Friday, 31 May 2013

River Colne. Munden Estate

River Colne
The Colne flows southwards

Post to the north Bricket Wood
Post to the south Wall Hall

Bricket Wood
Bricket Wood Common, an area of wood and common land covered by thickets of gorse, fern and trees as well as wild flowers.  Lord Knutsford of the Munden estate is Lord of the Manor.
Peartree Wood
Crab Wood
Four Acre Plantation

Common Meadow Lane
River Lodge

Crab Lane

School Lane
Munden Estate. Owned by the Holland-Hibbert family. It is west of a large meander of  the River Colne. There are two farms and 118 acres of woodland.  
Munden House is an 18th house which has been the home of the Viscount Knutsfords since 1874. It was built 1787-95 for R.S.Parker, and remodelled in 1828 for G.Hibbert. It is red brick, with stone dressings. There is a service wing and inside 19th features. Outside is a formal garden.     
Little Munden Farm. Little Munden has been farmed by the McClelland family since Robert McClelland came here in 1953. Originally a dairy farm, in the late 1970's the farm went to beef cattle and produced 300 beef cattle a year
Home Farm. Barns now turned into office and light industrial use.

British Listed Buildings. Web site
City of St.Albans Council. Web site
Hertfordshire County Council. Web site
Little Munden Farm. Web site

River Colne - Bricket Wood

River Colne
The Colne flows south west and south
TL 13212 01854

Urban commuter housing surrounded by woods and fields. The railway line from Kings Cross runs through the area as does the M1. The M25 is a short distance to the north,

Post to the east Drop Lane
Post to the south Munden Estate
Post to the north Bricket Wood

Bricket Wood Common
The Common is an important example of lowland heath. It has a range of habitats including ancient semi-natural woodland, hornbeam coppice woodland, wet lowland heath/acid grassland, ponds and seasonal streams. It supports an array of wildlife including great crested newts, butterflies, heather, fungi, blue bells and Heath Spotted Orchids. It is managed by St Albans City and District Council. The Common has been a Site of Special Scientific Interest since 1953. This was because the boulder clay soil and a history of grazing, wood cutting and burning had produced areas of lowland heath. The Earl of Essex used it for hunting and there is a ditch and bank dug in 1750 which marks the boundary between his land and the Manor of Garston. Part of the site is ancient oak/hornbeam woodland but much has regenerated from the former open, wet, acidic heath to scrub woodland, including birch and oak.  Significant areas of hornbeam coppice have developed into a series of forms. .
Jack Williams Wood
New Plantation

Mount Pleasant Lane
Railway Bridge

Nottlers Wood
This is ancient woodland

School Lane
Tally Ho corner is the area at the start of the lane so named because the master of the foxhounds kept the dogs nearby

Station Road
Fox and Hounds. Pub, closed 2010, and is now housing

Hertfordshire County Council. Web site
St.Albans City Council. Web. site

River Colne. Drop Lane

River Colne
The Colne flows westward and is met by the River Ver from the north
The River Ver flows south wards and is met by the Hanstead Brook from the north west
The Hanstead Brook flows southwards

Rural area with big houses and utilities

Post to the east Netherwylde
Post to the north Smug Oak Lane
Post to the west Bricket Wood

Drop Lane
Gravel extraction along the riverside area has altered the area and some of the length of the Ver is now canalised.
Hanstead Livery Stables. Lower Stud. The Hanstead Brook, flowing from Hanstead Park meets the Ver here.
Riverside Stables
Drop Lane Pumping Station . This is described as one of the ‘Clay Lane Group’ of ground water pumping stations which pump from the chalk aquifer in the Colne Valley. They supply drinking water to Watford and some of North West W. London. This building is a in a barn-like style because Lady Yule wanted it to fit into the rural landscape.
Pumping Station. South of the road of a utilitarian design
Ford and stepping stones.
Hanstead House. The house was built in 1925 for Sir David Yule. His family had made a fortune through trade with India.  His daughter remained in the house until 1957 after which it was sold.  In 1959 it became the site of the Ambassador College, an American religious institution. The house became broadcasting and printing centre for them as well as a college.  Sports facilities were installed including tennis courts, a running track and a swimming pool and gymnasium. In 1974 the sport facilities were sold separately to become a local centre and the college eventually passed to HSBC in 1993.  This has now closed
Grave of Sir David Yule is in a graveyard in the park to the east of the house.
Site of Roman Villa

Hanstead house. Wikipedia web site
River Ver Memories. Web site
River Ver Walks. Web site

Thursday, 30 May 2013

River Ver. Colney Street

River Ver
The Ver flows southwards
TL 15706 02178

Interesting area in a village south of St. Albans.  There is the site of an early aircraft factory, water mill remains and some Second World War defence structures

