways Business Centre

Ordnance Road
The Greyhound
Osiers and pool

Small River Lea
The river has left the main Lea to the north and eventually flows into the Turkey Brook

Swan and Pike path

Sites on the Essex side of the border

Blanchard Grove
Blanchard was an American who devised a copying lathe for gunstocks – versions of which were brought to Enfield among other American machinery in 1856

Brunswick Road
The Brunswick rifle was a large calibre muzzle-loading percussion rifle made here for the British Army in the early 1800s

Burton Drive
Burton was an American who designed a type of bullet for use in rifles. In 1855 he came to Enfield as Engineer in order to set up the American machinery being installed then.

Carnegie Close
Deputy Superintendent in the early 20th, appointed superintendent and then moved to Woolwich in 1922

Colgate Place
John Colgate was superintendent at the small arms factory in Lewisham and retained that position after the move to Enfield.

Colt Mews
American arms manufacturer who supplied a great deal of equipment to the Enfield works in the mid 19th

Crompton Place
Crompton supplied a generating station and arc lights to the works in the 1880s

Dundas Mews
Dundas was Assistant Inspector of Small Arms in 1814 who agreed the original plans for the site.

Eden Close

Enfield Island Village
On the site of the Small Arms Factory. Built after 1997 by Fairview Homes. Subject of Panorama programme on ground pollution and then Enfield’s Planning Officer joined Fairview

Enfield Lock
Gunpowder mills on the site in 1643.
Machine shop, at range, at risk
Royal Small Arms Factory. On an island between the River Lee Navigation and Cattlegate Flood Relief Channel are the remains of the Royal Small Arms Factory. It was the principal source of rifles for the British army throughout the 19th. The Land was bought by the Ordnance Board in 1812 and the factory opened in 1816. Much of it transferred from Lewisham in 1818. Plans had been prepared by Captain John By in 1812 for a factory with three mills using existing waterpower. John Rennie advised on the construction of a navigable leat with its own millhead and tailrace between the two waterways, to provide both waterpower and transport. By 1822 there were workshops, forges, proof houses, coalhouses and storehouse. Workers' cottages were built along the river - there were sixty by 1841. Walnut trees were planted for the wood for rifle stocks. A school was opened in 1846, an institute and a church in 1857. The site covered 64 acres but the factory remained modest until the 1850s, when the Crimean War meant a need for increased production. In the 1850s a commission of engineers visited American factories at Springfield, Massachusetts, and Harpers Ferry, Virginia. In 1854-6, the Royal Engineers, based on designs by John Anderson, built a machine shop on American mass-production lines. American machinery, run by steam engines and the workforce was increased to over 1,000, and by 1860 an average of 1,744 rifles per week was being produced. The factory became a spectacle for visitors. The work carried out in this model building was not assembly-line production, but organised for maximum efficiency on an unprecedented scale. In 1886 steam power was introduced and workshops were built over the site of the tailrace of the old watermill. There were 16 steam engines with 23 boilers. Production of the, new model rifle by James Lee began in 1889; the Lee Enfield Rifle was designed in 1895. The factory expanded again during the First World War, but the mass-production functions were replaced by machine shops and assembly lines. Half of the site was closed in 1963, the rest in 1987. It is now housing as Enfield Island Village. The 1854-6 factory faced across a great quadrangle, with a frontage of yellow brick with 23 arched windows. There was a tall Italianate central clock turret. The canal ran along the side of the factory, with its head in the quadrangle. The quadrangle buildings are built on the site of the first water-powered factory buildings, which stood next to the canal basin. The existing buildings on the site of the former mill were used as an assembly shop.
Bridge built to give access to the new site in the style of a Victorian canal bridge, from Ordnance Road, over the Lee Navigation, Government Row and the River Lea, to a roundabout centred on the original water-tower which has been kept as a landmark.
Canal ran through the middle of the factory and it and the original millpond in front of the machine shop have been reopened. It was not practicable to reinstate the canal connection to the Lee Navigation.
Factory School. At the entrance. Opened 1844 later a police station.
Gasholders.Machine Shop 1 or 'the big room', 1856 and now listed. Renovated as the commercial centre of the Island with a community hall and health centre. The new internal dividing walls allow the historic original structure, with its north-light roof; octagonal columns and heavy internal guttering, to be seen, columns and guttering are of cast iron with the Governments broad arrow and the Board of Ordnances BO motifs. These columns originally carried the bearings for the line shafting, until it was superseded in the 1950s, and the attachment points are still visible. Italianate clock-tower. The font from the original RSAF church is now displayed in a glass pyramid in a small courtyard created in the centre of the former machine shop
Main entrance bridge remains but for pedestrians only.
Management offices alongside the River Lea. Listed and now flats
MOD stationery store Listed and now flats
Museum, the RSA Interpretation Centre, below the clock-tower. It includes wall panels illustrating the history of RSAF
New Grindery / Polishing Shop / Laboratory which became Admin offices Listed and now flats
North east corner of the machine shop, which was not part of the original 1856 structure, has been demolished and redeveloped as a new HQ for the Christian Action Housing Association with key workers apartments above. Buried below them were the foundations of the original boilers, chimney and beam engines that once powered the machine shop.
Offices and stores. To the west is long two-storey range of offices and stores, which incorporated the drawing office, with brick-and-timber police station to south.
Water tower late 19th.
Pattern Room Listed and now flats
Police Station/House, behind the Lock Keepers cottage at Enfield Lock on the Lee Navigation, remain
Rail layout. Steam powered from 1886. Two swinging river bridges and a tunnel. 1 5/8 miles of rail by 1917. Tunnel below main road between the swing bridges. Swing bridges over cuts going east from Main River.
Stores near the canal wharves, of the 1850s onwards. They were used to house the wooden gun stocks.
Thwaites Turret Clock in the clock-tower dates from 1783 rebuilt in 1808 and 2001. It pre-dates Big Ben and has been at RSAF since 1856.

Fisher Close
Col. Fisher was Superintendent during the First World War

Fogarty Close

Gunner Drive
James Gunner had been a clerk at Lewisham who moved to the new site as storekeeper.

Haldane Close
War office minister, who backed the Union at Enfield on the issue of higher wages

Harston Drive

Hodson Place
J.Hodson a section leader in the 1930s

Joslin Close
Landowner in the area in the 17th

Lloyd Mews
Lloyd and Ostell provided the original equipment when the site was opened

Maclintock Place
Mid 19th superintendent

Manton Road
Manton was the Master Furbisher pre-1840

Martini Drive
Frederick Von Martini inventor of the Martini Henry rifle

Mayall Close

Metford Crescent
William Lee Metford designed improvements to rifle design

Miller Avenue
Inspector of Small Arms 18094

Ostell Crescent
Lloyd and Ostell provided the original equipment when the site was opened

Punchard Crescent

Rigby Road
Superintendent 1880s

Rubin Place
Eduard Rubin designer of developments in the rifle

Shepley Mews

Smeaton Road
Smeaton laid out the Lea Navigation.

