Friday, 30 October 2015

Riverside east of the Tower, south bank. Crossness Engines,.

Riverside.  East of the Tower the south bank. Crossness Engines

This posting covers sites on the south bank only

Preserved 19th sewage pumphouse complex with amazing beam engines, plus a derelict golf course.

Post to the northern section of this square. Dagenham Dock
Post to the north Dagenham Riverside
Post to the east Dagenham Marshes
Post to the south Crossness Sewage Works
Post to the west Crossness and North Thamesmead

Belvedere Road
Crossness Works. This covers the area of the original works. The modern works is to the east and south. The works was originally built 1856 having been commissioned by the Metropolitan Board of Works and finished in 1865. It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette, William Webster was the contractor for much of the work and it was opened by the Prince of Wales.  The original facilities of 1862-5 comprised 6 acres of brick- roofed storage tanks and an engine house for pumping out the sewage on the falling tide. These are now disused.  There were 51 staff under a superintendent and housing and some facilities were provided. The buildings are now a museum run by an independent trust. Prince Consort has been restored after over 20 years work and is working. Work is now going on with Victoria
Engine House. This contains four beam engines by James Watt & Son, laid out on a grand scale. It formerly had a mansard roof with a clock in a gable facing the river placed over the main door – this was replaced with flat concrete in 1927.  The white Gault brick exterior is a rectangular box with polychrome embellishments, with fantastic decorative brickwork and dogtooth ornamentation, corbel blocks, and Portland stone columns. There are monograms of MBW – Metropolitan Board of Works.  Inside all was originally brightly coloured. The Cast-iron galleries have stiff-leaf capitals and an elaborately ornamented central octagon. There is cast iron work of outstanding quality in the galleries and in the pillars and screens of the central octagonal shafts. The triple-expansion cylinders can be seen at an intermediate level and the actual beams at the top level. In the basement are the pumps. The Engines, Victoria, Prince Consort, Albert Edward and Alexandra, were built at James Watt’s & Co.  Soho Birmingham but they were triple compounded in 1901 by Goodfellows of Hyde in Lancashire.  Originally they each had a single cylinder 4ft in diameter with a 9 ft stroke At 11 revolutions per minute, 6 tons of sewage per stroke per engine were pumped up into a 27-million-imperial-gallon reservoir, and was released into the Thames during the ebbing tide.  In 1899 the front was obscured by the erection of the triple engine house.
Triple Engine House. By 1897, additional pumping capacity was needed, and four extra pumps operated by triple-expansion steam engines were installed in an extension, designed to fit in with Bazalgette's main engine house, to the north of the older building. In 1913, the triple expansion steam engines were replaced by diesel engines, which are still to be seen in the triple expansion engine house. In 1913, the triple expansion steam engines were replaced by diesel engines, which are still in the triple expansion engine house,
Boiler house. The steam required to power the engines was raised by 12 Cornish boilers with single "straight-through" flues situated in the Boiler House to the south of the Engine House, and which consumed 5,000 tons of Welsh coal annually. The Crossness Works merely disposed of raw sewage into the river seawards, and in 1882, display the sculptural possibilities of round-arched brickwork. 12 Cornish boilers and built in a Victorian Romanesque style.
Storm Water Pump House. This was the Centrifugal Engine House. Built in 1914 by the London County Council. Contains electric pumps used for storm sewage but these were originally diesel.  The Building is in brick and Portland stone and the style goes with the 1865 ones.
Chimney. The chimney, resembling a separated campanile, topped with an iron cowl, stood some 200ft high to the eastern end of the Boiler House. Since demolished in the 1950s.
Covered reservoir. Originally the Southern Outfall discharged into a 6 ½ acre covered reservoir and was discharged into the Thames according to the tide. Beyond the black palisade fence of the garden to the south, is the top of the reservoir which now holds storm water. The level top of the reservoir has grasses which may contain relics of species undisturbed since the building of the works complex. The old ramps which led down into the reservoirs can be seen at the south end of this area,
There were once 20 houses for workers in a row on each side of the reservoir with a Superintendent's house at the far end. Demolished.
Fitting Shop. This is behind the Boiler House and is matched by another building at the other end of the Garden terrace. The one at the west end was the Valve House, at present a store,
‘Garage’. This was formerly used as a shed for the site tramway, and as an apprentices school.
Precipitation Works, Built in 1891 this is a large building with the boiler house to the north and engine house to the south. They are single storey brick buildings with slated pitch roofs in a style like the 1865 buildings which originally housed the boiler house and steam engines for pumping sewage through the precipitation process.  
Gardens The buildings were set within formal landscaping including a Garden Terrace between two buildings south of the Boiler House. There was also a tree-lined drive. There are a number of mature trees and remnants of the planting scheme of the Garden Terrace. Near the access to the Thames Path a small wildlife garden has been created, supported by a Biffa Award.
Thamesview Golf Course. This was Riverside golf course with nine holes. Now apparently closed.

Crossness Engines Trust. Web site
London Borough of Bexley. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Spurgeon. Discover Erith and Crayford.
Thames Water. Web site

Riverside east of the Tower, south bank. Crossness Sewage Works

Riverside east of the Tower, south bank
Crossness Sewage Works.

Huge sewage works serving south London

Post to the east Belvedere Marshes
Post to the north, north bank only, Dagenham Dock
Post to the south Yarnton Way
Post to the north Crossness Engines

Belvedere Road
Crossness Sewage Works. The original sewage pumping station was built here for ether Metropolitan Board of Works in 1865. The original buildings remain and are in the square to the north. By the 1830s and '40s London's polluted river water was causing increasing problems for the public's health, and in 1856 the Metropolitan Board of Works appointed Joseph Bazalgette as Chief Engineer. An Act of Parliament in 1858 enabled the Board to construct the new sewage system and work began in 1859. Here at Crossness the major pumping station for the area south of the river was built along with the Southern Outfall sewer to feed sewage to the works., Built on a 37 acre site, the complex included 20 houses built for the workers all demolished by the 1960s.  Later buildings included the Precipitation Works Complex completed in 1892, and the original covered reservoir was extended to hold 25 million gallons. The Works passed to the London County Council’s Public Health Engineer.  In 1956 the old works was closed and a programme of modernisation undertaken. In 1964it was completely rebuilt with the largest mechanized aeration plant in the United Kingdom, capable of producing a nitrified effluent. In1965, when the Greater London Council was formed the works was passed to the Thames Water Authority. The works has been continuingly upgraded to represent the latest in sewage treatment technology and is the second largest such works in Europe. From 1887 to 1998, a fleet of special boats went from Crossness to Barrow Deep beyond the mouth of the Thames the jetty on site having been used by then. Between 1915 and 1967, the nearby Black Deep site was used for dumping sludge.  Since then sludge is burnt in a special incinerator (in the square to the east) and enough electricity is generated to run the rest of the plant. A current programme of works will upgrade the works again and enlarge its capacity.
Screen House. just beyond the entrance gate where large objects are removed before the sewage goes on for treatment
Sludge digestion tanks. The reinforced concrete primary sludge digestion tanks are of impress
Pond near the river the sole survivor of a number of cooling ponds on the site.
Large lake and the administration building for the modern works. The installations of the modern works lie to the east of this building. ive size with valve chambers dramatically corbelled out to span the roadways between the tanks.