Post to the west Smug Oak Lane
Post to the north Radlett Aerodrome
Post to the south Netherwylde
Post to the east Springfield Farm

Handley Page Way
Named after the factory which was on site


Moor Mill Lane
The Lane is now divided into two by the M25 with the southern section now a private road to the Premier Inn.
The northern section leads to areas used for processing aggregate. This includes some hard standing
Moor Mill. The mill site is probably that listed at Domesday and to which there are 13th references.
Moor Mill House and Mill. These are in a single range together. The mill house dates from around 1700 and the mill is 19th. Mill has a painted brick ground floor and weather boarded upper floor and 4 stable doors. There is a sack hoist above the doors, and above is a hoisting bay. The whole complex is now part of a Premier Inn Motel and Beefeater pub.

Old Parkbury Lane
The lane runs through Ventura Park trading estate, previously part of the Handley Page factory complex.
Memorial plaque. Alongside the road is a memorial plaque to the Handley Page factory and to the aircraft made there.
Old Parkbury Farmhouse. The building is 15-16th but refronted in the 19th. It has a timber frame

River Ver
Alongside the river in this area there was much modification for watercress beds. Later these sites were used for gravel extraction and work on aggregates. Many pits created by this work were subsequently used for landfill with domestic and other waste.

Watling Street/Radlett Road
In the 1950s the road was narrow for most of the way to St. Albans, though portions of it were being considerably widened.
107 Hailam Veterinary clinic. This was the Red Cow.
Frogmore Lodge. This was the lodge to Frogmore House allegedly demolished for Lady Yule because she didn't want a grand house nearby to rival hers. This is now Winslo Lodge and Winslo Stables.
Colney Street Farm. There is a collapsed pillbox in the fields behind the farm, and slightly to the north.
218 George and Dragon. 17th pub with a timber frame and plastered front closed and now a private house.
The old school house. 19th school which became Coleny Street infants school on he site of security house
Forge Cottages – four red brick cottages with the name in the frint and also “BAC 1903’. There was a smithy on this site in the mid 19th
Parkbury Lodge. This is now under the trading estate.
Handley Page complex now a trading estate   – with a roadway down from end of runway

British Listed Buildings. Web site
Colney Street. Wikipedia Web site
Premier Inn. Web site
Whitelaw. Hidden Hertfordshire

Wednesday, 29 May 2013

River Ver - Smug Oak Lane

River Ver – the Ver flows southwards

Post to the north How Wood
Post to the east Colney Street
Post to the south Drop Lane
Post to the west Bricket Wood


Smug Oak Lane
Part of the road in this area was known as Vinegar Hill - because it is very sharp.
Farm, with a  mounting block outside
Tanker depot. now disused.

River Ver - Radlett Aerodrome

River Ver
The Ver flows south east and south west

Post to the east Napsbury
Post to the north Hedges Farm
Post to the west How Wood 
Post to the south Colney Street