Soper Mews
Soper developed a type of rifle

Sten Close
The Sten gun was developed at Enfield by Shepherd and Turpin – i.e. Shepherd Turpin ENfield

Thorneycroft Drive
Type of rifle developed at Enfield early 20th

Turpin Close
Turpin was one of the developers of the Sten Gun

Warlow Close
Edward Warlow was one of the team who decided on mid-19th American equipment

Watkin Mews
Superintendent who developed a trigger action.

Cherry and Pevsner London North
Lewis. London's Lea Valley and the Great War
Pam. History of . Enfield
Pam.. The Royal Small Arms Factory and its Workers
Stevenson. Middlesex
Various biographical web sites to check these names, Largely Wikipedia

The London/Hertfordshire/Essex border - Ramney Marsh

TQ 37 99
The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes east along the M25 with a dip south at the New River and return north. At the River Lea it meets the Essex boundary.
The London/ Enfield/Essex boundary turns south taking a wiggley course to the east of the pumping station and then follows the River Lea.

The Lee Navigation, the Small River Lee and the Flood Relief Channel all flow southwards. The Flood Relief Channel is met by the Black Ditch and Cobbins Brook both flowing from the west.
Cobbins Brook flows westwards and joins the Flood Relief Channel
The Black Ditch flows westwards and joins the Flood Relief Channel
Post to the west Waltham Cross
Post to the south Enfield Lock
Post to the north Waltham Cross
Post to the east Waltham Abbey

Sites on the Essex side of the border

Made up of Cattlegate Flood Relief Channel and Ramney Marsh Flood Relief Channel

Cobbins Brook
Said that Boadicea poisoned herself with hemlock gathered from the banks of Cobbins Brook

Fleming Way
George Lovell Drive
New housing on the northern most tip of the Small Arms Factory. Beyond the tip is still undeveloped apart from pylons... George Lovell was an employee at the Ordnance Works and later Inspector for Enfield dedicated himself to bringing the percussion system to the British military, perfecting the Brunswick Rifle.
Gunpowder Park. Government Research Establishment. This was the South Site of the Waltham Abbey complex... A guncotton factory was built in 1885 on land previously that of Quinton Hill Farm. It has a clear east-west production line with boilers for steam and an electricity supply was installed. There was an acid separating house. Buildings were in buff brick with light metal roofs with floors in acid resistant brick or concrete. Women were employed here on teasing cotton – the only women at Waltham Abbey then. There was a dipping room and fume towers supported on a timber lattice work. There was also a single storey vat house where the cotton was boiled for days and a covered way to pulping and moulding rooms as well as ancillary buildings. In 1890 south of this was built a self contained cordite factory on the Nobel pattern. It had four brick traverses and wooden process buildings containing an acid separating house, two nitrating houses and a washing house, there were also nitroglycerine stores. There was a major explosion in 1894 and it was reported that whole site was too close together. The plant was rebuilt using the natural fall in the land as part of the process. However the factory was soon used only as a reserve. It is now Gunpowder Park. Based on the South Site of Waltham Abbey.

Lower Island
Developed as part of the Gunpowder Mills from the start. Cleared but there are some remains
In the early 1980s the last surviving traverses for the construction of the M25
Canal - this lay south of the M25 but penetrated into the northern section

Sewardstone Way
South Way

Sites on the London, Enfield, side of the boundary

Lea Navigation
The navigation south of Ramney Marsh Lock divides with a channel west of the old small arms factory site and one into it – thus making the majority of the site, now housing, into an island. This leat was built as part of the original plans for the factory. An arm to the west feeds into the parallel aqueduct.
Enfield Cut. Dates from 1764. Which follows the line of the earlier Enfield Millstream 1864
Ramney Marsh Lock. Once known as Terry’s or Torry’s Lock. Originally built 1768 to the north nearer to Cobbins Brook. It was rebuilt 1864 and 1902 in brick and stone, recycled from the recently demolished Westminster Bridge and called Want’s Lock. The stone from the bridge is still in place. The chamber also still has its Victorian granite coping stones and cast iron lock furniture. The 1835 bridge across the tail meant that the gates could not be fitted with balance beams. For many years it was the last lock on the Lee to be operated by ropes. The gates were changed to hydraulic operation in 1995
Lock house 1877 but since replaced by a modern bungalow.
Footbridge reused cast-iron beam, across the lock 1835.
Pumping Station
Tumbling Bay into the Weir Pool
Newman’s Weir. Also called Sothebys Upper Weir. The navigation cuts from the weir date from the 1760s. Sotheby had operated a fishery here in the late 18th . Wooden sluice gates and cast iron guide frames 1907 reconstructed in succession to a series of timber weirs.
Weir Keepers House
Meridian Business Park

Rammey Marsh
'Island of dry ground in marsh where rams are pastured', from Old English or it was a Mill site owned by Thomas Ramme who ran a fulling mill there in the 15th.

The London/Hertfordshire border - Waltham Cross

TQ 00 36
GLC/Enfield boundary Goes on along the M25

The Small River Lee flows southwards
The Lea Navigation and the River Lee flow southwards

Post to the east Ramney Marsh
Post to the north Waltham Cross
Post to the south Enfield Lock

Sites on the London, Enfield side of the boundary

Caxton Court.
Industrial warehouses

Electric Way

Name of a local farm, which took its name from a pond, which has disappeared under the sewage works. Recorded as ‘Freezwater’ 1768, ‘Freezy Water’ 1819 so called from its bleak and exposed situation

Innova Way
Keys Meadows School. Primary school
Oasis AcademyInnova Business Park. On the site Ramney Marsh sludge works

Kinetic Way

Mandeville Park Road

Mollison Avenue

Painters Lane.

Rammney Marsh
Innova Business Park replaces the sludge disposal and dewatering works.

Solar Way

The London/Hertfordfshire border - Waltham Cross

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes on along the M25
TQ 35 01

Post to the east Waltham Cross
Post to the west Theobalds 34 01
Post to the north Cheshunt

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border

Cambridge Road
Dual carriageway built in the 1930s and is now the A10.  It is the first area of derestricted speed when leaving London. Mainly on the line of Ermine Street it goes from London Bridge to Kings Lynn,
New Cottages
Oyler’s Farm one of the largest cultivated areas in the district. 18th farmhouse and a thatched refrigerator barn, an uncommon structure at least two hundred years old.
Theobalds Park Farm. Historic farm site. Producing vegetables for London markets.
Footpath, was known locally as the Twopenny Tube, connects Park Lane with Bullscross Ride.
Printing works of News International. At the junction with Park Lane (Paradise). On the site of Orange Cafe which became a Little Chef
Travelodge Hotel at the junction with Park Lane (Paradise) on the site of the Orange cafe.