Southmere Park. The park was built as part of the New Town development of Thamesmead and one of the earliest built. It is dominated by large-scale moulding, with dense tree-planting along paths and in groups on slopes of mounds.

A concrete flood defence wall divides Crossness complex of buildings from the river, which has a riverside path and cycleway along the top. The river wall needed extensive piling work when the works was first built.  160,000 cu yards was evacuated and 82,000 cu yards of mass concrete was used
Jetty - this handled the sludge boats. The original jetty for loading and unloading sludge disposal vessels.  Went out 60m from the shore.  T section 106m long. Built 1880 and demolished 1955

Crossness Engines Trust. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Thames Water Web site

Thursday, 29 October 2015

Riverside, south bank east of the Tower. Belvedere Marshes

Riverside, south bank east of the Tower. Belvedere Marshes

Heavily industrialised riverside and marshland

Post to the east Jenningtree
View to the north Dagenham marshes
Post to the south Belvedere
Post to the west Crossness Sewage works

Norman Road
Belvedere power station. This was a. ‘crisp, no nonsense’ building by Farmer & Dark and the British Electricity Authority.  It was an oil-fired power station with two 420 ft chimneys. The turbine house was rectangular and considered an outstanding industrial monument. 53 acres had been bought here by the West Kent Electric Co in 1919 and the station was built by the Central Electrical Generating Board in 1954, the official opening being undertaken by the Mayor of Erith in 1962. The station was built in two halves with unitised plant where the generators each have a dedicated boiler. The first half was originally designed to burn coal but always ran on oil. Cooling water came from the Thames. The total capacity of the station was 480,000 kilowatts. A line from the nearby grid station went to the power lines over the Thames as the Belvedere-Barking/Crowlands circuit.  The station was decommissioned in the 1980s and demolished in 1993.   It is now the Isis Reach Industrial Park.
Belvedere Sub-Station. a long rectangular building, remained after the Power Station demolition but has now gone.
Borax refinery. The chemical manufacturer Borax Consolidated opened a factory here in 1899.  It was built on the site of a fish guano factory.  The Borax came by river to be processed there.  The works had its own power generation plant from 1926. Production ended in 1990.  .
Borax Cottage. This was made completely of wood, and had been built in 1870
Crossness Nature Reserve. A network of ditches and open water, scrub and rough grassland. There are water voles and over 130 different species of bird. An artificial sand martin wall, a bat cave, a boardwalk through the reed beds and a pond with a pond-dipping platform.
New Marsh Tavern. This was on the riverside and was a pub for Russell’s Gravesend Brewery,

Picardy Manorway
This road once came from Belvedere village and led to the river and Manor wharf. The road was a typical medieval ‘manor way’, a raised trackway that provided access across the marshes from the settlement on the higher ground, and which probably also served as a flood defence and possibly as a land division.  It is now known as Norman Road,

Halfway Reach Bay.A large inlet was originally the mouth of large creek before reclamation.  This may be part of the Great Breach which was an incursion into the marshes by the river in 1531
Sea wall.  In 1230 and 1240, the abbot and convent of Lesnes Abbey built sea walls and by the end of the 13th had reclaimed land in the marsh. The modern sea wall is a 5m high earth embankment with a 1m high concrete wall on the seaward side.
Pigou and Wilkes powder magazine.  Rebuilt and incorporated into the Borax Works.  The explosion of 1864 was not here magazines but at Mulberry Wharf to the east of this square.
Curtis and Harvey powder magazine. Also noted on this riverside.
Manor Wharf.  This is an L shaped jetty running 22.5m from bank and reached by a bridge. It is of a Timber cross braced construction.  It originally for the Belvedere Fish Guano Works and was Built in 1908 and rebuilt in 1946.
Belvedere Fish Guano Works.  Processed imported guano for fertilizer. Absorbed by Borax 1899.
Bevington’s Manure Works, This was a large L-shaped building beside the river wall, with outbuildings to the west, south and east, and two piers to the north. Thos was have established ‘several years’ before 1870, Bevingtons being the Bermondsey based leather works. . They used scutch -which is the refuse left fed with sulphric acid. The residue was run into trenches and later dug and used as manure, after being dried out. The smell was very offensive
Brown's Glue and Manure Works,  This adjoined Bevington's and had been set up many years before 1870 and were said to be a constant source of nuisance to people on the river. They made glue from the clippings of hides used left by tanners, horses' hoofs, etc which arrived here in a putrid state leading to an offensive vapour when they were boiled. They also made scutch which could be smelt in Woolwich Barracks, four miles away.
There were two piers here in the 1870s. Both have gone.
Car park and jetty owned by the Ford Motor Works Company, for people using their ferry serving the plant at Dagenham. The ferry dated from 1933 to get south London workers to work.  It was free and timed to coincide with the starter and end of shifts. It consisted of three catamarans and carried 2000 passengers a week. When the ford works stopped making cars and only made engines the ferry service was withdrawn from 2004.
Four disused timber jetties. With a disused high conveyor/piperack connecting to the foreshore.
Borax Wharf.  Wharf to serve Borax plant. 50m.
River Wharf. Built 1895. Timber river bank wharf replaced in 1950 by steel piling and concrete deck 102.5m long extending into the river 18.75m.
Renton’s jetty. This was a timber importing business. Sheds etc remained on site
Belvedere Sewage Sludge Incinerator.  This was built to replace the transport of sewage sludge from the Crossness sewage works to the North Sea. In 1994, the local authorities gave approval for an incinerator to be built operated by Thames Water. It was built by AMEC-Lurgi and opened by the Duke of Edinburgh in 1998. Electricity is also generated as a result of the incineration process. The plant is housed in a metal clad building with an outward curving side and an S-shaped roof. The chimney at the north end has a convex curved side. Two parallel sludge incineration lines produce 6 Mega-Watts of power which is sufficient to drive the entire sewage works. Inside the plant seems is encased in galvanized metal. And are made from an open metal mesh which allows through-floor visibility and good ventilation
Isis Reach warehouse and storage/distribution development.  . 
Riverside Resource Recovery Ltd, this manages waste from the Western Riverside Waste Authority in London. It has a capacity of 575,000 tonnes waste per annum. The facility was given permission by the Department of Trade and Industry for construction in June 2006.   It is a subsidiary of Energy Power Resources Ltd who have an agreement with Cory Environmental Ltd.  The Plant comprises: energy from waste plant, using conventional moving grate technology and processing, on average, 585,000 tonnes per annum of primarily municipal solid waste over the 30 year life of the plant. The main plant building comprising the waste reception hall, waste storage bunker, waste combustion grates, boilers, ash bunker, gas cleaning equipment, turbine house, chimney stack and air-cooled condensers.