A straggling village, extending for some distance along Watling Street. In the early 1800’s, the Manor of Park was split into two, the Park Valley Estate and the Parkbury Lodge Estate.
Frogmore House. This was built on part of what was the Park Valley Estate and incorporated part of the Park Valley farmhouse. The main part of the house was built in 1725, but it was re-fronted in the 19th by the architect Francis Wigg, for himself.  It is painted brick and 1725 is shown on the rain water head plus a lion mask.
Grounds – these were laid out by Frogmore House owner, Sidney Brunton, who built an ornamental canal, diverting part of the river so that it flowed near to the house. He built a hatchery and bred trout for re-stocking the river. On the other side of the river he had an 18-hole golf course laid out. Wooden bridges crossed the canal and river to the golf-links and there was also a brick and timber golf-house. This area has since been used for gravel extraction by Lafarge and the gardens largely lost.
Garden Cottage. 18th house in red brick.
Holy Trinity.  The area was part of St Stephen's parish but as the settlement here grew it was felt another church was needed and Holy Trinity was built in 1841-2 as a chapel of ease.  The architects were Scott and Moffatt- . George Gilbert Scott became the most successful church architect of his day.  The style is neo-Norman, which enjoyed popularity between about 1835 and 1845. The outside is little altered but the interior was changed in the late 1960s.
Lych gate. This is timber framed on a flint and brick plinth and is dated 1891. It was built in memory of Mr and Mrs Harry Oliver, by their children
14-18 almshouses built in 1842
22-26 almshouses built and endowed by the Wigg family when they sold Frogmore House in 1890
Frogmore Parish Centre
36 Vicarage
Frogmore Home Park - Mobile home park behind Brinsmead
Park Industrial Estate – on the site of Handley Page works
Curo Park – housing on the site of Handley Page works
Former Aerodrome and aircraft factory. Radlett Aerodrome dates from 1930 when Handley Page set up a grass aerodrome from civil aircraft.  They also moved manufacturing here from Cricklewood. Opened as a grass aerodrome for Handley Page civil aircraft.  It was extended in 1939 and used for th4 production of HP Hampden and HP Halifax bombers. Post-war it was used for the production of Hasting and Hermes airliners and many other aircraft. The Society of British Aircraft Constructors held air shows here in 1947 and 1948. The Victor bomber prototype was built here. The runways were extended in 1952 to allow flight testing. Planes were manufactured at Cricklewood then taken for assembly at Radlett. The company used ‘split-assembly’ which meant that aircraft could be built simultaneously at different places quickly. This was pioneered during the Second World War with the Harrow followed by the twin engined Hampden and the Halifax bomber. At the peak of production, in 1944, between 38 and 42 Halifaxes were turned out every month here. After the war the Jetstream was developed and mainly manufactured here. Handley Page remained independent but the Company went bankrupt in 1969 and the airfield closed in 1970. It is now gravel workings, much owned by Lafrage and warehousing.  It is under consideration as the site of a major rail goods interchange.
Main car park north
Experimental hangar.
The Flight Test Hangar was built at the northern end of the site in 1941. At had a full set of 100ft span trusses with another 100ft span covering. At the south end was an office block. It was extended to its full length - about double - later and a firewatcher’s post was built on the  central roof truss. The hangar survived closure of the factory but curtailed in size and minus the firewatcher’s post. The main sliding doors remained and the structrure was clad with modern materials although the main door frames plus wheels were the originals. The office block remained infilled with bricks.
A Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP) type B1 hangar was constructed to the south of the Test Flight Hangar in 1945. After the war this housed the Test Section plus a drawing office. the steel frame and the maindoor frames survived.
Design and drawing offices
Test house
Water tank and test rigs
Education and training centre main production hall and administrative block
Jetstream building and main assembly building
Transport garages
Components shop
ATC tower
Approach radar scanner
Main runway – This runs north east/north west and its line can still be seen
Runway – This runs north west/south east and its line can still be seen
VHF radio building

Hyde Lane
Roman Villa was found during gravel digging in 1943. Further discoveries of buildings were made as the gravel digging extended east of the villa in the 1950s. A bath-house, other structures, and a twin-burial site were found.
River Ver– near the villa site gravel digging threw up a timber construction along what could be the old course of the River which suggests some form of wharf here

Business Cavalcade
Clunn. Face of the Home Counties
Control Towers. Web site
Flight archive. Web site
Handley Page. Wikipedia Web site
Hertfordshire Churches
National Heritage. Web site
Osborne. Defending London
Pevsner and Cherry. Hertfordshire
River Ver. Web site
St.Albans City Council. Web site
Wessex Archaeology. Web site
Whitelaw. Hidden Hertfordshire

Tuesday, 28 May 2013

River Ver - How Wood

River Ver
The Ver flows south east and south west, and then south east again

Post to the north Park Street
Post to the east Radlett Aerodrome
Post to the south Smug Oak Lane

Branch Road
The road is between River Ver and the branch line of 1868 which ran at the backs of the houses on the north side of the road. It is almost entirely 19th houses the earliest of which date from the 1860’s. They are mainly red brick with some Luton greys and some yellow gault.
1 Old School House - a new school house built in 1878
Park Street Baptist Chapel – this appears to have been at no.1. in the mid-20th
2-4 A coffee tavern, built in 1884 as part of the temperance movement. It was later converted into two houses
Park Street Primary School. This was originally Park Street Church of England School established in 1831 in premises at the junction with Watling Street - now the Old School House. In 1900 a school and a school master’s house was built on a new site was selected at the north-western end of Branch Road.  The school grew – children had garden plots to grow and sell potatoes and in 1923 they exhibited at the County Agricultural Show. In the Second World War evacuee children from London came to the school and an air raid shelter was built behind the school. In 1954 new classrooms were built and more in 1959. In the 1970s the fuselage of a Handley Page Jetstream at the school was featured on Blue Peter.
Watling Engineers. Caravan and motorhome servicing.

Burydell Lane
Terrace of four cottages on the south side

Hyde Lane
How Wood Station. Opened in 1988 between Park Street and Bricket Wood on London Overground Line to Euston via Watford Junction. It was opened when then line was electrified. It appears possible that it was built on the site of the original Park Street Station.
Park Street Station. Opened in 1858 by the London, Midland, and Scottish Railway as the station for Frogmore.  It opened with the line then closed within a few months. A building there could be the original station master’s house.