Park Lane Paradise
Level crossing. Only one on this railway line's located here 1 mile from Turkey Street.
Sand and gravel pits

The London/Hertfordshire border - Theobalds

TQ 35 01
Post to the west Theobalds Manor 34 01
Post to the east Waltham Cross 36 01
Post to the north Bury Green
Post to the south Bulls Cross

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes along the M25

A tributary stream to Theobalds Brook flows east and meets another tributary stream from the south

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border

Bull’s Cross Road
Continuation of Green Lanes, Drove road into London from Islington is interrupted by the park, which it used to go north through between Bull’s Cross Road and Bury Green Road
Bulls Cross Farm
Western Cemetery JewishLittlefield. Offices

Moated site west of the A10
The Manor of Cullings. Cullings is the name of the original manor here which derives from Walter Cullings who was here in 1303 and in 1387 it passed to the Abbot of Waltham Holy Cross which they held until the dissolution. By 1552, in the reign of Edward VI, Cullings was held by Henry and Alice Beecher, and in 1573 by Sir William Cecil, Lord Burghley and it became part of his Theobalds estate and by that time he had built the palace at Theobalds. The moated site is mentioned as a ruin from 1650

Theobald’s Park Park
Theobalds Park was created by James I as a hunting park, the largest known in England. It enclosed a large part of southern Hertfordshire within a park pale or wall. By 1650 a process of enlargement had led to a park of 2,508 acres, enclosed by a 9-foot high wall. In that year 15,608 trees were allocated for naval uses showing its use for timber production, as well as fishing and hawking. In the Second World War this was used as a Royal Artillery barracks
Theobalds House. The estate was bought by George Prescott, an MP since 1762. The redbrick mansion stands on rising ground in a park of 200 acres, and was built between 1765 and 1770 by Sir George William Prescott, Bart. The house originally had a central five-bay block with wings and colonnades linking single-storey blocks. This has in red brick with white stone dressings and green slate roofs. Inside is an entrance hall with arches, Etruscan ceilings and a curved staircase with iron railings. There is also Jacobean woodwork panels and painted plaster ceilings. The Meux brewing family leased it in 1820 and later bought the freehold. They added a tower and domestic quarters in the 1880's - architect G.Ponting - and a ballroom wing was built in 1912. The last private owner was Admiral of the Fleet Sir Hedworth Meux, G.C.B., K.C.V.O. Who died in 1929. The mansion became the Theobalds Park Hotel, with a swimming pool, a golf course, and tennis-courts. It was later bought by Middlesex County Council in 1938 and occupied by the Royal Artillery during the Second World War, Later is was used and, briefly, by the Metropolitan Police Riding School and became a secondary school between 1951 and 1969. The London Borough of Enfield used it as a college from 1973 to 1989. In the early 1990's it was restored and sold to Style Conferences Ltd in 1995.
Maze Gardens acted both as a food supply for the Burghleys and had a symbolic significance in their layout. In the Civil war turned into farms. Restocked in the Restoration. The formal gardens of the house were modelled after the Ch√Ęteau de Fontainebleau English botanist John Gerard acting as their superintendent.
New River. The king allowed the New River to go through for free and it is where James I fell into the New River in the ice. There is a footpath along the New River through the Park with an iron footbridge. The fence to the right is the old course of the New River following the 100 ft. Contour. The return loop went under the motorway. The stretch between Theobalds and the M25 can be seen now as a dewatered ditch
Temple Bar (now back at St.Paul's). Meux brought it to Theobald's.
Temple House. A restored 18th manor house.
Tennis Court
Sports Ground. This is Tesco's staff playing field
Riding SchoolCamp Site – caravan club site in woodland
Drive to the house is the line of Ermine Street

New River Aqueduct over the M25. Post tensioned made in situ concrete in two rectangular boxes. 1985 built without interrupting the New River contractor Sir Robert McAlpine but there was a temporary diversion. Access road for Thames Water on top of the slab. Epoxy lining to prevent contamination.

Osborne, Defending London

The London/Hertfordshire Border - Theobalds

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes east west from a stream on the south side of the continues along the south side of the Motorway with a slight blip to the south. It then crosses it and goes along the north side with a slight blip at a point at which it is joined by a channel. It continues on the south side of a wood alongside the motorway

A tributary arm of Theobald's Brook rises in this area and flows eastwards
A stream flows south east towards Turkey Brook

Post to the west - White Webbs - 33 01
Post to the east Theobalds 35 01
Post to the north Broadfield Farm
Post to the south Whitewebbs

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border

Old Park Ride
Gunsite Farm - Theobalds Stud. Gunsite Stud is a new stable building in a fold of the southern slopes, finished with white rendered walls and terracotta roof tiles.
South Osiers
Theobalds Manor.  A red brick Queen Anne style house adjacent to the stud buildings.
There was a small settlement here called 'Wood Green'. This was displaced by the enclosure by James I of the land into his deer park in 1618. Wood Green hamlet, was on the edge of the park in 1611 and was moved to a new site in 1620. The site was later deserted and then emparked in 1782, a reverse of the pattern with Theobalds
Spring Farm
Square Planting

The London/Hertfordshire border - Whitewebbs

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary Goes east. It crosses the Sloeman’s Farm track at the elbow bend and continues to touch the M25 at the point at which it meets a track and a stream

A stream rises in this area and flows south east

TQ 33 01
Post to the west Crews Hill 32 01
Post to the east 34 01 Theobalds Manor
Post to the north Woodgreen Farm
Post to the south Whitewebbs Park

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border

Cinder Ash
Home Plantation

Sites on the London, Enfield, side of the border

Whitewebbs Road
Sloeman’s Cottage
Whitewebbs Farm.listed and with a listed barn.

Wednesday, 25 November 2009

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Crews Hill

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes east along a road to Williams Farm and crosses Burnt Farm Ride and some woodland.