Ballard. Report on nuisance on the lower Thames
Belvedere Power Station, Wikipedia. Web site
Crossrail documentation. Web site
Grace’s Guide. Web site
London Borough of Bexley. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Natural England, Web site
Spurgeon, Erith and Crayford
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Thames Water, Web site

Wednesday, 28 October 2015

Riverside east of the Tower and the South Bank. Jenningtree

Riverside east of the Tower and the South Bank. Jenningtree Point

Heavily industrialised riverside area

Post to the east Rainham Marshes
Post to the north Hornchurch Marshes
Post to the south Belvedere Marshes
Post to the west Belvedere Marshes

Crabtree Manorway North
The northern end of the road is a footpath to the river on a strip of land. A ditch appears to run along the eastern edge of the strip and there is a shaft linking to a disused former cooling water outfall tunnel in the middle of the strip
Burt’s Wharf. This is now an industrial and trading estate. It was a works for Burt Boulton and Haywood, formerly located at a timber impregnation tar works at Prince Regents Wharf, West Ham where they were the largest tar distillers in the world.   There was a large internal tram and rail system here. They are now in Wales.

Fishers Way
Lidl. This is the chain’s distribution warehouse.
Belvedere Industrial Estate. Trading and industry area
River Wharf Business Park. Trading and industry area

Mulberry Wharf.
Mulberry Wharf. The wharf was built 1920 on the site of the Powder Magazine Jetty.  Low concrete jetty of T plan. 30m from bank. T section 58.7m long. 12.5m wide. Crane on `T section.  It is a Safeguarded Wharf which can handle ships of 4.0m draught.
Lafarge. Aggregates co and predecessors have operated Mulberry Wharf since 1955.
Hall’s Magazine explosion. In 1864 two gunpowder magazines exploded with the shock felt as much as 50 miles away. This was in a depot belonging to John Hall, and Sons, and also a magazine used by the Low Wood Gunpowder Company ex. Daye and Barker. Three cottages were destroyed along with the works jetties and barges. All that was left of the works was a crater and a resulting breach in the sea wall.  Army units and workers from Woolwich Arsenal were drafted in to prevent the river flooding into the marshes at the next high tide
Price's Oil Refinery. This was south of the magazine and was set up in the 1860s by Sir Charles Price. This company had had an oil refinery in Millwall since the late 18th.   The works is assumed to have been taken over by Price's Candles.

Riverside Path
Jenningtree Point.  This marks the transition from Erith Reach into Halfway Reach
The origins of the name are not clear -  a Jenning tree was a type of apple. It was also known as Julian Point.
Jenningtree Point lighthouse was set up in 1901. It stood below the level of the river bank . It was 44 feet high and operated by a sun valve controlling the acetylene gas which was recharged every six months. It was demolished before 1990 – probably in 1976.
Ferry. A ferry service ran from Jenningtree Point to Rainham. In the middle ages this was controlled by Lesnes Abbey.
Arthur Pewty’s Maggot Sandwich, Web site

Ballard .Report  on nuisance on the Lower Thames
Bygone Kent
Erith. Official Handbook.
Erith. Official guide
Grace’s Guide. Web site
London Borough of Bexley. Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Where Thames Smooth Waters Glide. Web site

Friday, 23 October 2015

Riverside - south of the river and east of the Tower. Erith Anchor Bay

Riverside east of the Tower and south of the river. Erith

Industrial marshland with new roads including the edge of the community of Slade Green

Post to the east Dartford Marshes
Post to the south Slade Green
Post to the west Erith
Post to the north Great Coldharbour

Anchor Bay
This area was previously saltings.
Anchor Bay Dock. This is an open dock 15m wide, cut back into the river bank and which in the 19th served as the main barge dock for Erith Iron Works and Erith Brick Works.  Used by Easton and Anderson and then by Herbert Clarke barge owners.  It was connected to pits by tramways for the export of bricks. It was and renewed in concrete after the Second World War.
Erith Iron Works. This was established in 1864 in Anchor Bay. Easton and Amos had had a works in Southwark since the 1830s making steam engines, pumps and similar machinery. In 1864 William Anderson joined the company and planned a new works at Erith. They made pumping machinery of all kinds, centrifugal pumps, cranes, boilers, and paper and sugar machinery. The new works was considered to be a model of what an engineering works should be.  By 1866 the company was owned by members of the Easton and Amos families along with Anderson and were engineers, ship builders, iron workers and founders. The company then became Easton and Anderson. Among their designs and installations were, in 1871 three large sugar factories in Egypt, In 1874 Ogi Paper Mill in Japan and later mountings for Russian guns. They designed and built many waterworks including, in 1879, one for Antwerp and in 1888 they built lifts for the Chignecto ship railway at New Brunswick. The works closed in 1903.
Herbert Clarke Ltd. This company later used the Erith Iron Works site. They were barge owners and lightermen dealing with the coal trade.
Mayer Parry Recycling Yard. This company was on the site used by the Erith Iron Works. They dealt in scrap.
Anchor Bay Wharf. This is a treatment facility with river access. It is the site for a haulage fleet of 60 vehicles. On site there is work on storage of hazardous waste, crushing, screening and processing of aggregates and dismantling and deconstruction of electrical transformers. Pier of Larsson piling, originally built 1870
Standard Wharf.  Originally built 1908.  Cross braced timber jetty 75m long and 3.75m wide. Some rails intact.  Built as a tramway for bricks from a works to the south. Also called Norris’ Wharf and most recently owned by Bardon Aggregates.