Park Street
War Memorial. This memorial was unveiled in 1920 by the Earl of Cavan, recording 42 men who were lost
Bar Room Bar. Park Mill. Water Mill – 18th mill with low race and undershot wheel, in red brick and weather boarded. This is now a pub. “Le Parkmulle” was first referred to in the 12th and it was repaired and rebuilt by successive abbots. As well as grinding flour, the miller was required to supply the abbey with eels from the mill ponds. During the early 19th it was rebuilt by the Beament family. It stopped grinding flour in 1920, and became a glue factory, then a scrap metal store. It was converted into offices in the 1980s. The mill house was demolished for road widening in the early 1960’s.
72 The Falcon. Said to be on the site of a "Pilgrim's Rest", which was somewhere to house pilgrims to St Alban's shrine in the 1600s.
86 The Overdraft. This was previously called the White Horse.
Bridge Abutments. In order  to connect the LNWR line to the Midland Company’s line at Napsbury, a second line was constructed, crossing the Watling Street and River Ver on an embankment. It was never used, although the part was used as a siding. The bridges across Watling Street have been demolished but  the embankment remains, covered with bushes and trees. The former railway embankments make important wildlife habitats
School buildings. In 1831 Francis Wigg took over two buildings south of the White Horse Inn and established a school. It was originally Park Street Church of England School and it affiliated to the National Society in 1835. There was also a school house which was demolished by the Midland Railway Company in 1866. In 1873 the Wigg family gave the school to the Parish and it was enlarged.  As the premises at the junction of Branch Road became too small for the growing numbers of children a new school was built in Branch Road and opened in 1900 the new school building
105 Ver Cottage. Carr Wigg built part of Ver Cottage as teacher’s accommodation for the school.
The Red Lion. Closed in 2009. During the Great War the stables behind the pub were used for army horses and mules

Park Street Lane
Park Street Recreation Ground
Railway Bridge. A skew bridge which carries a single track branch railway line to St Albans Abbey Station over Park Street Lane. It has a yellow and black edging as a warning of the limited clearance for large vehicles.
131 Late 18th house in red brick, possibly older inside

Penn Road
Park Street Baptist Church. Built in 1938

Spooners Lane
How Wood Primary School

Hertfordshire Churches
London Transport. Country Walks
St. Albans City Council. Web site
St.Albans Nostalgia. Web site

Monday, 27 May 2013

River Ver - Park Street

River Ver
The Ver flows south and south west

Post to the east Hedges Farm
Post to the south How Wood

Burydell Lane
Berrydell Lane is the spelling on the 1870s OS
Smithy in the lane in 1899
Berry Dell woodland
Burydell Lane Allotment Site is a green space which has an active tenants group in the Burydell Allotment Association
Toll Cottage. This is a 17th timber framed house which has been divided, but is now one property. On one side is built of brown and blue mixed brick with a weather boarded ground floor from the 18th. There is a chimney with a brick bake-oven which has ingle fire-place inside. The cottage is surrounded by a low flint wall
Terrace of five cottages which replaced three thatched cottages in 1846.
Watercress beds were established here in the late 19th
Village Green leased for watercress beds in the 1880s

Park Street
Park Street was part of the land given by Offa to St. Albans monastery in 793
52 18th building which has been part of larger building, the rest was demolished. It is Red brick, with blue headers
61-63 this was originally a single early-15th late medieval hall house with a parlour added in the 16th
65 - 67 17th timber framed buildings.
68 a16th timber framed building with remains of a jettied front.
42 The Swan 19th pub. Closed in 2008 and turned into housing,
Red brick terraces were built on Cooks Field and the mill gardens in the late 19th.
Park Street Village Hall

St Julian’s Wood
Owned by St Albans Council

Watling Street
St. Albans Corporation sewage works. This was built in the 1890s on land which had previously been irrigated with sewage.  In 1893 three tanks and sludge-pressing plant were installed and ten years later treatments beds were dug followed by a system of septic tanks. By 1911 they had had to be rebuilt again.  This consisted of a sedimentation tank and the resulting sludge being dug into trenches. The effluent was then filtered and finally passed into the Ver. It was later closed and used as a depot.
Park Street Station.  The station lies between St. Albans Abbey and How Wood on London Overground Line to Euston via Watford Junction. This dates from the 1890s replacing an earlier station on a different site to the south - the original station opened with the line then closed within a few months. It was built by the London, Midland, and Scottish Railway, as “Park Street and Frogmore”.  In the 1890s it was reopened and resited here, near the Watling Street crossing. A station and station house were built in 1890  but the station was demolished and rebuilt in 1959.
Station Terrace on the west side of Park Street was built on Fallow Field in 1913.
Railway Bridge  - The London North Western Railway Company Watford to St Albans line (1858) crosses over the Watling Street on a high embankment. The original brick bridge has been replaced by a steel one.