Post to the west Crews Hill
Post to the east White Webbs
Post to the north Crews Hill
Post to the south Whitewebbs

Sites on the London, Enfield, side of the boundary
TL 3152100046

Area of garden centres and nurseries together with older buildings, once farms

Burnt Farm Ride
Glasgow Stud 17th century, HQ of British Bloodstock Agency, farmhouse staircase. Farmhouse c17, Staircase with strapwork balusters; first-floor stone fireplace with carved artisan Mannerist detail. listed

Crews Hill Paddocks
Crews Hill Piggeries
Stud Cottages

Sanders Corner
Williams Farm

Cattlegate Road
Glasshouses. To the east of Crews Hill station, north and south of Cattlegate Road, is an area of glasshouses of the kind formerly ubiquitous in the Lea Valley.
Cuffley Brook
Tilekiln Osiers

British Bloodstock Agency. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. Hertfordshire

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Crews Hill

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary crosses the northern edge of Cattlegate Farm, going south east. It continues on the same line to cross the M25 and the railway line and cross the path to Williams’ Farm.

Turkey Brook
Turkey Brook rises in this area and flows south
TQ 3088999756

Area of garden centres and nurseries round Crews Hill Station in the area once part of Enfield Chase.

Post to the north Cattlegate
Post to the west Cattlegate
Post to the east Glasgow Stud
Post to the south East Lodge

Sites on the London, Enfield side of the border

Cattlegate Road
Cattlegate – ‘Cathalgate’, ‘Le Chathalegate’ 1441, ‘Cattle Gate’ 1605,’Cathellgate’ 1636, named from ‘Cafhale’ c.1220, that is ‘nook or comer of land frequented by wildcats', from Old English ‘catt’ and ‘halh’ with the later addition of Middle English gate with reference to the northern entrance to Enfield Chase. Glasshouses were once ubiquitous in the Lea Valley. Was Cathals Road, renamed when it became a Drove Road
Hollyhill Farmhouse. 19th villa. Low hipped roof. listed
Owles Farm 19th villa stuccoed rounded bow . listed
Cattlegate farm, picturesque
Crews Hill Station. 1910. Between Cuffley and Gordon Hill on Great Northern Railway. Built by the Great Northern Railway and opened with the extension of the line to Cuffley. This station has a rural setting, high up on an embankment. It has two side platforms, with a brick building on each. It was probably the last station within Greater London to issue LNER platform tickets - until the mid-1960s.
Signal Box situated on the down side a little way north of the station, and it was removed at the beginning of the 1970s
Woodhurst Farm Cottages
Woodhurst Farm. Livery stable
Owls Hall

Crews Hill
Horticultural heaven – garden centre ‘golden mile’. Name from family who lived here. Area was part of Enfield Chase and inaccessible until after the 1770s. Trinity College Cambridge owned much of he land here. Estate of bungalows 1930s but after that development limited by ‘green girdle’
Crews Hill Golf Course. Built in 1915 on land bought from Trinity College.
Theobalds Park Farm. Producing vegetables for the London market.  There are the remains of a medieval homestead moat have been noted here. It was the site of the manor of Cullings, absorbed into Theobalds Park in the 16th century
Plough pub. Landscaped beer garden

Enfield Chase
‘Enefeld Chacee’ in 1325, ‘Chace of Enefelde’ 1373, from Middle English ‘chace’ -‘a chase, a tract of ground for breeding and hunting wild animals'. Yhis was first created out of the extensive woodland here in 1136, became Crown property in 1399, and remained a royal hunting preserve until it was subject to enclosure in 1777.

Railway Line
The line to Cuffley enters Hertfordshire emerging from a deep cutting on to an embankment.

Crews Hill Golf Club. Web site
London Railway Record
Osborne. Defending London
Pam. Enfield Chase
Pevsner and Cherry. Hertfordshire
Plough. Web site

The London/Hertfordshire boundary -Cattlegate

GLC/Enfield boundary having come from Cattlegate Lane begins to curve south east towards the farm

Cuffley Brook
Cuffley Brook flows southwards and is joined by the Northaw Brook from the west. The Northaw Brook has itself been joined by the Henpshill Brook from the west.
TL 3035201593

Countryside area south of Cuffley with woodland and the main railway line

Post to the west Cattlegate
Post to the south Crews Hill
Post to the north Cuffley
Post to the east Crews Hill

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the boundary

Chain Walk

Hempshill Brook

Northaw Brook
Nursery Plantation

Railway Line
This crosses the Northaw Brook on the Sopers Farm Viaduct with 11 arches. It dates from 1909.

GLIAS Newsletter

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Cattlegate

GLC/Enfield boundary. Goes on down Cooperslane Road and then crosses
Cattlegate Road. It then begins to curve south east
TL 2853101862

Countryside area with big houses and scattered farms

Post to the south Cattlegate 
Post to the east Cattlegate 
Post to the north Cuffley
Post to the west Barvin Park

Sides on the Hertfordshire of the boundary

Cattlegate Lane
Cattlegate Cottages
Prospect Cottages

Coles Hill

Coopers Lane Road
Barvin Park. Big house latterly owned by the Order of St.John of God.  Decided in 1911 to set up “a colony in England for Catholic male adult mental defectives and epileptics,” and the Irish-English Delegation took possession of Barvin Park in Hertfordshire at the request of the Archbishop of Westminster, Cardinal Francis Bourne. Cardinal Bourne officially opened the centre on 1st October 1931.eventully closed in the 1990s. The site is now housing

Cattlegate Wood

Robin Hill
Woodhurst Farm
Northaw Brook

Northaw Road West
Park Farm. Equestrian Centre with listed barn
Hill View Farm
Colesdale Farm

Oakwell Drive

Woodgate Avenue

Hertfordshire County Council. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. Hertfordshire

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Cattlegate

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary continues to follow Cooperslane Road
TL 2853101862

Countryside area with scattered farms

Post to the west Barvin Park
Post to the north Cattlegate 
Post to the east Crews Hill 

Sites on the London, Enfield, side of the border

Barvin Hill
The ridge dips here

Cattlegate Road
Olive Cottage

Coopers Lane Road
Holly Hill Farm.  Outdoor sports and riding centre

South Hill
Turkey Brook


The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Barvin Park

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary continues to follow Cooperslane Road.

Entrance to a private housing estate, replacing a school, on an isolated country road east of Potters Bar surrounded by fields and woods - the M25 runs east:west to the south. Barvin Park was the name of the big house where the school operated.

TL 28769 00926

Post to the west Potters Bar 
Post to the east Cattlegate 
Post to the north Barvin Park

Cooperslane Road
St.Raphael School Lodge. This appears to have gone

Hooke Hill

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Potters Bar

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes due north on the east side of the school and youth centre. When it reaches CoopersLane Road it turns east to follow it.

Northaw Brook
Northaw Brook flows eastwards  and it met by tributaries from north, south and north east

TQ 28 02

Post to the south Potters Bar 28 01
Post to the north Northaw
Post to the east Barvin Park

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border
Fir Wood

Hook Lane
Hook Cottages
The Hook kennels. Owned by the Greyhound Racing Association
Oshwal Centre. Jain temple. £3.6m to build from pink sandstone and marble. stone was carved by craftsmen in India.Swimming Pool
The Hook Big house built 1838 and containing an important old staircase from Gubbins House.Army Dogs training school in the Second World War.
Hook Wood
Fish Pond. Hook Lake run by a carp syndicate

Sites on the London, Enfield side of the border

Coopers Lane Road
Five Acre Wood Many sinuous hornbeam trees. They were harvested for chopping boards, cogs and firewood. Long since abandoned as a crop, they now grow unchecked creating this rather strange woodland.

The London/Hertfordshire - Potters Bar

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary continues due north crossing The Ridgeway, the M25 and going down the east side of Foxhole Hill to Moses Hill. , and the east end of Coningsby Drive, Honeywood and Featherstone Close.
The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary comes south east following Cooperslane Road.

Post to the east Barvin Park 30 01
Post to the north Potters Bar 28 02
Post to the south Plumridge Hill
Post to the west Potters Bar interchange

Sites on the London, Enfield side of the boundary

Foxhole Hill
Pond Wood. Managed by the Hertfordshire and Middlesex Wildlife Trust
Meadow –at the southern end is an ancient meadow with woodland on three sides and Turkey Brook on the fourth. It is grazed by Shetland sheep to stop the scrub encroaching. It is rich in butterflies, grasshoppers and there are large numbers of old ant hills.
lake - at the southern end colonised by common reedmace and gipsywort. It supports large numbers of dragonflies including the ruddy darter.

The Ridgeway
The Lodge
The Cottage
New Cottage Farm. On a high point of the ridge.

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Enfield Chase

The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary Goes north east from Long Hill to cross Southgate Road

Countryside area on the edge of Enfield

Post to the south Hadley Wood
Post to the east Plumridge Hill
Post to the west Ganwick Corner
Post to the north Potters Bar interchange

Enfield Chase
Royal hunting forest. George II sold it and 1777 act of enclosure parcelled it off.

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border

Fir Wood
Managed by Hertfordshire and Middlesex TNC, Woodland with woodpeckers

Hornbeam Hills.
Geometric field patterns and pylons

Chase Cottage Farm

Chase Wood

Southgate Road
Stagg Hill
Fenny Slade Hill. Wildlife site
Chase Farm

Essex Lopresti, The New River
London Borough of Enfield. Web site
Pam. History of Enfield
Pevsner and Cherry. North London

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Hadley Wood

TQ 26 99
The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes north east to Wagon Road and turns east along it. At Long Hill it turns north east

Monken Mead Brook flows eastwards to Pymmes Brook. It is joined by a tributary from Bartram's Quash to the north

Post to the west Hadley Wood
Post to the north Enfield Chase
Post to the east West Lodge
Post to the south Hadley Wood

Sites on the London, Enfield side of the boundary

Bartram’s Lane
Hadley Wood Station. 1885 Between Potters Bar and New Barnet on Great Northern Railway. Received additional platforms at the time of the widening, and its building at track level assumed a rather austere late 1950s appearance. The booking office of much older origin, spanned the original two tracks, and was the last surviving link with the old station, lasting almost until electrification. 1974 the modest rebuilt waiting shelters on the down island had already been replaced 10m 46ch from Kings Cross. In 1885 Charles Jack, local landowner subsidised the building of the station and wanted it called Beech Hill Park. In 1880 he had begun negotiations with the Great Northern Railway and part-funded the construction of the new station
Bartram’s Lane Field and Cricket Ground

Beech Hill Park
Jack saw the potential of his estate to become an upmarket residential suburb, and negotiated with the Duchy of Lancaster for a building lease in 1884 and part-funded the new station, which opened in 1885. Thereafter, the estate was developed quickly. After Jack died in 1896, the management of the estate passed to a Trust. This continued the building programme,

Camlet Way
Great Broadgates Hill.

Courtleigh Avenue
Hadley Wood Primary School opened 1965,

Crescent Road
A fragment of a Victorian suburb: substantial tile hung houses of the 1880s, a development by Charles Jack, which failed to expand further.

Crescent East
Development by owner of Beech Hill Park. Charles Jack and streets around the GNR station. 1885. Buildings were erected in Crescent East by 1896.

Crescent West
Buildings were erected on the south side by 1896. Bungalows on the north side were the only permitted development pre-Second World War. North side developed after 1945
34-40 Voyseyesque
Gables Lodge
Lawn Tennis Club

Hadley Wood
Medieval estate, part of Enfield Chase, Great Northern Railway station built there through the delay with the leasehold on the railway. A select Victorian suburb due to the owner of Beech Hill Park, Charles Jack, who from 1882 laid out streets near the Great Northern Railway station, opened in 1885. Jack was the tenant of Beech Hill Park. This modest country estate was created in 1777 by Francis Russell, secretary to the Duchy of Lancaster, out of Enfield Chase the royal deer park administered by the Duchy and enclosed in that year5
Railway tunnel. On the former GNR main line, Hadley Wood South 384 yards

Lancaster Avenue
North side completed by 1914.south side developed after 1945
33 home of William Booth founder of the Salvation Army 1889-1912

Wagon Road
Beech Hill Park development – smaller houses.
Long Hill

The London/Hertfordshire boundary - Hadley Wood

TQ 25 99
The London/ Barnet/Hertfordshire border goes from Monken Hadley Primary school grounds north east to curve and meet the line of Monken Mead Brook, at the end of which it meets the Enfield Boundary.
The London/ Enfield/Hertfordshire boundary goes north east to cross over the end of Bartram's Quash

Monken Mead Brook flows north east towards Pymmes Brook. It is joined by small tributaries form the north and east

Post to the south Monken Hadley
Post to the east Hadley Wood
Post to the west Kitts End
Post to the north Ganwick Corner

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the boundary

Bartram's Quash.

Monken Mead Brook

Deadman’s Bottom.
Said to be where the dead were buried from the Battle of Barnet

Wagon Road
Ganwick Farm
Cockshot Hill

The London/Hertfordshire border - Monken Hadley

TQ 25 98
The London/ Barnet/Hertfordshire border going southeast crosses Monken Mead Brook and goes to the edge of a wood. It then turns north east up the western edge of the wood and continues back to Monken Mead Brook.

Monken Mead Brook flows north east towards Pymmes Brook
Green Brook rises from a number of sources in this area and flows towards Monken Mead Brook

Post to the north Hadley Wood
Post to the west Hadley Green
Post to the east Hadley Wood
Sites on the London, Barnet side of the boudary

Camlet Way
Lined with affluent 20th houses in every style except modern. Among them a few earlier buildings: The road name is also that of a Roman road running south west from St.Albans
83-89 1878, a picturesque group of ‘Old English' estate cottages which served a mansion called Broadgates; steep gables and decorative tile-hanging.
St.Paul. small church built in 1922 and designed by A. E. Kingswell.
Church Hall
St Martha’s Convent school. Was Mount House which had been built by 1754 and became the convent in 1947. A handsome 18th house in its own grounds. Five-bay red brick s front with stone dressings, quoins and stringcourse, the central three bays set forward under a pediment with bull’s-eye window.
Monken Hadley C of E Primary SchoolRectory Farm. Rear of the Convent school. Derelict with dilapidated sheds and out buildings. In a historic landscape characterised by ponds and small fields. The field boundaries are long established, with hedgerow Oaks.
Glebe Farm
Grove End House modern neo-Georgian.
WhiteWebbs, Tudorbethan house with leaded light windows, locally listed.
Gates act as an entrance/exit to the Common listed

Hadley Common
Hadley Common is marked thus on the Ordnance Survey map of 1887. Part of Enfield Chase. Local people, including the inhabitants of Hadley, were allowed to keep sheep and cows on the land, as well as take some firewood. In 1799 following enclosure Hadley residents claimed grazing rights and they were given this area of 190 acres was kept for their common. Anyone who owned more than three acres in Hadley was allowed what were called “stints”, that is they were allowed to graze cattle on the new common. Unlike other parts of Enfield Chase, Hadley Common has remained mostly wooded. Owned by the Trustees of Hadley Common,
“Warwick's Oak” stood near the village until 1941. It was supposed to be where Earl Warwick was killed during the Battle of Barnet, but this is unlikely. .
Lemmons – was called Gladsmuir House a five-bay villa of c. 1830 with Victorianized front. Red brick with stucco trim, Doric porch with fluted columns. Home of Kingsley and Martin Amis and Cecil Day Lewis died there.
Barn in the grounds with queen post trusses c18 timber-framed weatherboarded; weathervane dated 1775.
Hurst cottage, five-bay, two-storeyed, early 18th
Tudor cottage gabled
The Chase stuccoed, seven bays, early 18th . 19th alterations to the facade, windows with very broad moulded frames.
Haldey Hurst a good large house of c. 1700. Red brick, three storeys and five bays, with a three-bay addition. Curly broken pediment above the (former) central door with Roman bust. Original internal features include a panelled stair hall with three turned balusters to each step.
1-3 Hadley Hurst cottages built as stables for Hadley Hurst c18. Three bays on either side of a tall archway; three large full-height semicircular niches
Access gate to Hadley common. Fine 18th five bar gate with octagonal piers with caps and decorative ironwork

Priddeon’s Hill

Bournewell Hill.- the name may refer to a small pond.

Monken Hadley
Disarming, common and green balance. Hadley Manor held in the Domesday Book by Geoffrey de Mandeville but later to the Benedictine monks of Walden Abbey in Essex. The 27 acre civil parish of Hadley was detached from the parish of Monken Hadley in 1894 and went into Barnet.
Drive Line of medieval Great North Road

Hadley Green Road
St.Mary the Virgin. The date 1494 appears in Arabic numerals - an unusual feature for this date - on a stone. This is convincing not only for the tower but for much of the present church. The Tower and the walls of the aisles have an attractive irregular chequer of flint and ironstone. The Tower is in three stages, with arched belfry windows and on top is a copper beacon. The other walls of flint with white Ancaster stone dressings are largely 19th , replacing brick and G.E. Street's restoration of 1848-9 included widening the aisles, removing plaster ceilings and a number of 18th galleries . Inside are capitals with angels and mould stops with a carving of a bird with wheatear, a rebus of the Goodyeres. There is a Medieval nave roof The Font is a Simple octagonal type, with quatrefoils and a; tall attenuated Gothic cover of 1952. Organ is 1860, brought from Hull in 1991. Stained glass - small scenes in an engraving style and some dated 1857 by Powell & Sons, heraldic. Some designed by Francis Stephens, painted by John Hayward, small figures on clear glass, in 20th style but sympathetic to the Waile windows. Memorial windows by Clayton & Bell, in the aisle with sentimental Victorian deer in a landscape, 1877. There are an unusual number of small brasses, reset on the walls. The oldest to Philip and Margaret Green, and Margaret Somercotes, 1442. Two effigies of ladies. W. Turnour 1500, wife and four daughters; Joan Goodyere 1504, according to a lost inscription a woman in demi-profile. T. Goodyere 1518 and wife, William Gale 1615 and family, Anne Walkedon 1572, inscription. Many monuments. The best of the larger ones is to Sir Roger Wilbraham 1616 by Nic Stone. Two busts in Alabaster and black and pink Belgian marble. Stamford and her son Henry Carew 1626, an entirely wooden wall monument with painted portrait of the son and painted ground. Elizabeth Davies 1678, wall monument with tablet framed by garlands and achievement, signed by Stanton. Richmond Moore 1796, with mourning woman broken column. Frederick Cass patron of the church 1861, brass, with one large and fours quatrefoils. Rev. Charles Cass 1896, plain tablet. Charles Temp Hicks 1918, marble, with portrait medallion. Many minor tablets with urns of every shape.
Copper beacon put up for thanks for George III's recovery from illness. Lit for coronation 1953. Armada beacon – probably put up by monks to guide travellers across Enfield Chase. Beacon is a ‘nearly unique’ feature. Street restoration 1848. Renewed in 1779, a great rarity. The Beauties of England suggested it could be ‘nearly a unique vestige of the manners of the Middle Ages'
Churchyard with many chest tombs, also some wood
Cottages two pretty Gothic cottages of 1822, built as almshouses, flint-faced, with quatrefoil windows and a tall blind arch. Part of a group united as Paggits's Ecclesiastical Charity in 1958.
Gatehouse little stuccoed built for the parish clerk, early c19 with later Gothic windows.
Rectory, with Tudor dripstones built 1824, the additions in a more solid domestic Gothic, of 1846 by Street, his first secular work.

The Crescent
15 Monkenhurst 1881. Home of Spike Milligan who saved it from being demolished. Romantic gothic. Glass from Northumberland house, Charing Cross. 1880, with tower over the entrance, big Gothic staircase window and half-hipped roof. Enlarged 1915

Sites on the Hertfordshire of the boundary

Monken Mead Brook
Was probably the marshy area mentioned in the Battle of Barnet.

Thursday, 19 November 2009

The London/Hertfordshire border - Kitts End

The London/ Barnet/Hertfordshire border goes a short way north up Kitts End Road and then crosses it and Great North Road, goes slightly south and then due east.

A tributary to the Mymshall Brook flows north westwards

TQ 24 99

Post to the south Hadley Green
Post to the east Hadley Wood
Post to the west Knightsland

Sites on the Hertfordshire side of the border

Great North Road
The Great North Road, straight ahead has, it is true, the look of a mail coach road: wide, paved surface flanked with boundary ditches and green selvedges, lined with great oaks.

Wrotham Park
Home farm was set up in the mid-19th century, at around the same time as the model farm at Windsor established by Prince Albert. Steam engine - Grasshopper engine, built by Easton & Amos of The Grove, Southwark, supplied in the 1850s. The engine operated a sawmill, threshing and other farm machinery in adjacent barns and workshops through a system of belt driven shafts, some of which survive. It also appears to have pumped water over a considerable distance as it was supplied fitted with a pump, which was driven direct from the beam, and 600 yards of pipe which was included in the price. It also seems likely to have been replaced by a Gardner gas engine, which were on the market in the period 1900-1910. The gas engine, with its cooling tank and various pipework connections, survives on the other side of the wall from the steam engine. The Home Farm is no longer used for that purpose and is an office estate.

Kitts End Road,
Pre-1826 Holyhead Road passed through hamlet of Kitts End and was just like a country lane. Little better than a meandering lane and it is hard to believe that it was ever anything more. Telford found much to criticise in the awkward turns and unnecessary gradients of this main road to Birmingham, the North West and Holyhead
Kitts End – a lost settlement incorporated into South Mimms
Lower Kitts End Farm. Home of the Chalke family who have farmed this land for over 100 years. Grandfather Chalke came to the area in 1907 from Wiltshire. At that time Lower Kitts End was a grazing farm where horses from London came for a rest. Subsequently it became a dairy farm.
Kitts End Farm. Dairy
St.Katherine’s Old People’s Home
Jacqueline Farm. Florists
Hadley Lawns Residential Care Home

Cuffley Archaeological Group. Papers.
Hertfordshire Churches
London Borough of Barnet. Web site
Meulenkamp and Wheatley. Follies
Walford. Village London
Webster. Great North Road
Wrotham Park. Web site

The London Hertfordshire border - Hadley Green

TQ 24 98
The London/ Barnet/Hertfordshire border going north east crosses St.Albans Road and a path and goes north round the golf club house to Taylors Lane where it turns north, east again, north again
The London/ Barnet/Hertfordshire border runs east from Great North Road and then turns south and then south east towards Monken Mead Brook.

Monken Mead Brook rises in this area flowing north east towards Pymmes Brook
A tributary to Mymshall Brook rises in this area and flows northwards

Post to the north Kitts End
Post to the east Monken Hadley
Post to the west Barnet

Sites on the London, Barnet, side of the border

Christchurch Lane
Water and Gas Pressure Tower for the East Barnet Water Company. Locally Listed. Now housing.

Dury Road
1 early 18th plum brick; Grade II listed Old tiled roof. Tiled lean-to porch.
2, Locally Listed White-rendered, Regency style house with sash-windows, decorative moulding and a carved doorcase.
3 Grade II Probably 18th . Small, timber framed house. Tiled roof. Stuccoed.
4-18 Victorian terraces
5-9, Gothic Place. 18th, timber-framed houses Victorian front. Fretted barge boarded gables and pretty timber Gothic veranda; Grade II listed. Weatherboard rear.
11 Grade II listed 18th. Timber-framed. Roughcast first storey
15 Grade II listed 18th. Timber-framed. Roughcast first storey.
17 Grade II listed 18th, L-shaped, timber-framed house. Tile roof. White painted weatherboarding.
21 small, attractive cottage
23, small, attractive cottage.
27 Georgian, stuccoed tiled roof. Two storey. Sashes with glazing bars.
31 Georgian, stuccoed,
29 Thorndon Friars, Grade II listed Early 18th, Brown brick with tiled roof and wood eaves cornice. Wood doorcase. Original ‘fire mark’ on front wall. Built shortly before 1740 on land belonging to the Chandlers. .
39 Stoberry Lodge, c1830 stucco villa, Grade II listed slate roof
41- 43, Hadley Bourne, It was formerly Dury House and seems to have been built soon after an older property was sold in 1725 to Percival Chandler, a London fishmonger. It was once the home of Colonel Alexander Drury
House In 1625 stood on or near the site of Hadley Bourne and was replaced by it.

Hadley Green
Hadley Green is marked on the 1887 map and is referred to in the surname of William atte Grene -i.e. 'living at the green' in 1345. Part of Enfield Chase. The houses are generally posh. There is very little to remind one of the 21st apart from a discreet increase of security. It seems to signify the end of urban London. Weather-boarded cottages, handsome red-tiled houses with porticoed doorways and wisteria-covered fronts, little lakes protected by white palings, and trees in its meadows. It is 24 acres and was known by at least 1345. In the 17th 18th a whipping post, a cucking stool and stocks stood here but were burnt down in 1935 during celebrations for the jubilee of King George V. The green became public open space in 1818 after an attempts at enclosure
Battle of Barnet, The Green is where the Earl of Warwick camped before the Battle in 1471 intending to go down and fight in the town. .
Tollgate cottage
Tollgate to Hadley Common
Pub advertising hot vittles 'No horse riding'
Manor House built by Sir William Stamford mid of the 16th.
Manor House originally 18th building where William Makepeace Thackeray lived. Bombed and destroyed in 1944
Elms destroyed by bomb 1944. Erected in 1770 by John Tate, a Barnet builder, on land leased from Thomas Lewis, builder,
Mercers, destroyed by bomb 1944
Grange House built soon after 1764 by John Horton, a sugar refiner, on the site of the Rose and Crown inn
Hadley cottage used as a location in the avengers
Four detached Neo-Georgian houses follow, replacements for bomb damage.
Drinking fountain late 19th century pink granite.
Joslin's PondOssulton House 1764 by John Horton. Three bays, red brick, with Gibbs surround to the arched door and brick stringcourses. Horton was a sugar dealer and it was built, on the site of the Rose and Crown inn once owned by the Earl of Tankerville, who used it as a family home when visiting London from his estates in Northumberland.
The Grove, used as a location in The Saint
Hadley House. Standing on the site of a medieval manor house. It was the manor house. Built 1760. Doorway with continuous fanlight and side lights. Extensive grounds,
Manor Cottage. Home of Birt Acres the film pioneer, in the 1890s. One of the earliest films made in the world in 1895 records a hay cart crossing Hadley Green.
Hadley Brewery. Thus was at the top corner of Hadley Green 1780 – 1969 and demolished in 1976. It is thought it might have begun operations around 1700, but in the later part of the 18th the brewers were. Robert and William Thorp. It was run by a Mr. Salisbury in the 1850s, who sold it to W. T. Healey in 1861, who rebuilt it. James Harris Brown bought it in 1887, and again rebuilt it. It had its own artesian well, and in 1937 brewed 1500 barrels using east European hops. In 1938 it was sold to Fremlins and the site used as a depot. The 18th century buildings were burnt down in 1969 and after a takeover by Whitbread it was closed. They had brewed Hadley Stout, Hadley Special Pale Ale, Dinner Ale, and Nourishing Stout. T
Stables to Hadley House. Half H-shaped, with central gateway with clock turret.
Fairholt. Built 1750 three-storey, stuccoed.
Monkenholt. Stuccoed with a bow front. Built soon after 1767 By Thomas Lewis on land leased from the lord of the manor, John Pinney
Holly Bush House. Buiklt.1790 of yellow brick, with a fanlight. An earlier section has been reroofed and is red brick with blue headers. Thomas Lewis may have built it.
Wilbraham Almshouses. The charity dates from 1612 and is ‘for 6 decayed housekeepers’ founded by Sir Roger Wilbraham. It consists of six one-storey red brick cottages Extended at the back in 1815. Wilbraham He was the Solicitor General in Ireland for Queen Elizabeth I and had homes in both Clerkenwell and Monken Hadley. His family crest is displayed on the almshouse wall and the in St. Mary's Church is a memorial tablet to him, his wife and children.
Livingstone cottage. The residence, 1857-8, of Dr. David Livingstone, who wrote Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa there. Later residents included James Agate, the dramatic critic.
Monken Cottage. Mid-18th building of urban appearance.
Grandon. Home of Frances "Fanny" Trollope. The house was built in 1770 and it carries a blue plaque to commemorate Fanny. She was born in 1780 and brought up a family of six. One of these, Anthony Trollope, was later to be a successful novelist. Fanny herself began to write as a response to the family financial problems

Hadley Green Road
Beacon House. Timber framed with brick front, Built 17th and early 18th. Seems to contain parts of the building conveyed by Thomas Fletcher to the parish in 1616; it was enlarged and refronted in the 18th, when it belonged to the Shewell family.
Cedars. Modern house on the site of The Priory
Green View. Attractive white stucco Georgian house.
Grove House. Late 18th very thoroughly Neo-Georgianised by A Welch
Hadley Grove. Lying well back from the road a large late-18th house rebuilt in the early 20th century in the neo-Georgian manner, to the designs of H. A. Welch.
Hadley Lodge, by the entrance to Hadley Common, is an 18th stuccoed house incorporating some earlier features, with a slate roof and a porch supported on columns.
Little Pipers. On the site of the priory
The Priory. Demolished after 1953. This was a 16th building, which was given an elaborate Gothic front in 1800. It belonged to the Revd. David Garrow,
White Lodge. Stucco with ornate door case.

Hadley Highstone - Great North Road
Hadley High Stone. On the central green lawn, where the road divides is the Barnet Pillar as it is described in the road books. It says “on Easter Day, 14 April 1470 was fought the battle of Barnet”. It was erected in 1741 by Sir Jeremy Sambrook of North Mimms, and thought to be the spot where the Earl of Warwick died in the Battle of Barnet, - Warwick the Kingmaker. There is no evidence that this is where it was and the pillar was actually moved in 1840 and both positions are a guess. It is the highest point on the Great North Road. S Warwick was overtaken and killed as he walked to his horse in Wrotham Wood after the battle.
18 King William IV. 17th picturesque timber-framed pub. Two gables to the road with decorative 19th bargeboards, one rendered, one weather boarded. Closed and turned into a restaurant

Old Fold Lane
The area is on a fold of sand and gravel
Old Fold Manor House. Georgian. Five-bay, two-storey Georgian, c. 1750, stuccoed. Originally built by a family of goldsmiths called Frowyk, in the 13th one of whom, Henry Frowyk, was Lord Mayor of London in the 15th
Moat remains to the west.18th dug by Fowke – or part of the 13th manor house,
Old Fold Manor Golf Club. Two houses of c. 1820, two-storeyed, with rounded full-height bays, one with doorway with fanlight Adapted in the early 20th by W. Charles Waymouth as clubhouse.
Old Fold Golf Course owned by Middlesex County Council. The 6th fairway, 5th green and 2nd tee are known as Sunset Fields, because of the evening skies. In front of the 13th tee is a pond on the dogleg,
Footpath on remains of the battlefield runs alongside the ancient hedge behind which the Earl of Oxford's division was possibly drawn up. Hedgerow with bank and ditch runs north-westwards across the golf course and a survey suggested it is ancient

Mill Corner.
Mill here in the 18th and gave its name to the Windmill Tavern further on

Monken Hadley
‘Hadlegh’ 1248, ‘Hadle’, ‘Hedle 1291, ‘Monken Hadley’ 1489, ‘Munkyn Hadley’ 1553, that is 'clearing where heather grows, heath clearing', from Old English ‘hxth’ and ‘leah’. Affix is Middle English ‘monken –‘'of the monks', referring to early possession of the manor by the Benedictine monks of Walden Abbey in Essex. A semi-rural suburb originally in Middlesex and part of East Barnet District in Hertfordshire between 1895 and 1965.
Maw Works 1950s

St.Alban's Road
New road built by Telford 1838. Before the 1820s the branch of the road which goes off Hadley Green High Street to South Mimms and St Albans did not exist - the coaches has to go to Barnet Pillar before branching off. This was the Holyhead Road built by Telford. On 5 June 1820 Thomas Telford presented his report for improving the road between London and Holyhead to the House of Commons. On this section between Barnet and South Mims he said “At present the whole is composed of a series of angular turnings and unnecessary hills, to an extent which renders it surprising how such glaring imperfections have been so long suffered to exist, when a sufficiently direct line can be obtained with no inclination more than 1 in 30”. As the route of the mails to both Edinburgh and Glasgow, it had clearly received more attention, having been brought to the standard of a Great Road, as the term was understood in the early 19th
Christ Church. Attractive. built in 1845, as a daughter Church of St Giles, South Mimms, to serve the expanding population of Barnet.. It became a parish church in 1853. built to a design of Sir Gilbert Scott, and enlarged in 1863. A gallery was added for orphans of the Crimean War. The first Vicar was Revd. William Pennefather. The Church Patronage Society has been patron since 1919 and their trustees appoint the Vicar
Pennefather Hall. The church hall, pretty
Burial ground
Shire Golf Club – site of dummy airfield in the Second World War

British Listed Buildings. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Clunn. London Marches On
Field. London Place Names
GLIAS Newsletter
London Borough of Barnet. Web site
London Transport. Country Walks
Middlesex County Council. History of Middlesex
Osborne. Defending London
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Walford. Village London
Webster. Great North Road ,
Whitelaw. Hidden Hertfordshire,