Bilton Road
Trading and light industry units
Long Reach Road
One road on an estate built on the fields of Wallhouse Farm and earlier gravel workings.
Manor Road
The road is relatively new – even in the 1970s the eastern end does not appear on maps.
DVLA Car Pound
National Construction College. This is the Kent centre for construction training
European Metal Recycling.  Erith depot, scrap yard, large firm with international links dating from the 1940s.
MMF Ltd., Chimney building firm founded in Smethwick in 1965.
Erith Sewage Works.  Site of 1898 pumping station for which G.Chatterton was the Engineer.  It was a single storey brick shed with a pedimented central doorway and at the north end was a maintenance workshop.  It was originally powered by 4 Crossley gas engines running on producer gas made on site.  It was designed to raise sewage to a higher level sewer for access to the West Kent Main Sewer.  An Ingersoll Rand was compressor installed to replace the engines in 1930.  It was demolished in 1992.
Ray Lamb Way
The road is said to be owned by the Russell Stonham Estate and to have been built to prevent lorries going through the Slade Green Estate.  It was built by Bellway Homes
Lower Farm
Richmer Road
Private gated road with industrial and trading users.
Slade Green Road
St Augustine Church. Built in 1900.
St. Augustine’s church hall
Slade Green Junior and Infant School. This was originally Slade Green National School established in 1868. This was set up by local landowners, Stoneham. From 1925 the School came under the Parish of Slade Green, but in 1938 it was passed to Kent County Council. The name was changed to Slade Green County Primary School in 1953 and in 1955 a new Infant school was built and opened by Norman Dodds MP, but the old buildings remained in use until the completion of a new Junior School in 1964. In 1965 the school as were transferred to the London Borough of Bexley. Plans
Howbury Centre. This opened in 2014. It was previously in the old school buildings. There is a large hall, outside multi-use games area, a café, a smaller hall, and other rooms
Slade Green Library – this is now at the rear of the Howbury Centre and is a ‘community library’ – i.e. has no staff and relies on local people to run it for free.

The Saltings
There are the remains of a prehistoric forest emerging from the mud.
Erith Yacht Club. Erith Yacht Club was formed in 1900. The Royal Corinthian Yacht Club had its headquarters at Erith and when it moved to Port Victoria local members formed the Erith Yacht Club. They also replaced an earlier Erith Yacht Club. Ladies were admitted to membership for five shillings per annum but were not allowed to enter the clubhouse.  By 1904 membership had grown to over 250 and the there were over a hundred boats  including large steam yachts and over twenty sailing boats. In the 1920s they were joined by officers from the Royal Artillery garrison. By 1929 the building of new wharves restricted available mooring space and the club moved to Anchor Bay a Thames barge Garson used as headquarters  and other vessels followed. In 1977 the club bought their site from Stonham Estates. There is now apparently a shore side club house

Wallhouse Road
This road once went into the marshes and the river. A small section exists in Slade Green with modern housing.
Wheatley Terrace Road
A dead end, the name reminds us of the former estate owners.

Anchor Bay. Web site
Bexley Civic Society. Walk
Bygone Kent
Erith. Official Handbook.
Erith. Official guide
Erith Yacht Club. Web site
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Hamilton. The Industries of Crayford
London Borough of Bexley. Web site
Spurgeon. Discover Erith and Crayford
South East London Industrial Archaeology

Friday, 16 October 2015

Riverside east of the Tower and south bank. Crayfordness

Riverside east of the Tower, south bank.

Point out into the river with beacons and nearby scrap yards

Post to the south Dartford Marshes
Post to the west Great Coldharbour
Post to the north Purfleet
Post to the east Purfleet

Lighthouse.  The lighthouse is18 miles from London Bridge and was originally a stone tower established in the 1950s and replaced in 1967 by a red metal structure. It is on the land side of the flood barrier. It was moved in 1982 as part of the Greater London Council Thames Flood defence system.  It was later demolished and then built in a corrugated iron shed on the PLA radar tower.  The light is visible for three miles. There is a connecting walkway to the radio communication tower.
Radar Tower. Port of London authority tower. Monitors between Gravesend and Woolwich. This grey painted 74 feet high metal tower is connected by a walkway to another similar tower,
Radio Communication Tower. Connected to the radar tower but twice the size.
Crayfordness Limit. No vessel which is carrying in bulk either a flammable or toxic substance of Class 2 is allowed to navigate, anchor or moor in the Thames west of the Crayfordness limit.

River Walls
The wall is 17th in origins although eastwards it includes Saxon and Roman work.

Baldwin. The River and the Downs
Lighthouses Web site
Port of London Authority. Web site

Riverside south bank, east of the Tower. Long Reach Hospital

Riverside south bank, east of the Tower.
Long Reach Hospital

Post to the south Long Reach
Post to the west Darenth meets the Thames
Post to the north Purfleet
Post to the east Purfleet Unilever

This post covers the south bank only. The north bank in this square is Purfleet Board Mills

Bleak riverside stretch where smallpox patients were treated

Long Reach
Long Reach Isolation Hospital. Built in 1903 for smallpox patients who came by river.  It was erected by the Metropolitan Asylums Board at the end of 1901 to provide temporary extra accommodation during a smallpox epidemic. It was on land adjoining the shore base of hospital ships Atlas, Endymion, and Castalia which were full. It was designed by A & C Harston. Up to 300 patients were to be accommodated in a long row of detached single-storey ward pavilions built of wood and iron. Patients came by river by the Metropolitan Board’s river ambulance service which terminated at the Long Reach pier. A tramway was constructed in 1897 to transfer patients between the pier and hospital in horse-drawn tram-cars. It was worked as an auxiliary hospital to the ships with Dr Ricketts as Medical Superintendent with Matron Wacher and Steward Moule. The first patients arrived in February 1902. In 1910, it was decided that Long Reach would be kept in reserve for smallpox and the other local River Hospitals would be used for fevers and convalescence. In 1928 the hospital was rebuilt as a permanent smallpox hospital, It was transferred from Metropolitan Asylums Board to London County Council and later to the NHS.  In 1953 the Thames flooded, and Long Reach was submerged to 6 feet. The Gate Porter was the only member of staff on duty and he waded to Joyce Green. By the 1960’s the hospital had had 50 beds on standby and could be reopened in two hours with staff were on permanent standby. On duty they moved in for 14 days at a time and all their clothing was destroyed when they left.  By 1973 just 30 beds were kept on standby and it was opened for one patient. This was the last patient ever to be treated at Long Reach. The old isolation buildings were deliberately destroyed by fire in 1977 to make sure that no infection remained. The site was then taken over by Thames Water.

Dartford Hospitals. Web site
Workhouses. Web site

Riverside east of the Tower, south bank. Long Reach

Riverside east of the Tower, south bank
Long Reach

Riverside area of marshland now being 'regenerated' with housing following the closure of Joyce Green Hospital. Mainly taken up with the sewage works and defunct power station.