British Listed Buildings Web site
Closed Pubs. Web site
Rushden Echo. Web site
St. Albans City Council. Web site

River Ver - Hedges Farm

River Ver
The Ver flows south westwards

Post to the north Sopwell
Post to the west Park Street
Post to the south Radlett Aerodrome

Chalkden Wood

North Orbital Road
Hedges Farm. With a herd of pedigree Herefords

Radlett Aerodrome
This square shows the northern section of the airfield services area plus a length of the main runway.
This grass airfield was opened by aircraft manufacturer Handley Page in 1929 for the production of aircraft. It was upgraded before 1939 with three hard runways for the production of bombers during the Second World War and production continued after the war. The Society of British Aircraft Constructors air shows were held here in 1946 and 1947. Handley Page went bankrupt in 1969 and the airfield closed in 1970. The site is proposed for an international rail terminal.
Main runway – this ran from near the North Orbital road – a layby off the road leads to the runway which has been used as roadway to a gravel extraction site.  The runway was extended in 1952 to allow flight testing.
Sports ground with social pavilion. This was opened by the company in 1968, moving the company sports activity from the Welsh Harp. A new cedar wood pavilion was built here with changing rooms, showers, equipment store, kitchen bar, games room and a 56ft X 24ft lounge and recreation hall. Outside were two football pitches, a cricket pitch and three tennis hard courts, as well as an athletics track, rifle and archery ranges
High speed wind tunnel.  This was next to the tennis courts and installed as a private facility in 1953. The building—with 36ft of unobstructed internal height included design offices and laboratories. The main test-rig could impose loads of up to 400 tons with 3 Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets, to provide power for the "high-subsonic" wind tunnel. Noise was reduced by banks of absorbent "splitters."

Control Towers. Web site
Flight Archive. Web site
Hedges Farm. Web site
Planning Inspectorate. Web site
Radlett Aerodrome. Wikipedia. Web site

Sunday, 26 May 2013

River Ver - Sopwell

River Ver
The Ver flows south east and south

Post to the north St. Albans
Post to the south Hedges Farm

Abbots Avenue
St.Julian’s Church of England. Built in the 1950s to serve the local estate.
St. Albans Christadelphians. This dates from 1952

Cottonmill Lane
Sopwell House Hotel. The earliest reference to Sopwell House is in 1603, where it is referred to as newly built for Richard Sadlier. In 1670 the house was bought by Sir Harbottle Grimston, Earl of Verulam, owner of the adjacent Gorhambury estate. In 1901 it was leased by Lord Mountbatten as his family home. It is a manor house now largely of 19th appearance. It is however an early 18th manor house built round an earlier building which is not now visible.
Archway. This is the entrance to Sopwell House. There is a tall round arch flanked by single storey lodges and cast iron gates. It is 19th and might have been designed by Humphrey Repton.
New Barnes Mill. This was one of a number of mills on the River Ver which belonged to St Albans Abbey. Originally named Cowley or Sopwell Mill in the 12th, it passed to Sir Richard Lee in the 16th after the dissolution of the monasteries. It remained in use as a flour mill until the Second World War. It is also known as Cowley Mill or Sopwell Mill but the present buildings date from a reconstruction in the 1890s when it was a corn mill. It worked as a roller mill until 1957 and for a while was an engineering works. It is now a business centre,
Barn and attached stable on the east side of Sopwell Home Farm. It is probably 18h and is a three-bay barn and lower stable which was probably once a cow house
Barn in use as a retail unit. This is 17th timber framed and weather boarded.
The Marlborough Club and Pavilion. This is a sports facility used by the Sopwell Residents Association.
Sopwell Home Farm. With a 19th farmhouse which is now used as part of the hotel.
Dhobi Lodge. 19th estate building
Laundry Cottage. 19th estate building
Bridge over the Ver is probably 18th with curved brick parapets. The wall to the millstream is late 19th Luton grey brick

British Listed Buildings. Web site
English Heritage. Web site
Sopwell House Hotel. Web site
St. Albans Churches. Web site
St. Albans City Council. Web site

River Ver. St. Albans

River Ver
The Ver flows south eastwards

Post to the south Sopwell
Post to the west St. Albans

Alma Road
Play School Nursery. This is in the buildings of Alma Road School. There is a plaque on the wall “St Albans School Board. Public Elementary School”. The Alma Road girls and infants school was built in 1882, and enlarged 1890. The school closed in the early 1960s and was later used as an administration centre for the county youth service.
Telford Court. This tower block dates from the 1960’s and built on what was then site of a timber yard. It had previously been the site of the Alpha film studio
14 Alpha Cinematograph Works and Alpha Trading Co. This was set up in 1908 by Arthur Melbourne- Cooper one of the key figures in the early history of cinema, early animation, film and newsreel in Britain. He had set up a cinema in London Road and then this premises where the grounds of more than two acres and various ancillary buildings were used for his film making. There is a plaque about him at Telford Court.  
Eversheds Print works. Eversheds, which had been bombed out of their site at Bow, took over Dangerfield’s works. They built an extension to the factory from the wreckage of their Bow site and later built a larger modern factory. They left in the late 1990s.