Post to the east Littlebrook
Post to the north (north bank only) Purfleet Board Mills
Post to the north (south bank only), Long Reach Hospital
Post to the south Bob Dunn Way

Birdwood Avenue
New build housing on the site of a development area mainly to the west of this square, on the site of Joyce Green Hospital.

Littlebrook D, Power Station
Littlebrook D was an oil-fired power station built by Cleveland Bridge Company for the Central Electricity Generating Board, opening in 1981. It was seen as a robust station to have a pivotal role if the bomb dropped. Five fuel oil storage tanks stored the heavy fuel oil which was delivered by tanker to one of two jetties. This generating capacity was enough to power the needs of over 2 million people. During the miners’ strike of the 1980s all three units of the station operated simultaneously and continuously throughout exceeding what it was designed to do and led to one unit being moth balled. . The remaining two units remained operational, having been refurbished to increase efficiency and improve the quality of emissions from the chimney - which was the fourth tallest in the UK. The station could start generating without an external power supply and played a vital role in restoring power supplies following the 1987 hurricane. It had three open-cycle gas turbines which included Rolls Royce Olympus derived from those on Concorde which can be turned up to full load in less than five minutes so they can deal with short-term peaks in demand.  After privatisation in 1991, the station was owned by National Power and its subs division Innogy and later bit RWE Power owned by the Gern utility company, RWE. They decided that it would "opt-out" under the EU Large Combustion Plant Directive aimed at dealing with air pollution. It therefore closed in 2015
Long Reach
Thames Water Authority works –West Kent Outfall works.  Long Reach Treatment and Sewage Works. This Opened in 1877 and was under the West Kent Authority before being taken over by the Thames Water Authority in 1974. It serves an area including Dartford, Crayford and Sevenoaks. The works was upgraded in 1979 and this is currently being done again as part of the Thames Tideway Project.
Connecting road from the hospital built 1902

Dartford Council Web site
GO-Fasttrack. Web site
Littlebrook Power Station. Wikipedia. Web site
RWE AG. Web site

Thames Water. Web site

Thursday, 15 October 2015

Riverside east of the Tower on the south bank - Littlebrook

Riverside east of the Tower on the south bank

This posting only covers sites on the south bank. The section north of the river is Purfleet jetties

Old marshland area dominated by the QE Bridge and largely consisting of a business park in defunct power station buildings

Post to the east Dartford crossings
Post to the north Purfleet Unilever
Post to the west Long Reach
Post to the south Dartford Crossing and Crossways

Dartford Crossing
Tunnel Ventilation shaft
Dartford tunnel works. The tunnel was begun in the 1930s and the works buildings remained in situ until work could recommence in the 1950s.

The Littlebrook is a stream which flows through the marshes to the river. It is now contained in man-made drainage ditches on the marsh. The name is used in Saxon charters

Littlebrook Manor Way
This once ran from Overy Street in Dartford to the river
Littlebrook power station A, This was the first power station on the site. It was coal fired and opened by the Kent Electric Power Company in 1939.  It was later converted to burn oil over coal, and was closed in 1973. The steam from the boilers supplied three steam turbine generators. The boiler house has now been converted to house a reactor simulator,
Littlebrook power station B. This opened in 1949 and originally burned coal, but was later converted to oil. It remained in use until 1975. Its boilers directly supplied steam to a turbine-generator. The building is now offices
Littlebrook power station C was opened between 1952 and 1956 by the Central Electricity Generating Board and like the two earlier plants, it was originally coal-fired, but was converted to oil. It was replaced by D Station. Part of the station remains and is now offices
Littlebrook D, was to the west of this square
Jetty – this is the original 'A' station coal jetty and it was used for the smaller sea bourne oil cargoes.
The original 132kV substation, built for the 'A' station, has kept although modified
Littlebrook Business Park. Offices in power station and other buildings

Dartford Council. Web site
RWE, Web site

Riverside south of the river and east of the Tower. Stone Marshes

Riverside south of the river and east of the Tower
Stone Marshes

Desolate area which once was home to several cement works and is now all modern office blocks plus a new port area.

Post to the east Greenhithe
Post to the north Dartford Crossing
Post to the south Stone
Post to the west Dartford Crossing and Crossways

Crossways Business Park
Reclamation of the land used by the cement works and their railways began in 1979. In 1985 roads were built to access the new ferry terminal. In 1988 Masthead, was completed and in 1988/9 the ASDA warehouse was finished. There are now five business areas :- Masthead, Newtons Court, Edisons Park, Admirals Park and Charles Park               
Galleon Boulevard
ASDA Distribution Centre.

Stone Marshes
Area of marshland which was used for a number of cement works in the late 19th and early 20th and since redeveloped as a business park and port area.
Albion Portland Cement Works. The Albion works was operational: 1879-1914, 1919-1922. It was initially owned from 1879 to 1890 by Williams Fry and Co. Ltd, then 1890-1903 Albion Portland Cement Co. Ltd, and following a mer4ge 1903-1911 it was Artillery and Albion Cement Co. Later, between 1911 and 1922, it was part of Blue Circle. The initial installation was for 6 chamber kilns, to which in 1889 a pair of Dietzsch kilns added and a further 13 chamber kilns 1902-1909. It was merged with the Artillery works in 1903. There was a standard gauge rail link which ran under the South Eastern Railway and Cotton Lane to a pit but the product was shipped from Stone Court pier. The site was entirely cleared and is now part of a container terminal
Artillery Cement Works. The Artillery Cement Works was operational 1890-1903 by Rosher & East, and then following a merger became between 1903-1911 Artillery and Albion Cement Co.  Later between 1911-1922 it was part of Blue Circle. There were 14 chamber kilns in 1897-1900 and a further 7 chamber kilns were installed around 1904. There was a standard gauge rail link which ran under the South Eastern Railway and Cotton Lane to a pit. This was extended in 1908 to an exchange siding with the South Eastern Railway main line. Cement was shipped from Stone Court pier. The area was completely cleared and Meridian House, Crossways, is on the site.
Greenhithe Portland Cement Works. The Greenhithe Company works was operational between 1889-1914 having been opened by the Gillingham Portland Cement Co. Ltd. From 1893 to 1900 it was run by  J. B. White & Brothers Ltd and then 1900-1914 it was part of Blue Circle. There were 14 chamber kilns here in 1900 and  aa further 10 chamber kilns were added 1902-1909. There was a standard gauge rail link which ran under the South Eastern Railway and Cotton Lane to a pit but the cement itself was shipped from Stone Court pier. The site was entirely cleared: and is now part of the container terminal.
Kent Cement Works This was operational 1922-1970 using a quarry at which was initially worked by the Stone Court Chalk Land and Pier Co., and subsequently acquired by APCM.  The works was set up in 1919 by the Kent Portland Cement Works which had beenwas launched to buy and install a large, modern, plant, and failed before the plant was complete, because of over-spend. APCM bought it from the liquidator. Subsequently, the FLS-designed plant became an APCM showpiece and influenced the development of subsequent Blue Circle/Vickers designs. Kilns A1 and A2 were the largest in Britain until 1926 when they were overtaken by Bevan’s A1-A3. The plant was operated by Blue Circle together with nearby Johnsons. Four rotary kilns were installed. Clay was washmilled separately and from 1938 delivered as slurry by barge from Cliffe, chalk was brought from the quarry by rail. Rail links were via an exchange siding on the South Eastern Railway main line. In 1963 the line was connected to Johnsons although there was a prexisting line between the two works along the riverbank. . The works closed in 1970 and was demolished.  A few fragments of the wharf remain but the plant site is covered by part of the Crossways industrial park.
Sewage works.Dartford Rural District Council works. Now closed
Shield Portland Cement Works. Shield works was operational from 1880 when it was set up by Wilders and Cary but from 1900 to 1914 it was part of Blue Circle. There were 7 chamber kilns here in 1900. The site was entirely cleared and is now part of the container terminal.
Stone Court Pier. This was taken over by the Stone Court Company in 1885. It was an existing pier from about 1873. Near the pier were the Albion, the Artillery, the Shield and the Greenhithe cement works. A rail line ran from here under the South Eastern Main Line to a pit south of this and Cotton Lane. When the Kent Works was built a connection was made to the Stone Court Line via a cutting alongside the main line just north of the Cottons Lane Tunnel. Another cutting south of the line allowed Stone Court trains to access pits to the west. From, 1935 the Stone Court Company worked gravel pits near the river. The works was abandoned in 1949 and eventually became part of APCM.  All four of the Stone Court Cement Works closed in 1930. The pier is used as part of Thames Europort
Thames Europort.  This is a Roll-on/roll-off port facility which port is used only for freight, both trailer and container based. There is a large pontoon berth which can take two ships at a time for loading and discharging. The terminal has regular freight links with Zeebrugge, Dunkirk and Vlissingen
Dartford International Ferry Terminal. DIFT – this is all freight transport
Cement kilns. Web site
Dartford Borough Council. Web site
Port of London Authority. Web site
Porteus. Dartford Country
Stoyel and Kidner. The Cement Railways of Kent.

Tuesday, 13 October 2015

Riverside east of the Tower south bank, Greenhithe

Riverside east of the Tower south bank Greenhithe

Interesting riverside industrial village, now just another 'development' area full of identikit housing

Post to the east Ingress
Post to the north Stoneness
Post to the south Greenhithe
Post to the west Stone Marshes

Charles Street
ASDA Supermarket
Sails. Sculpture commissioned by ASDA supermarkets to mark the entrance to this shop. It is in stainless steel with fibre optic lighting by Richard Thornton
Lafarge Riverside site. This a site producing cement and handling sea dredged aggregates on the site of Johnson’s Wharf.  The address given is King Edward Street which is difficult to locate. The site entrance is off Charles Street.
Johnson’s Wharf.  Johnsons Cement works was to the south of this square and a complex of rail lines connected it to the wharf. Split before it gets to the river.  The tramway system and the jetty had originally been built to convey ballast to ships sailing to the Far East. Johnson’s took this over, probably with the locomotives, in 1877. In 1928 a concrete packing shed was built on the jetty and the pier was extended out into the river to take larger ships. The lines were partially electrified in 1978.
West Wharf Jetty
Lamb Wharf Chalk Works. Operated by John Tilden & Co. This works is thought to have been on the site of the later extension to Johnson’s Wharf.
Lamb Inn. This was at the end of Thames Road alongside the rail line to Johnson’s Wharf
Eagles Road
The road goes alongside Eagle Cliff, A wooden promontory along one side of a chalk pit. The pit was at one time filled with oil tanks belonging to Everard
Eagles Wood. This is woodland overlooking the River and given to the Woodland trust by Crest Homes in 1995. It is surrounded by houses built on an old chalk pit in the 1980's. The wood is on a chalk spur on the rim of the pit.
Play area near chalk cliff. A dene hole was found there.

Fiddlers Close
This is near a chalk pit which was behind the Brown Bear in the High Street. The pit was used by Everards for oil storage tanks from 1957
Frobisher Walk
On the site of Everards offices and yard.