Bedford Road
These houses date from the 1860’s, and have been noted for their bricks. Some of these are Luton Greys which is a red brick coming from brickfields in south Bedfordshire. There are also local orange and red bricks, made in the 1880’s at works on Bernard’s Heath

Cornwall Road
Watercress Wildlife Association. The site was one of several small commercial watercress beds locally on the fast flowing chalk streams. Watercress was picked at dawn and taken on trolleys to the station to be in London restaurant tables for lunch. It closed in 1972. The Association took it over via the local council and it was opened by David Bellamy in 1992.

Cottonmill Lane
Sopwell Nunnery. The roofless ruins of a very large 16th mansion, built among the remains of a previous Nunnery. This is all that remains of the Tudor mansion built around 1560 by Sir Richard Lee, a soldier and engineer, who was given the land by Henry VIII in 1540. He built on top of a medieval nunnery, which dated back to 1140. It had been founded by the then abbot of St. Albans, Geoffrey de Gorham apparently on the site of a hermitage, for nuns attached to the abbey. His new mansion followed the monastic plan, using the church for the hall and the cloisters became the courtyard. He died in 1575.  The fabric of the house was used by Grimstons of Gorhambury to use in their own house. The ruins are covered in ivy and various other foundations and parts of buildings, much overgrown, lie around. A large building to the west was modernised then demolished, but mediaeval foundations are standing.
Secret tunnel said to run from here to St Alban's Abbey. It was probably just a drain.
Sopwell Mill Farm. Now private housing. this was Sopwell Mill which is probably one of the three St Albans mills referred to in the Domesday Book. There was a mill here at the time of the Peasants’ Revolt. It was still grinding corn until the Second World War, and had been a paper mill in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Grimston Road
Victoria Square. This is the site of St Albans Gaol which closed in 1924. Prison buildings were demolished and the suite became a council depot. The prison was built in 1867. It was built to comply with the Separate System, where prisoners are confined to their cells and isolated from one another. Here prisoners were confined to their cells apart from chapel, exercise and the treadmill. The gaol also implemented a 'Silent System' where prisoners were not allowed to talk to anyone except the gaolers. The gaol also had housing for the governor and officers plus an infirmary, kitchens and stores. There were 85 cells for men and 14 for women. Each cell had a hammock and some books as well as a toilet. The treadmill provided the gaol with water but was banned in1902. There were four executions at the gaol.
Prison Governor’s residence and gatehouse – this is now St Albans register office.
Drinking fountain. In 1874, in place of the town pump, a fountain was erected. It was designed by George Gilbert-Scott and is attractive in both design and material. It was donated by Mrs Worley, of Sopwell House. By the 1920s traffic made the location unsuitable, it was rescued from demolition by Alfred Barnes who took it to his garden and it later became a feature in a restaurant. The parts were eventually reunited and it is now on a reproduction plinth and steps and restored as a feature
Corporation Depot, this originally replaced site of St.Albans Gaol

Grosvenor Road
17-35 these were 19th houses now replaced by offices
25 The Ziggurat. This was formerly Schweppes offices, a multi storey block built in the 1960s and re-clad in the 1990s with reflective glass.  The site was originally owned by L. Rose & Co. Limited which dated from 1865 as a lime juice importer. They made Rose’s Lime Juice – the world's first concentrated food drink – and later Lime Marmalade. Because of bombing in the Second World War the company moved to St Albans at a site adjacent to the A6 and the railway. They also bottled Dubonnet wine here, which arrived from France in railway tankers. In 1957 they became part of Schweppes and in 1969 Cadbury-Schweppes. They then became Premier Foods   
45 red brick office building, on a site once used by the Priory Press.
Edwin Lee, Wholesale and Export Boot and Shoe Manufacturers. The firm opened here before the 1890s and remained on site until 1953.  Employees lost in the Great War are commemorated in a memorial plaque retained on the replacement building.
Rose Brush Factory.
GR pillar box
Lamp column – pre- Second World War style

Inkerman Road
Dangerfields Print Works. Frederick Dangerfield built his factory in Inkerman Road, St Albans, in 1896. It was then the most modern lithographic plant in England and one of the first factories which used the northern lights system of glazed north-facing sloped skylights. Dangerfields printed many of the famous large colour posters for London Transport. Dangerfield’s was bought by Eversheds in 1940. Dangerfields' buildings stood on Eversheds site pending redevelopment
The Old Hat Factory. The building dates from the 1820s, and thus predates the Battle of Inkerman.  It was later used as Council offices and known as Kyngston House and is now converted to housing.

Lattimore Road
7 Lattimore Hall.
21 Plymouth Brethren Church. This timber clad building was burnt down in the 1990’s and replaced by a red brick building later converted to flats. 

London Road
This is now the main route into the city centre from the east from the London Colney and the M25. It was previously part of the A6 on the road cut by Thomas Telford in 1794. It goes to the city centre on a straight course apart from a slight kink where it crosses the medieval borough boundary at Marlborough Road.
65 Office block on the site of the Crystal Palace Pub, demolished in the 1980s
134 Farmer's Boy.  Cottage-style pub, which became the site of the Verulam Micro Brewery, which moved here from Harpenden in 1996. All the beers are brewed on site, using a traditional malting method.
152 garage which was built as a Catholic church, and includes church windows
154 shop with green fa├žade tiling.
164, a red brick double fronted building dating from 1911 and built by local architect Mence and Finn as a workshop and shop.
Flight of steps linking London Road to Lower Paxton Road, which predate the cinema.
Cinema. This is the site of the Alpha Picture Palace which opened in 1908, converted from a 1903 social institute hall. It was the idea of Arthur Melbourne- Cooper born locally in 1874. While still a teenager he became involved with moving photography and set up the Alpha Cinematograph Company. The cinema had several innovations including a fire proof projection box and deals with Cadburys for chocolate sales and publicity stunts. In 1913 he lost control of the company and the cinema went through several ownership changes and became the Poly Cinema and then the Regent Cinema. In 1927 it burnt down. Martin-Hatfield Architect Surveyor built a larger cinema for Capitol in Art Deco style on a wider site with functional elevations with minimal openings.  Internal decoration was by Robert Cromie. Because of the sloping land it was entered at balcony level the stalls being downstairs.  It has a Compton 2Manual/6Ranks theatre organ, a cafe and three dressing rooms. It was enlarged in 1934 and became part of Oscar Deutsch’s chain of Odeon Theatres Ltd., who re-named it in 1945. In 1973 it was tripled and a fourth screen added in 1988. It closed in 1995.  In 2009, it was bought by James Hannaway, and is to be restored and called ‘Odyssey’.
172 Great Northern Pub. The Great Northern is a 19th pub in red brick and half timbered.  The Great Northern Railway had opened to St Albans in 1865 and the station is along the road to the east.
174 - 176 19th houses by George Smith. They have flint walls with red brick dressings ‘a neo-Norman monstrosity’.
178 19th building. Possibly by George Smith.
Tollgate – this was at the junction of London Road and Old London Road. St Albans tollgate charges were abolished in 1871, and it was removed around 1890.
222 Vickers House. A long narrow building which was originally owned by Vickers Ltd. and which housed an early 20th experimental station with a large flotation tank. When Vickers decided to build their own testing tank in 1911, they said it should be within 2 hours’ travel of their London head office. The Vickers tank survived changes to the site when its fourteen commercial units, each had underground storage areas within the former tank. The tank was 20 feet wide and hundreds of feet long. An In 1915 they also built the first private wind tunnel here but moved it later to Weybridge. From December 1918 the test tank was used in developing fuselage profiles for amphibious aircraft, such as the Vickers Type 54 Viking.

Millers Rise
An estate of houses and flats which replaced the Research Association of British Flour Millers, Cereals Research Station founded in 1924, closed in the late 1980s.

Old London Road
Old London Road was once the main route into the city from the south east but it was replaced by London Road which was cut in 1794 as part of a major coaching route. There was a toll gate at the junction with London Road. On its south side is a bank which is believed to date from the 16th when the old London Road was diverted away from Sopwell. 
Old Priory Park.  Housing in what was St Peter’s School.  The foundation stone remains on the building. St. Peter's Infant School was in a large room at the west end and the older children in the rest of the building which opened in 1851. In 1893 it became a girls' school only but were recombined in 1931 as St. Peter's Primary School - still in the two original large rooms. Priory Park School had been built alongside for the older boys, while older girls went elsewhere. After the Second World War it became a County Primary and in 1953 took over the Priory Park buildings. The school moved away to a site in Cottonmill Lane in 1975 and the buildings were converted to housing, originally intended for law students.
Priory Park School. Built at the eastern end of St. Peters School in 1901 for boys over 7 years old. They moved to Marlborough School in 1953 and the buildings were then used by St. Peters
Mission Hall. Timber clad building now out of use. For a while this was used as a woodworking workshop. Was this a mission room connected to St.Peter's church and used before St. John’s was built??
St Johns Church.  1929-1955. This was a mission church of St.Peter’s and dated from the late 19th. It closed in the 1950s. A memorial hall stood behind it.
Old London Road Pre School. This nursery school is held in local scout premises including the Jim Green memorial hall – to whom the gate in Old London Road is also dedicated. George Dymoke Green was born in St Albans in 1903 and was editor of The Scouter and Scoutmaster of the 4th St Albans Scout Group. He died at the age of 27.
Priory Court. Designed in 1959 by local architect Keith Roberts on a three legged plan,
Kingdom Hall. Jehovah’s Witnesses

Orient Close
Housing developed on the station site in the 1990s with a conventional suburban layout
The Old Station House. This is the old St. Albans London Road Station which opened in 1865 on the Hatfield & St. Albans Railway. This was a sub company of the Great Northern Railway for which it was initially the terminus station. It was originally called ‘St. Albans’ but in 1950 it was renamed ‘St. Alban’s London Road’. In 1951 it was closed. It is an 'H' plan building, in red brick and flint. It is believed to be the oldest surviving Great Northern station south of York. After closure it was let as housing and in the 1990s converted to offices. An adjoining section of platform was kept.
Alban Way.  A section of the former Great Northern Railway line runs past here as a path/cycle route
The station was roughly on the site of Key Field where the Duke of York and his army camped in 1455 before the first battle of the Wars of the Roses

Oswald Road
The road consists of modest terraced houses, some of which were probably built for railway workers
St. Alban’s Synagogue. The first known recorded Jewish families in St. Albans were here is in the 1900s and they got together in private homes. In 1933 that it became formalised. The community became affiliated to the United Synagogue in 1948 and built the present building in 1951. It has some special stained glass windows by the Hebrew scholar, David Hillman. However numbers began to dwindle and from 1960 there was no minister.

Ridgmont Road
Originally called Station Road. The original main line station stood opposite, at the top end of Ridgmont Road but is now a car park.
21 Church of Latter Day Saints.
29 County Constitutional Club
31 19th station master’s house
33a Monkey Puzzle Day Nursery
St Albans South signal box. The signal box was built in 1892 replacing an earlier box on the site. It was prefabricated in Derby as were all Midland Railway Company signal boxes, and believed to have been extended to house more levers that were never installed. The construction is in with no foundations - concrete bases were not used until the 20th. It contains a 1906 Midland Railway tumbler interlocking lever frame. It has now been restored with a small museum and signalling demonstration.
St. Albans Iron Works.  This dated from the mid-19th and appears to have specialised in hydraulic equipment and was run by F.W.Turner. There are a number of patents held for various devices, by a Frederick William Turner, who may, or may not, be this man.
Anthony Gibbs House. The former Heath and Heather warehouse building – originally the Vyse straw hat factory. This was replaced by an office building of similar size and appearance. On the wall is a Great War memorial plaque for the employees of the Vyse factory killed in the war.

Riverside Road
Verulamium Angling Club. The club dates from 1934

Sadlier Road
Alban Way. A section of the former Great Northern Railway runs from south of the road on an embankment north eastwards.

Shirley Road
Alban Way. The section of the former Great Northern Railway runs from the south west to south of the road in a deep cutting.

Vanda Crescent
St.Alban and Stephen Roman Catholic Infant and Nursery School. The school was built in 1934 on the site of an orchard. It then took children under 14. It was expanded in 1958 and from 1974 it was solely an infant school. In 1975 a nursery and extended in 2006.

Verulamium Golf Course.
The Club was formed in 1905 and played in ground of Sopwell House, owned by the Earl of Verulam. This was a nine-hole course with a small clubhouse erected on the site of today’s 17th tee.  It was laid out again and opened in 1912 when Samuel Ryder was Captain.

Watsons Walk
24-30 factory built in 1928 for H Punford & Co., who embroidered badges. This is now housing.

Cinema Treasures. Web site
Disused Stations. Web site
Hertfordshire Churches
Hertfordshire County Council. Web site
London Transport Museum. Web site
National Archives. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. Hertfordshire
Rose’s Marmalade, Wikipedia. Web site
St. Albans City Council. Web site
St. Albans Museum. Web site.
St. Albans Synagogue. Web site
St.Alban and Stephen Roman Catholic Infant and Nursery School. Web site
St.Peters School. Web site
Watercress Wildlife Association. Web site
Whitelaw. Hidden Hertfordshire