High Street
6 Pier Hotel. This has a cobbled yard at the back and until 1832 was called the Admiral Keppel. Although the current pub is said to date from 1847.
9 The Hollies – Double fronted white house with two large holly trees in the front. 1930s Conservative Working Men’s Association Club. Now let as flats.
8 Ye Village Club. This had a library and a reading room and was built in 1883 by R, Dunbar who lived at Eagle Cliff.
17 and 21 were apparently built as cottages for the congregational church. They are early 19th flint cottages
19 This was originally a congregational church dating from 1810, and may later have been used by the Thornton Brush Co, factory. It is in flint and red brick and inside is a gallery supported on cast iron columns. The ceiling has 2 domes
29 The Warren. The present house was built pre-Second World Warn on the site of an earlier house for Frederick T Everard, founder of the shipbuilding who died in 1929. There is an octagonal tower in the grounds. This is a late 18the gazebo built of flint. There is a continuous wooden casement to three sides and an entrance up stairs to rear. This came from Ingress Park where it overlooked the Thames.
Keeps Yard. These were the barge builders on the site of the Everard Yard, where Frederick Everard worked and then took over.
35 Accuba. Double fronted house occupied from the 1930s by W.J. Everard 1930s. One of the original 3 sons and a manager of the yard
45 used by a butcher in the 1930s this still has a fascia board outside possibly used for hanging meat for sale.
54 Everard’s offices. This was a brick building with their house flag, quartered diagonally red and white. F.T.Everard, shipbuilders, were founded in 1889 by Frederick T Everard who had taken over Keep’s barge yard and moved from building into ship operation. Originally Frederick T Eberhardt, he took over a salvaged barge named ‘Elizabeth’ which was rebuilt by his yard in 1895 and continued there. His three sons and   daughter joined him as directors when F.T Everard and Sons Ltd was formed in 1922.they had s large fleet of sailing barges. One of the sons had trained at Plenty and Co of Newbury who manufactured engines, for marine use and Everard's began to make vessels with mechanical propulsion. The first was the Grit, a sailing vessel with an auxiliary engine. The company played their part in both world wars providing repairs to war damaged ships and with an accelerated building programme. The company ran a large fleet of coasting and other vessels and had a tradition of naming its ships with the name ending in ‘ity’ and usually, the name beginning with an A. They took over a number of other companies both locally and elsewhere – including Plenty and Sons, engine builders. Other takeovers were at Gunness, Yarmouth, Goole and elsewhere in Greenhithe. Everard Transport Services were formed for the road transport mainly of their expanding oil transport business.  The shipyard continued at Greenhithe although it was split from the fleet and a tank farm built on part of the site but it closed in 1982 although subsequently leased to South Thames Ship repairers. In 2006 the company was sold to James Fisher & Sons. Ltd.                   
64 Sir John Franklin. The White Hart; dates from 1840 but may be earlier and incorporates an earlier building. In the 16th it was called the King's Head said to have been set up in 1661 and renamed the White Hart in 1742. In 1840, the pub was redesigned and built to face onto the Thames to service visiting boat crews. And there was a recent attempt to rename the pub 'Allison's Bar'. In the 19th the pub was the clubhouse for the Royal Thames Yacht Club which held its sailing races off Greenhithe, Sir John Franklin the explorer spent his last night here in 1845 before leaving to find the north-west passage and to die. It was also from here that Scott left to die in the Antarctic.
Public passageway to the side of what was the White Hart public house led to a public causeway and draw dock,
The public causeway was where the public ferry landed on the Kent side of the river, came from Thurrock and was traditionally where pilgrims from East Anglia to Canterbury crossed. The building of the new seawall in the late 1970s also meant the loss of the public causeway by known called Everard Drawdock
Flood defence works carried out at Greenhithe in the late 1970s are subject of the retention of rights for riparian landowners including that of access across the reclaimed seabed, which were granted by the Port of London Authority in perpetuity.
Town Wharf. Globe Wharf where there was clinker manufacture. These related to large whiting quarries owned 1869-1889 by J. C. Gosling and Co.1889-1899 by Globe Portland Cement and Whiting Co. Ltd and 1899-1911 by New Globe Cement, Chalk and Whiting Co. Ltd From 1911 is was Blue Circle.  The company had originated as a cement manufacturer at Globe Works, Frindsbury. But at Greenhithe it was a whiting works. On Town Wharf, they probably had only a warehouse for shipment of the whiting products. It was acquired by BPCM for the sake of its whiting capacity and chalk reserves. From here a rail line ran to a pit south of the London Road,
Ferry. This served what is said to be the pilgrim traffic from West Thurrock, in particular St. Clements Church. It originally belonged to the nunnery at Dartford but was leased out under Henry VIII and later belonged to the Manor. A flood in the late 17th put the ferry out of action and was revived in the 1830s when it carried goods and cattle as well as pedestrian traffic. It ran into the 1950s, probably until the opening of the Dartford Tunnel.
Chapel – called the Chantry – founded by John Lucas in 1347 dedicated to Virgin Mary.  Suppressed under Edward VI. Said to be some flint walls remaining.
59 The Brown Bear. This pub, now the site of new housing, is said to have been on site 1715 to 1922 although it still appears in the 1937 trade directory.
Almshouses. These seem to have been west of the Brown Bear and to have been three houses with two ladies in each. There is now new housing on this site
79 Woodlands, Double fronted house built 1801. Formerly the home of the Colyer family and latterly used by Everards, the Shipping Company. It was also at one time the local Post Office, the National Westminster Bank and the local library.  The telephone exchange was above the bank and there was also a flat fir the postmaster.  It is now offices for Trans Global
86 Maritime Lighterage 1930s J.R.Francis and Co .  Wharf and offices.
Roman Catholic Church. Our Lady of Mount Carmel built 1874. This was to be a Capuchin Church and Monastery associated with St. Simon Stock who had local connections. There was already a chapel on the site with that name but it was in a poor condition, along with a house next to it. The monastery would be for eight inmates alongside the church.  This was demolished in 1973 by which time the monastery had become a priest’s house. The site is now housing
Plaster products Jetty

Pier Road
Neptune Slipway
K6 telephone box
Neptune Cottages
Bendigo Wharf
Concrete barge.
During the Second World War when, steel was in short supply barges were made of reinforced concrete.

Quay Lane
This appears to be roughly on the line of a tramway from the Town Wharf to pits south of the London Road.

Sara Close
Sara was Everard’s Champion racing barge, the road is on the site of Globe Wharf.
Station Road
Underground tunnel found in 1890s while digging a cess pit. Thought to go to the chantry 150 yards away

The Avenue
This is a steep narrow hill, nothing like an avenue at all

British Listed Buildings. Web site
Bygone Kent
Cement Kilns. Web site
Dartford Council. Web site
DoverKent, Web site
Garrard. Everard of Greenhithe
Greenhithe Marina Residents Association
Kent County Council. Web site
Porteus. Dartford Country
Roberts. Breeze for a Bargeman
Stoyel and Kidner. The cement railways of Kent
Woodland Trust. Web site

Thursday, 1 October 2015

Riverside, south bank east of the Tower. Ingress Abbey

Riverside – south bank east of the Tower. Ingress Abbey
Riverside modern housing estate surrounding a mansion with a garden full of follies

Post to the north West Thurrock
Post to the south Knockhall
Post to the west Greenhithe

Broadness Salt Marsh
Black Duck Marsh
Bell wharf   19th cement export.  This is the length of wharf that is attached to the land for its full length. It appears to have been built for White’s Swanscombe works which dated from 1825 and at some time a railway was built from here to a jetty in the marsh.
The Channel Tunnel Rail Link passes under here.

Capability Road
The Monks Well. This is in woodland to the south of the road. It is a Garden structure with a well house from the   18th. It has a flint wall with an arch leading to a tunnel and a semicircular chamber with a well shaft. The Ingress Abbey follies are home to three species of protected bats.- they are Pipistrelle, Daubenton, and Brown Long Eared Bat. These sleep in the crevices between the chalk and the flint. It has been refurbished by Crest. It has expansive views across the Cliff Park. There have been reports of a bluish light coming from inside and a low moaning sound like chanting or praying.
Lovers Arch. This is in woodland to the south of the road at the top of a path which goes nowhere. . It is an 18th garden folly of a flint four-centred arch which originally had a wooden seat. It has been refurbished by Crest

Ingress Abbey
Ingress was a manor in Greenhithe. In 1363, it was given to the Dartford Priory by Edward III. At the Dissolution the estate was confiscated and eventually rebuilt under Henry VIII; it was later passed, with the priory to Anne of Cleves. Under Elizabeth it was given to Edward Darbyshire and John Bere. It then passed through a number of hands until 1760 when it became the property of John Calcraft.  In 1820James Harmer bought the site and built the house which currently stands. Harmer's descendants sold off a large part of the grounds to the Empire Paper Mills.
Ingress Abbey. The current building is probably the fifth house on the site, and was built in 1833 for Alderman James Harmer in Tudor Gothic style by architect Charles Moreing. It is said to have been built of stone from Old London Bridge. It is round three sides of a square with the front facing the river. There is a 19th conservatory at the back and a big heraldic beast above the front.  In 1920 APCM sold the house and grounds to the Incorporated Thames Nautical Training College, H.M.S. Worcester. The College closed in 1968 and became the Merchant Navy College which closed in 1988 and in 1995 most of the land was sold to Crest Nicholson for housing who restored the house. In 1001 Pandora International Ltd purchased Ingress Abbey for their Headquarters.
Ingress Abbey V.A.D. Hospital. In 1917 Ingress Abbey was lent by APCM as an annexe to Rosherville Hospital.  It was equipped by H. Osborne O'Hagan, a Director of the company. It was later affiliated with Chatham Military Hospital, Fort Pitt.  It had a Medical Officer, a Matron, 6 nurses and members of the Kent V.A.D. It closed in 1918.
Stable block. This is east of Ingress Abbey and dated as 1833.
Empire Paper Mills.  In 1905 The Wall Papers Manufacturers’ Association purchased 23 acres of the estate for their factory. This were originally known as the Ingress Abbey Paper Mills, described as wallpaper manufacturers for Darwen based Potter & Branch Co., and date from 1906 and 1908, and used a raft of Blue Gum tree piles as a foundation. The original plant was said to be developed from modified American practice.  The plant included 3 Raw Material Warehouses - Esparto, Rag and Paper and the Wood Pulp -on a foreshore embankment placed so that raw materials were stored in direct line from wharf to mill. These were all keyed in to a system of conveyors. There was a power plant with coal handling equipment and a chimney, of 255 ft. steam engines drove the Paper Machines. Including a Corliss type, horizontal cross compound condensing engine driving the line shafting. In the Engine House were two 400 K. W. generating units. There was also a Preparatory Department. Esparto, Bleach, and Rotary Buildings, plus the Causicizing and Recovery Building Evaporating Room and Colour Room, a Beater Building and Wood Pulp Warehouse. There were five bleach towers for esparto and four for chemical fibre. There were also maintenance sections - Smithy and Machine and other similar shops including The Chemical and Physical Laboratories and office facilities. Later a Paper store was later built at the south end of the site near London Road. In the Second World War, including the recycling of banknotes to make toilet paperIt became part of the Reed Group in the early 1950s where they made paper for newsprint and wood free papers and there were rail connections to the main line. The mill continued until the 1980s and the associated railway closed in 1988.
Ingress Abbey wharf. There are ancient landing rights here. A jetty was built for Empire Paper Mills when the mill opened and this area is now being built on as part of the current housing development. Originally it was built as an integral part of the new mill.-It was 625’ long by 32' wide and connected to the shore by three approaches. It extended out into the river 411' ft with a depth of water to allow vessels to come alongside at the lowest. It included a large travelling transporter tower with electrically driven hoists and winches to load vessels and an electrically driven endless cable railway to transport raw materials to warehouses. Coal transshipment was in a different area with a different system to minimise contamination by coal dust. Barges and other small craft were also handled with a special crane and other equipment
The works’ railway system extended the entire length of the wharf, using the works' locomotives. In 1908 this was connected to the South East and Chatham Railway east of Greenhithe Station. It appears that the line to the works ran north eastwards and through the park in front of Ingress Abbey,

Ingress Park Avenue
This is the spine road through the new estate

Lovers Lane
Ha Ha. In the lane are the remains of an 18th Ha-Ha from the time of e mansion house that preceded the current Ingress Abbey. Maps of the mid 19th show Lovers Lane on an embankment and appearing turning at a bridge.
Boundary stone. This is either a boundary marker for the 1833 Ingress estate or maybe a parish boundary stone between Greenhithe and Swanscombe. It is a square stone with B inscribed on one side and I on the other
Folly bridge. This has two arches, the eastern arch larger and the western a smaller. Both arches have flint walls
Lovers Lane pit – this is an old chalk pit to the east of the southern end of Lovers Lane.
Park Cliff Cottages. These were at the northern end of the lane
Barge Yard. This dated from the late 1890s and was on the site of part of the later Empire Paper Mills Wharf at the end of Lovers Lane.

Palladian Circus
Modern housing around a central mound.
Tudor Mound with Hermit's cave. This had once been assumed to have been established during the 16th century, but there is no evidence of its date. It now has a spiral walk up to the top where there appears to be a spire. There is said to be a small flint grotto buried somewhere near the top.

Memorial to the Incorporated Thames Nautical Training College, H.M.S. Worcester, on the river bank.  Seats and circular mosaic design at the end of The Boulevard.
Chichester and Arethusa. In 1866, Lord Shaftesbury, promoted the idea of a naval training ship for homeless boys in London and persuaded the Admiralty to loan a redundant 50-gun frigate. It was moored on the Thames off Greenhithe. And managed by the Committee of the National Refuges for Homeless and Destitute Children. In 1873, following a donation from Angela Burdett-Coutts towards, a second ship was established, the Arethusa.  The increase in the use of steam power led to a fall in demand for naval crews and it was decided in 1889 to replace the Chichester. By the late 1920s, the Arethusa in a poor state and was told to leave Greenhithe by the Port of London Authority. In 1932 it was replaced by the Peking with a new mooring at Lower Upnor

Swanscombe Cement Works
A small part of the Swanscombe cement works
is on the eastern edge of the square.
Thames Nautical Training College H.M. S. Worcester
The Thames Nautical Training College for over a hundred years used ships named HMS Worcester. London ship-owners and insurance owners subscribed to the institution to train officers for a seagoing career. The Admiralty loaned a frigate H.M.S. Worcester and it opened in 1862 moving to Greenhithe in 1871. A series of other boats were used and renamed Worcester, The Cutty Sark was also used here during the Second World War. In 1968 Worcester became redundant and was sold to be broken up in Belgium in 1978 and the college used Ingress Abbey. This closed and the land wad sold to Crest Nicholson in 1995.

Baldwin. The River and the Downs
British Listed Buildings. Web ste
Bygone Kent
Children’s Homes. Web site
Gravesend History Society transactions
Lost Hospitals. Web site
Penguin Kent,
Pevsner and Cherry, West Kent
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies