Saturday, 28 July 2012

Channelsea River - Stratford

Channelsea River, Waterworks River
Channelsea River, and the Waterworks River flow south east

The Great Eastern Railway to Ilford coming from Bethnal Green Station goes northwards into Stratford Station and leaves running north west.

This page contains a very substantial part of the Olympic park and the Westfield Shopping Centre– it is proposed at this stage to ignore this, so the page reflects the area before this work started

Post to the west Hackney Wick
Post to the south Abbey Mills
Post to the east Stratford

Angel Lane

This was once a major shopping street. It once went down to the Broadway and there were lots of side streets off it
131 The Railway Tavern designed by Henry Poston, 1897.
Angel Lane Bridge. 19th bridge now replaced. There is likely to have been am earlier bridge crossing the railway from 1839. The present bridge is deck and parapet walls are made of wrought-iron plate girders. The line under the bridge is not in a cutting.
Mechanics Institute. The Great Eastern Railway Mechanics Institution was opened in Angel Lane in 1851 as the Eastern Counties Railway Mechanics Institute, it moved to new buildings in 1877. This original building was on the south west corner of Angel Lane Bridge.
Angel Lane Market – market stalls in the Mall are a relic of this
Eastern Counties Goods Station
Eastern Counties Railway Station. A station at Angel Lane was on the first Eastern Counties Railway line between Devonshire Road and Romford in 1839.

Bridge Road
Stratford High Street Station entrance. The line runs alongside the road and was once the waiting area for Stratford Market Station.
7 Methodist Chapel - The Fathers Free Church was a split from the local Methodist Chapel in 1852 with a new building in 1860. It closed in 1907 and was subsequently used by the Elim Four Square Gospel Alliance. In 1912 it became The Cinematograph Hall converted by A. Smith. In 1913 it was re-named New Crown Cinema Theatre, but closed in 1914. It was re-opened in 1917 as the Ideal Cinema, but was finally closed in 1918. Since demolished
14 Railway Tavern. This was once a pub serving Stratford Market. It closed in the 1970s and become Reflections Nightclub which itself closed in 2005. The pub is standing alone and semi derelict.

Byrant Street
Housing on the north side covers the site of some of Queen Mary’s Hospital for the East End based in West Ham Lane.

Carpenters Road
The Worshipful Company of Carpenters purchased "a farm in 1767 consisting of 63 acres of marsh land.  The building of the railway through the area led to the Company leasing the land for industrial and residential use. Some factories and warehouses were built by the Company, as was some housing. Much of this was destroyed by Second World War bombing.  In the 1960s the housing was purchased by the local authority,
17 Carpenters Arms. The name relates to land ownership by the Worshipful Company of Carpenters.  The pub dates from the late 19th but the building is more modern.
Goswell Works.  Jenson & Nicholson. Makers of 'Robbialac', varnishes, lacquers, wood finishes.  The firm was founded in 1821 by William Kingham in the City of London where they specialised in the manufacture of carriage varnish. The firm moved several times but came to Stratford in the 1870s after a fire in their works at Goswell Road. 'Robbialac' was invented for an Italian client who wanted a blue-white finish like that used by Della Robbia.  In the 20th they made adhesives to fixing cork tips on cigarettes, sou’wester varnish compound, 'dope' for greaseproof paper, and much else. They worked on chemical warfare in the Second World War; making varnish used in burn treatment, surface treatment for barrage balloons, camouflage paints, etc. Some of the works was destroyed in bombing, and their machines worked in the open air.  They later developed many new paints - a paint for adhesion to metal alloys, the wrinkled effect used on camera cases, industrial varnish compounded to withstand high voltages, lacquers for insides of tins and much else. In the 1960's they became part of the Berger, Jenson & Nicholson Group.
S.H.Johnson Engineering Works. This was a complex of buildings between Carpenters Road and the Waterworks River.  Johnson, made plant for the chemical industry, including pumps and filter presses. It had been founded in 1876 and later became part of Johnson Progress Engineering Ltd.  Their name was shown in very fine cast iron lettering on the front of the building.
Carpenters' Company boundary post. Dated 1849. Across the road from Berger, Jenson & Nicholson.
Yardley of London. William Yardley died in 1824 when his premises for supplying Lavender, Cosmetics and Soap were in Bloomsbury.  The firm moved to Stratford in 1904.  A box factory was also built-in the High Street in 1937. In the Second World War the works was bombed and output was severely restricted. In 1942 part of the building was given over to the manufacture of components for light aircraft, and the making of sea-water purification tablets.  The box factory made anti-radar devices and aircraft flare tubes.  The factories moved to Basildon Essex in 1966 and Yardley are now a subsidiary of the British. American Tobacco Company. Demolished.  Before demolition this was the Acme Studios with Rachel Whitbread
London Spinning Mills. This mill stood from the mid 19th well into the 20th on the south side of the road south of the railway. It was owned by William Ritchie who also had a jute spinning mill. Clepington Works, in Dundee. Thus jute was also spun in Stratford to make sacks and bags
London Match Works. 1890s
Hudson Bay Works 1890s
Photogenic Gas Works. Thus was south east of the road fronting onto the Waterworks River. The company hoped to exploit a process for making brighter gas lights through a process developed by a M. Mongurel involving a special generator and an unspecified compound. Although the company was wound up as early as 1862 a’ hydrogen’ works remained on this site into the mid-20th.
Star Works 1890s
92 Kensington Works. Potted meat factory in 1916. This was the Exel sausage factory, taken over by Telfers Pies
Carpenter’s Road Goods Depot
John Wilton Candle Co. 1839-1896. The firm then became Vinolia, who were also Blondeau et Cie. Closed 1907 and taken over by Lever Bros. The name ‘VINOLIA’ was painted on the end wall of a building to mark the Vinolia Soap Works here from 1898-1907 when they moved to Port Sunlight.  Somehow the name survived two wars!
W.J.Cearns. From 1913 made iron buildings of every kind (churches to cottages), later building contractors and steel fabricators.
Frederick Samuel Moll. Perfume maker. 1876 -93      
C.W.Schmidt, (F. A. Glaeser) varnish and japan, 1886-1912. The Company was established in 1878 and in 1914 were manufacturers of varnish, japan, enamel and washable distemper. - Alhambra white japan, "Sanatomur" washable distemper and "Stratolor" washable distemper and "Separol" varnish and paint remover. Became London Varnish Enamel

River which is a tributary of the River Lea. It is thought to be an artificial channel and might have been dug c 895 for Alfred the Great as a defence structure against the Danes.
The Channelsea flows under Stratford Station. It was diverted in the 19th by the Great Eastern Railway, and again during construction of the Jubilee Line Station in the 1990s. It originally ran from north-west of the station, on a line under the current Jubilee Line station, to meet the existing course east of Jupp Road.

Chant Square.
St. John's National school was opened in 1835 but in 1872 new buildings, with accommodation for 831, were built here because of problems with noise in the previous building,. The school was reorganized in 1938 for mixed juniors and infants and finally closed in 1947.

Chapel Street
Now gone.
Site of A. T. Morse Sons & Co., paint, varnish, and distemper makers in Chapel Street from after 1890 until 1920

Gibbins Road
The curve in the road follows the railway line from Stratford Station to the line to Canning Town. Samuel Gibbins was Master of the Carpenters Company in the 1880s.
96 Carpenters and Docklands Centre. A youth, community and social centre providing services to local residents. It has a sports hall, judo training room, multi-gym and meeting rooms. It  developed from Carpenters’ Institute, established in the 1920s as a club for residents around the Carpenters Company's Stratford estate. The Company continues to provide financial support,

Great Eastern Road
Great Eastern Road ran originally from the Grove to Stratford Goods Station in Angel lane. In the late 1960s- early 1970s it was cut through to Stratford Broadway at its junction with the High Street in order to produce a bypass for northbound traffic on the then A11 – creating an island where the Stratford Centre was subsequently built.
Railway Tree. At the junction with the Broadway. This is steel girders are shaped like railway lines and aligned by the compass points Sculpted by Malcolm Robertson. The steel girders are shaped like railway lines. To remind us of the railway.
Stratford Station. Opened in 1839. It now lies between Mile End and Leyton on the Central Line; between Hackney Wick and West Ham on the North London Line; from Pudding Mill Lane on the Docklands Light Railway; on the Jubilee Line from West Ham and on Main Line services from Liverpool Street.  In 1839 Stratford station was a junction on the Eastern Counties Railway line between Devonshire Road, Mile End and Romford on a site in Angel Lane east of present station.  In 1840 it was joined by the Northern and Eastern Railway line to Broxbourne.  The 19th station was in the north-west part of the present station and original buildings survived between platforms 10a and 11, including a subway at the east end of platform 3/5. A workmen’s subway lay further east. In 1846 a branch opened to Barking Road (Canning Town), extended to North Woolwich and in 1854 to Victoria Park using a low-level station called the North London Station. In 1856 Eastern Counties Railway opened a line to Woodford and Loughton. By 1863 the Eastern Counties was known as the Great Eastern Railway.  In 1889 the line to Palace Gates was opened; it closed in 1963. In 1946 Central Line opened taking over much of the Great Eastern line to Leyton and Ongar. In 1963 the connection to Palace Gates closed. In 1987 the Docklands Light Railway Was added and in 1999 the Jubilee Line.  In the 1990s reconstruction turned the station to face Stratford town centre and created a transport interchange for five railway lines and a bus station.  The Jubilee Line extension used the old Low Level station and was designed by Troughton McAslan.
Forecourt Sculpture, ‘Time Twist by Malcolm Benson, 1996 as a contorted steel clock tower. Relocated to Maryland Station.
Robert, a 1933 industrial tank locomotive. But which was built in Bristol – so no local connections.
Bus station. This opened in 1994 and has five stands include long distance coach stands. It was designed by Soji Abass and when it rains, the water is taken away down the middle of the supporting pillars
The Shoal. A sculpture which is nearly half a kilometre long. Designed by Studio Egret West, it has a series of up-lit titanium leaves mounted on sixteen all poles. This is the largest kinetic sculpture in the world. 
Stratford Centre. This shopping mall was built by Ravenseft Properties Ltd in 1974. A rebuilding of 1971-3 by T.R Bennett provided office towers, and a multi-storey car park. A public right of way through it – on the line of Angel Lane – means it is open access round the clock. It had 62 retail units plus a small market stall area
E.J. Davis general engineers. 1901-1955.

Grove Crescent Road.
Maryland Works. This had a pedimented front with a clock in the centre spelling out its name. It was built for Young and Marten, builders' merchants whose main domed premises were originally at the junction of The Grove, the Broadway and Romford Road.  Now demolished replaced by the Stratford Eye.
The Sanctuary. Christ the Redeemer bible college. Tom Allen Centre. A ministry of the Redeemed Christian Church of God which was established in Lagos, Nigeria in 1952. The church bought the permanent site at Tom Allen Centre in 1996. This had been an arts centre which had been closed down. It was originally a settlement of Trinity College Oxford, built after the Great War. Tom Allen was a former head of Centre. After the Second World War it was rebuilt as St. Helens Women's Settlement.

High Street
Roman Road
302 The Builder's Arms. Building of 1937 with foliage decoration and hoppers marked 'BB'
306 West Ham Labour Party offices, a 1930s facade with faience-clad walls.
375 Essex House. On the roof are the 'Salamanca Eagles'. The 2nd Battalion 44th (East Essex) Regiment captured the Eagle, at the Battle of Salamanca in 1812 and it was later carried on parade by the Essex Regiment. Built 1901 by J.H. Gladwell who had offices here.
379-81 was built as a furnishing warehouse, with large arched display windows on first floor.
383 Discovery Centre. By S.B. Russell, originally the Alexandra Temperance Hotel Designed by SB Russell and TE Cooper in 1901 a residence for London workers employed in Stratford's expanding industries.  It had 42 bedrooms, 1st and 2nd Class dining rooms for 200 people, with the added bonus of 'Palms & Music'. It also had a billiard hall and became, in 1914, the Officer's Mess for the West Ham battalion. Ground floor with large moulded arches and an absence of sculptural detail must have been the victim of economy
389-397 Magistrates Court, built 1994 by Roughton & Partners; project architect Paul Manripp. In pinkish reconstituted stone.
401, 1913 by C.J. Dawson for the London and South Western Bank. Polished granite ground floor, stone dressings and pointed dormers.
403 is 'cut-price Ruskinian Gothic.'
411-13, the old Post Office by the Office of Works, with coronets in the windows.
415 Burrow’s House. Originally Parr's Bank built 1897-8, probably by Frederick Pinches. It is in brick with a Banking hall with panelled ceiling and a medallion portrait of Queen Victoria.  It is now called Burrows House. 
Turnpike. In 1724 a New Turnpike was built here by the Middlesex & Essex Turnpike Trust.
Turnpike Row. Walter Hancock’s steam carriage works 1824-40.  His workshop was probably south of the Stratford High Street by his house in Turnpike Row. One of the three Hancock brothers, between 1824 and 1836, Hancock built here a number of steam road vehicles and in 1827 Hancock patented a steam boiler that would split rather than explode. In 1829 he built a ten-seater bus called Infant, which in 1831 began a regular service between Stratford and London and later to Brighton. In 1833 Hancock’s steam omnibus The Enterprise began a regular service between London Wall and Paddington the first such service.  Gutta Percha.  This was brought to England in the 1830s and attracted interest from Michael Faraday, as an electrical insulator, Thomas Hancock.  In 1845 Henry Bewley set up the Gutta Percha Co here with banker Samuel Gurney.  They made a wide range of resin based products and were later joined by Charles Hancock and Walter Hancock, later moving to Islington. By 1848 Charles Hancock had set up a rival West Ham Gutta Percha Co exploiting his invention of it as a cable insulator
Rex Cinema - Borough Theatre. This was opened in 1896 as the Borough Theatre and Opera House. It seated 3,000 and was designed by Frank Matcham, in a Jacobean style. In 1933 it closed and sold to Essell Cinemas and George Coles tuned it into a modern cinema by re-facing the corner entrance and creating a 1,889 seat Art Deco auditorium with A Wurlitzer organ from Cleveland, Ohio. It re-opened as the Rex Cinema in 1934. In 1935 it was taken over by Associated British Cinemas and they operated it until closure in 1969. It was converted into a bingo club until 1974 when it screened Asian films. It was then empty for 21 years. In 1996 the stage house and dressing room block were demolished and a new high-tech unit was built and the rest of the building was restored to its 1934 condition as a venue for concerts, and a nightclub. It closed in 2007 following a bankruptcy but reopened in 2009 as the Rex Music Arena. It was then closed again. There is a plaque with Beethoven’s head on the facade
Stratford Market Station.  Opened in 1847. This was built by the Eastern Counties Railway.  Originally it was Stratford Bridge station on the line from Stratford to North Woolwich. In 1880 became Stratford Market station. .  In 1891-2 it was rebuilt for the Great Eastern Railway to serve the fruit and vegetable market to the rear... In 1957 it was closed. There is a bronze O/S benchmark inset on the side of the station building in Bridge Road.  The rear of it is now the Stratford High Street station of the Docklands Light Railway.

Jupp Road
Footbridge between here and Station Street over the Jubilee and Overground lines. On it are pictures of trains and buses over the ages.
Telephone Exchange. This exchange was originally MARyland
The Carpenters' Company institute, founded in 1886, closed in 1905. It had provided educational and sports activities.
Baths. When the Carpenters institute closed the council took over the baths and used them until 1934.

Kennard Road
Building Crafts College.  This is owned by the Worshipful Company of Carpenters. The College was founded in 1893 and for 100 years operated from the Building Crafts Training School, in central London. In 2001 they moved to this brand new and larger building.

Pitchford Road
John Pitchford was a Roman Catholic, son of a Norwich surgeon. He was a close associate of the Quaker Frys who lived in Plaistow and had connections to the local chemical industry,
70 Bakers Arms. Closed 2007 and now housing
Rokeby School – the school has moved and the site is now used for filming. It was a boys’ secondary school.

Stratford Station in Great Eastern Street
Stratford International Station. The station opened in 2009 for the South Eastern main line services and the Docklands Light Railway.  It station itself is located in the Olympic Park and is on the High Speed railway between St. Pancras and Ebbsfleet.
Locomotive works. The Northern and Eastern Railway had set up a small repair facility in 1840 and this was leased by the Eastern Counties Railway which transferred their workshops and factory here from Squirrels Heath in 1847.  In 1850, under Superintendent John Gooch, the first locomotive was manufactured and over the next 70 years 1682 more were produced as well as 5,500 passenger vehicles and 33,000 goods wagons. Under James Holden in 1891 a locomotive was made in a record 9 hours and 47 minutes.  From 1923 the works was primarily a repair depot which eventually closed in 1991.  The works included a hydraulic pumping station, a round house called The Polygon, an oil gas plant to provide lighting on trains
The Eastern Counties Railway was incorporated in 1836 intending to like London to Norwich. Construction began in 1837. The railway opened in 1839 with a train service between Mile End and Romford, with Stratford as an intermediate station, now part of the Great Eastern Main Line. In 1840 it was extended to Brentwood and to Bishopsgate at the London end. In 1843 the line reached Colchester. In 1862 it became part of the Great Eastern Railway.
The Northern & Eastern Railway was part of an 1833 scheme for a railway from Islington to York. In In 1836 Parliament approved the route as far as Cambridge but this was reduced to a line between Bishop Stortford and Stratford via Tottenham. In 1840 a service began between Stratford & Broxbourne. Extending to Stortford in 1842 plus a branch to Hertford in 1843.  The line was leased to the Eastern Counties Railway and eventually became part of the Great Eastern Railway.
Thames Junction Line. This line had been proposed by George Parker Bidder in 1842 as a means of transferring coal from the Thames to East Anglia. The line opened between Barking Road (now Canning Town) and Stratford in 1846 and was then bought by Eastern Counties Railway.  The line opened to North Woolwich in 1847 plus a cross river ferry. In 1854 the Low Level station was opened at Stratford with a northwards connection to Victoria Park. In the 1960s services on the line were drastically cut back but it was extended by the Greater London Council with a service with Stratford as an intermediate station between North Woolwich, Dalston Junction and on to Richmond.  The line was again closed in 2006.
Eastern counties Line to Loughton. The first section was opened from Stratford to Loughton in 1856 diverging from the line to Tottenham Hale. The line to Epping and Ongar was opened in 1865 under the Great Eastern Railway. This is the section which was to become part of the Central Line
Palace Gates Line. A station to the south of Alexandra Palace was opened in 1878 initially served by a line from Liverpool Street. A line from Stratford was added in 1880 and in 1887 as a through service to North Woolwich, closing in 1963.
Central Line. The London Transport services opened in 1946, having been extended from Liverpool Street station in new tunnels following wartime delays, on a route proposed as part of the New Works programme in 1935.  The line was electrified and extended onto the Great Eastern Line to Ongar in 1957 (although Epping to Ongar was later closed)
Docklands Light Railway. This was promoted by the London Docklands Development Corporation to stimulate regeneration. It is a light automated rail scheme initially running alongside the Great Eastern line to a northern terminus at Stratford, where a disused bay platform at the west of the station was used. This connected Stratford to the City at Tower Gateway, and to Canary Wharf and later Lewisham and Greenwich via an interchange at Poplar. It has since been extended with connections to Beckton and Woolwich.
Jubilee Line. This London Underground line was extended here from Green Park Station through the 1990s. The line reached Stratford from North Greenwich via Canning Town and West Ham in 1999 using platforms on part of the old Low Le el Station
Stratford Station Waste. Wasteland with mix of rough grass, weeds & scrub and small stream. Railway land triangle. Scrub and grassland
Power house. A large steel-framed and partly brick-walled shed. Originally a turbine room in a powerhouse, or private electricity generating station, this was constructed for the Great Eastern Railway on the south side of the Channelsea River, probably in 1906.

Salway Road
Before the roads were reconfigured in central Stratford the Theatre Royal was in Salway Street

Stratford Broadway
The Broadway splits into two roads and which then reunite enclosing what was once a central green – on which the church now stands
11 Gredley House. Serviced office block
13 Black Bull pub.  Built in 1892 in brick and stone with ornamentation including a painted stucco bull set in a niche.
2 Central House.  Jacksons' furnishings shop in white masonry with infill in pale green.
27 Swagga – nightclub in what was the Two Puddings pub. An early 20th pub.
30 The Angel.  This was originally a timber framed building dating back to the 16th / 17th century, and rebuilt in 1910. It stood at the junction of The Broadway and Angel Lane. It became John Collier's tailors shop.  Now demolished
31 The Swan.  Closed as a pub but now a restored building which stands on an island between Tramway Avenue and Town Hall. This was the historic coaching halt for traffic to and from London. Established here by 1631, rebuilt in the 18th and again in 1925. Its gardens were built over with shops in the 19th.
47 Edward VII Pub, this was the King of Prussia which commemorated Frederick the Great but renamed in 1914. The bar has flagstone floors and pew-style seating. A side passage has 19th tiling and is separated from the bar by an ornate etched glass screen.
49 London and County Bank of 1867 by Frederic Chancellor.
55 site of Empire Music Hall which itself was built on the site of Rokeby House which was demolished in 1898. It had been built in the reign of James I and had sometimes been used as a Council Chamber. Its oak panels are in the V & A.
56-62 built 1900 for Thomas and Williams, drapers in red brick. Their emblem is in a pediment.
57 Empire House, a mid 20th building
63 is a tall tower-like Edwardian building, c. 1904, on a narrow site in striped brick and stone. Now an estate agent
64 Boardman’s department store site.
72-76 former houses.
78-102 1950’s former Co-op department store. An interesting building with style and materials of its period. The site was previously Roberts department store and is now partly the Goose, a Wetherspoons pub
Gurney Memorial.  Erected in 1861, a plain tall obelisk of granite by J. Bell to Sir Samuel Gurney resident of Ham House and one of the many Quakers to contribute to West Ham's civic and charitable life in the 19th
K6 Telephone Kiosks, three of these outside the Town Hall. Designed in 1935 by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott
Coal hole covers. Outside what was the National Westminster Bank? Marks Nicholls and Clark, Shoreditch London.
Martyrs Memorial. This is on the site, in the churchyard, then on the Green, of the burning of the Stratford martyrs – 11 men and two women - which 20,000 people watched. This was under Mary and they were Protestants who refused to recant.  The site used to be called Gallows Green but there is some discussion as to the actual site. The memorial was erected in 1879
St. Johns the Evangelist church.  The area was originally part of the Parish of West Ham. In 1828 the Vicar of West Ham saw that there was a need for a church at the centre of Stratford and construction began in 1832 on land was given by Lord Wellesley Pole of Wanstead. The church was opened in 1834 and designed by Edward Blore with a tall, ornate south western spire. In 1847 £600 was raised for an organ, a reredos and windows. In 1868 St John's became a parish in its own right. There is a plaque is in memory of Sir Antonio Brady a geologist
West Ham Town Hall. Built by local surveyor Lewis Angell and John Files in 1869 for West Ham Local Board. The court and extension were added in 1885. It cost £21,000 to build including the site. It has a 100ft tall square tower at one corner of the building that originally contained Angell’s private office. On the parapets are statues of Justice, Liberty  Fortitude, etc. The vestry hall is itself is embellished with Corinthian pilasters plus shields and floral panelling on the walls and the ceiling has designs by French M Bookbinder. Following a fire in 1982 the building was fully restored by Kenneth Lund. There is a bird and monkey statue in the courtyard.
The Old Court House in classical style built by the Local Board in 1863. It was self supporting by 1893 but soon became too small. The crest above the door is that of Stratford Langthorne Abbey adapted for the Borough.
Fire station. The 1878 West Ham No. 1 Fire Stations built as part of the Municipal Offices.  In 1964 the London Fire Brigade Eastern Command and 'F' Division HQ were still there. .

Stratford New Town
Also called Hudson Town after the ‘railway king’.  This was rows of small houses for the railway company workers but redeveloped in the early 1950s by T.E. North, the Borough Architect and replaced by low-rise flats and terraces in yellow brick.

Tenby Road

Gone. By 1916 this was called Oxford Street
Holy Trinity church and Mission hall 1890s. This was a ‘settlement; begun in 1887. This was a local mission in an iron church which was burnt down and was replaced by a brick building as St Phillips. In 1888 it was taken over by Trinity College, Oxford.

Theatre Square
This was previously Gerry Raffles Square, landscaped in 2002 by Art2Architecture and Newham Council as a cultural centre
Theatre Royal. Stratford East. Built 1884 its first Licence described it as a ‘danger to respectable local young women’.  The theatre was built on the site of a wheelwright's shop at the junction of Salway Road and Angel Lane, designed by architect James George Buckle and commissioned by the actor-manager Charles Dillon.  In 1902 Frank Matcham made changes to the entrance and foyer. In the 1950s it became the home of Theatre Workshop with artistic director Joan Littlewood and as such it became very famous, with many transfers to the West End and fostering such stars at Barbara Windsor. In the 1970s, but was saved by a public campaign and listed. Gerry Raffles was then the manager and the theatre was redeveloped with a lottery bid as part of the Stratford Cultural Quarter.
Flats in a redesigned office block from the 1970s office block
Stratford Picture House.  Cinema with linear glass and steel, four screens and sound system by Burrell Foley Fischer Architects.1997.
Stratford Circus a performance venue designed by Levitt Bernstein. This was opened in 2001 and was bankrupt by 2003. Newham Sixth Form College took over the management and lease.

Tramway Avenue
The road was cut through from the Broadway in the early 20th by the West Ham Tramways Department to facilitate tram running,
1 Job Centre
Broadway Cinema.  This was opened on the site of a sweet factory in 1927 by Phil and Sidney Hyams opened it as the first real super cinema in the UK. It was to Coles' design, had 2,700 seats, and opened with the Plaza Tiller Girls, Joseph Muscant and Broadway Symphony Orchestra, and Archie Parkhouse at an 8-rank Wurlitzer organ. It was renamed Gaumont Theatre in 1949. It was bombed in 1940 but reopened. The Rank Organisation closed it in 1960 and it became factory named Arco Rewind Ltd. In 1977, the foyer became a gym but the building was demolished in 1990. The site is now housing.
Aerated Candy Co. German owned sweet firm, wound up by order in the Great War
North Metropolitan Tramways horse tram depot 1890s said to be there.

Waddington Road
Part of Hudson Town – Waddington was the Stratford Traffic Manager
Windmill Inn

West Ham Lane
5-7 Queen's Head, single storey pub of 1925, this is double fronted going through to Tramway Avenue.

Windmill Lane
37 St Mark’s Methodist Church. This was originally an Anglican church. Now Alphabet house Nursery.
Angel Cottage. Double fronted listed house. Demolished illegally in 2007


Antisell. Photogenic Gas
CAMRA, City and East London Beer Guide
Cinema Treasures website
Clunn .The Face of London
Crossrail web site
Day, London Underground
Disused Stations web site
Exploring East London web site
GLIAS Newsletters
Graces Guide web site
Great Eastern Railway Journal
Headley and Meulenkamp. Follies,
History of Manebre
Kimber, Wilfred Nicholson. A record of his work.
James, History of Chemistry in Essex & East London
Jenson & Nicholson. Story of an English firm
Lewis, Battleships, Buses and Bombers
London Borough of Newham web site
London Encyclopedia
London Railway Record
Mills. Gas and chemicals in East London
Mills. People and Places in the early London Gas industry
Morris. Archives of the Chemical Industry
Museum of London web site
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Newham Wildlife,
Parks, Development of the Heavy Chemical Industry of West Ham and District
Pevsner Essex
Sainsbury. History of West Ham
Seagrave. Notes of Carpenters Road/Marshgate Lane
St.John’s church web site
Surrey History,
Village London
Watson. Jute and Flax Mills in Dundee
Wikipedia. Stratford Station web site

Tuesday, 24 July 2012

River Lea - Hackney Wick

River Lea and Bow Back Rivers
The Lea Navigation/Hackney Cut flows south through this area; the aqueduct from Lea Bridge ran alongside it.  The Navigation is met by Duckett’s Cut (or the Hertford Union Canal part of the Grand Union Canal) from the east.  The Old River Lea flows south and is met from the north by the old course of the Waterworks River, which intercepts with the Channelsea River.  The Channelsea River then flows south and east. The Waterworks River leaves the Old River Lea above Carpenter’s Lock (?) and flows south and east. City Mill River leaves the Old River Lea below Carpenters Lock and flows south and east. Pudding Mill River leaves the Old River Lea and flows south and east.

This page contains a very substantial part of the Olympic park – it is proposed at this stage to ignore this, so the page reflects the area before this work started

Post to the north Temple Mills
Post to the east Stratford
Post to the south Old Ford

Beachy Road

This was once called Shoot Road
Methodist Chapel and Mission Hall
‘Prefab’ houses here after the Second World War
Broadwood Piano Factory, Helmsley Works between Beachy Road and Stour Road was the 1902 piano factory of John Broadwood and Sons Ltd.  Broadwood were a family business originating in the early 18th. Their Factory moved here in 1902. In the Great War it was an aircraft works and the factory moved to Hendon in the 1930s.  Only the eastern part of the factory survives including a chimney from 1902 with square a tapering shaft and blue brick ornamental cap. From 1903 a tramway ran between the factory and its timber wharf on the canal at the end of the road.
52 William Rust House. People’s Press Printing Society Ltd. This produced Morning Star which h it has owned since 1945. The newspaper was founded in 1930 as the Daily Worker, the organ of the Communist Party of Great Britain. It became the Morning Star in 1966 and now also produces an on line version.

Berkshire Road
This was previously Windsor Road
Atlas Works of Simpson Nicholson and Maule. The Atlas Dye Works were founded in the 1860's by Brooke, Simpson & Spiller Ltd., who were involved in the development of the first commercially viable aniline dyes. Simpson and Maule had had a scientific apparatus business based in Walworth. They were joined by Nicholson who had been a pupil of Hoffman. When Perkin developed the first aniline dye, mauve, they began to manufacture intermediate chemicals and sold to him –also developing and making magenta, Nicholson’s blue and aniline yellow.  They built the Atlas Works in 1865 and in 1868 the firm was sold to Edward Brooke and the firm’s chemist, William Spiller. Despite setbacks with Perkin’s works, with alizarin and the loss of Nicholson they continued with work at Hackney Wick and were joined by W.S.Simpson. The firm was liquidated in 1905 and acquired by Claus and Ree
Claus and Ree. They bought the Atlas works in 1905 and three years later sold it to Bronco
Bronco were the British Patent Perforated Paper Co, which had begun in Banner Street EC and moved to Atlas Works in 1910. They were the sole manufacturers of Bronco – originally called No. 1 Thin and other papers including Sanico, British No. 3, Eureka, Medipathic, Gloria Victis, Okayed, Vade-Mecum, Carmol, and Lavato, Onliwon as well as all kinds of roll paper for every purpose.  Until 1983 a building on the site existed which was part of the original construction of 1865.  It had a stucco frontage surmounted by a large stone figure of Atlas. Demolished. There was also an office building, extant in the 1980s, built early in the twentieth century, perhaps by Bronco Atlas. Leabank Square is on the site

Bream Street
London Carbonic Acid Gas Works relics. Between Bream Street and the canal. A three-storey block of c. 1898 designed for gas purification, a two-storey block of c. 1933 for production of gas from magnesite and closest to the canal, a single-storey works for production of ebonite screw stoppers, c. 1924

Carpenters Road
This road only ran from Stratford Broadway to some works until after the East London Waterworks reservoir closed, and named for the Worshipful Company of Carpenters who owned a farm in marsh land here from 1767. The road appears to have vanished.
Kings Yard. One of the factories of confectioners Clarke Nickolls & Coombs Ltd, who traded as Clarnico.  The firm was founded in 1872 and had number of works in the area, later taken over by Trebor Sharps. This three-storey, canal side building built in 1905 was the starch department, later a warehouse.  Adjacent buildings built in 1908, were the lozenge department.  There was also a two-storey carriage house, a single storey peel shed, and a range of stables. There were also works on the south side of the road. The building was bombed in the Second World War. King’s Yard was the centre of a campaign to save the building from demolition following plans to convert the structure into an energy facility for the Olympics.
Inflatable Ruin was installed as a public art work on the since demolished Lozenge Building
Vigremont Chemical Works 1890s. Boake, Roberts and Co. moved to the Vigremont works which became their headquarters from 1900. Arthur Boake came to London from Dublin in 1869 and produced brewing chemicals - bisulphite of lime – and later a product for clarifying wine. He was joined in 1876 by Francis Roberts. They moved Warton Road in Stratford and then to two sites on opposite sides of Carpenters Road. They undertook large scale production of Sulphurous Acid and Sulphites, Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates, Barium and Strontium Nitrates. In the 1890s they also made flavouring essences and essential oils. After the Great War they also made organic solvents, esters, plasticisers and food colours. They were taken over by Albright and Wilson in 1966 and became Bush, Boake & Allen Ltd, later part of International Flavours and Fragrances. They produced amyl and ethyl acetates and in the 1950s metallic stearate intermediates for plastics and plant.
Johnson’s Saccahrum Co Ltd.  Taken over by Berry of Boake Roberts and Co who were next door. Boake had a caramel department and Berry was interested in brewing sugars. In 1906 they formed Sugar and Malt Products Ltd. and took Johnson’s over
Channelsea Tallow Works. George Johnson and Sons. Tallow melters 1890s/This later became a sack works.
Towler Engineering works. This company was also based in Sugar House Lane 1930s
Britannia Works.  A brick former office stood north of Carpenter’s Road, east of the junction with Water den Road, dated 1896 -1916 as part of Grover’s Britannia Works and engineering company.
Imperial Works. Fur processing plant in the 1950s. Asteroid Storage Engineers.
Messina Works and Palermo Works. The Confectioners, Vegetable Colours & Fruit Essences Company Ltd.  The works supplied colourings and flavourings to the confectionary and ice cream making trade.
Gliksten Timber Yard. J.Gliksten & Son Ltd, the east end's largest timber yard established 1912-13. There were ramps on the Hackney Cut for three electric travelling cranes used to transfer logs and timber from barge to stockpile. An early 20th warehouse on the site became known as Brundles Industrial Warehouse, a brick-built shed in three sections, with a modern office extension.
Bow Industrial Estate. On the site of the Gliksten Yard.
East London Waterworks Reservoir – This was built before 1860 to and was out of use by the 1880s. It was associated with various cholera outbreaks.  It had a connection with the old River Lea slightly to the north of the junction with the City Mill River and to the south north of Old Ford Locks. It covered the majority of the area in the triangle south of the railway. By the 1890s it was drained and waste marshy land.
Victoria Park Steam Bone Works. This was slightly north of where the reservoir flowed out in the 1890s into City Mill River.

Channelsea River
It has been claimed that the Channelsea River is the result of Alfred the Great blocking the River Lea in 895AD – as part of a defence strategy against invading Danes. It has however been recorded since the 12th.

City Mill River
This stream leaves the Old River Lea and went originally to power the City Mill at Stratford. It was originally a branch off the Pudding Mill River but was diverted to become an independent through route between the Old River Lea and the Waterworks River.

Davey Road
This road has now disappeared
Named after William Davey’s Imperial Tar Works. In 1865 Davey patented 'improvements in apparatus for washing or purifying coals and for producing ammoniacal water there from'. In 1853 he had been in Neckinger Road, Bermondsey and was also involved in a druggist business in Crutched Friars. There were a number of other Davey’s Tar Works in the area and it is possible that they were related.  In the early 1870s new residents in Cadogan Terrace complained about Davey's Tar Works and eventually Davey had to close down, cancelling orders for oil and tars to local works. They moved to a site on Barking Creek/
Pharos Chemical Works.  This works was opened by Leon and Charles Clerc in the 1860s. They were refiners and distillers of benzoline and naphthalene. The works was purchased by Carless in the 1890s.
Clarnico Buildings.  The turning contained more buildings belonging to sweet makers Clarke, Nicholls and Coombs

Fish Island
Name for the area covered by roads named after fishes. Gas Light and Coke Co. (the ‘Chartered’ Company) bought land herein the 1870s but never built a works. They were however involved in the industrial development of the area.

Hackney Cut
Two-mile cut built by the River Lea Trustees in the early 1770s following Smeaton's report of 1766 and which extends the Lee Navigation.   It begins below Lea Bridge and continues to what is now Old Ford Locks
White Post Bridge.–over the Lea at Carpenters Road is this 20th bridge??

Hackney Wick
‘Wick’ means an outlying dairy farm and such a farm was here in the 13th.

Hepscott Road
1 Elphick Paints Ltd
1-2 A. Neale. York Stone merchants ‘paving the way since 1947’.
Hope Chemical Works of Carless, Capel and Leonard.  In the 1980s all that survived of this extremely important site is the boundary wall of 1891.  This was the Carless, Capel & Leonard works, established in 1859, rebuilt after a fire in 1890.  The firm was the first to use term 'petrol'. Eugene Carless established a mineral oil distillation and refining business here in 1859. Initially, oil supplies came from Scottish bituminous shales. A later by-product was benzine used in flare lamps and in the dry-cleaning industry. The first U.S oil supplies came in 1869 - in wooden barrels and Carless's became the leading distillers of U.S Crude Oils in the UK. In 1870 George Capel joined the firm and John Leonard in 1872, Leonard soon became the sole proprietor. In 1893, Frederick Simms, of the Daimler Motor Syndicate Ltd and ordered "Launch Spirit", also called "De-odourised Petroleum Spirit for his boat business and the name was changed to "Petrol" at his suggestion. The firm supplied their new fuel for the Emancipation Run to Brighton in 1896 and became founder members if the Automobile club.   In early advertisements they referred to "autocarists”. By 1899 they were still virtually the only British source of refined motor spirit, and had 1,500 agents throughout the country. In 1894 they also took over the Pharos Oil works, and in 1907, the Lea Chemical works. They relocated to Harwich in 1968. In the 1920s coalite was supplied as a fuel to the RAF and in the Second World War they made TNT. The Company opened a refinery at Harwich in 1964 dealing with condensate from North Sea Oil.  Production ended at Hackney Wick in the early 1970s and the administration moved from the Hope Works to Petrol House but the firm soon left Hackney Wick completely. 
3-13 Petrol House.  London & Provincial Dyeworks.  Three-storey block built 1905-6 for Lush & Cook, dyers and dry cleaners. Sold in 1984
3-13 Militant Tendency HQ. 1980s
3-13 McGrath House. McGrath Bros. waste control. Founded 1972.
9 Old Court Furniture

Hertford Union Canal
Also known as Duckett's Cut It connects the Regents Canal to the Hackney Cut in a straight line. It was promoted by Sir George Duckett and opened in 1830 but was a commercial failure. It was taken over Regents Canal Company in 1857, as part of the Grand Union Canal in 1927.
Footbridge.  Between Hepscott and Roach roads built by Baxter & Associates across the Union Canal to provide a continuous walk to the bridge over the Lea at Carpenter's Road.
Graffiti Art on the walls at the junction of the canal and the Hackney Cut

Leabank Square
Housing development by Campbell, Zogolovitch, Wilkinson, and Gough. On the banks of the Lea with 150 houses and flats

Monier Road
Britannia Mirrors. Framed mirror manufacturer, founded 1980s
The Hub Studios. Royal Connections. Charismatic Christian organisation.

Old River Lea
Carpenters Road Bridge
Carpenter's Road Lock is a tidal lock installed c. 1931, to allow navigation of between the Waterworks River and Old River Lea.  It has an integral footbridge and it has a pair of rising radial gates where a section of a cylindrical surface forms the lock gate. This is rotated into the lock bed to open it as for a tidal local traditional gates would need to be bi-directional.
Bully Point Nature Reserve. Part of the former marsh was drained and then tipped on and the result was a nature reserve is noted for 14 species of butterfly, many birds and small mammals.  It had wet woodland and colourful ephemeral plant communities particularly good for invertebrates. Now demolished, and the wildlife killed.

Pudding Mill River
The Pudding Mill River or Hunter's Mill stream was a waterway forming a north-south route from Stratford to the Old River Lea. Originally the City Mill River diverged from it. It was originally semi tidal and Old Ford tide gates sited east of the junction with the old river lea normally kept the water level. The river has been removed although the cast iron footbridge at Carpenters Lock and the lock itself apparently remain.

Knobs Hill corn mill – on the east bank south of junction with the Old River Lea hIhi

Channelsea Junction

Rippoth Road
The road was closed in 1968 to allow for timber drying sheds and a kiln to be built. It lay to the north of Wyke Road.

Roach Road
Omega works. Steel-framed block of 126 units in 7 storeys, 2004
Crown Wharf. 240 unit development with a supermarket on the ground floor.
Crown Wharf Yard.  Circular, red brick Chimney erected 1899-1900 by builders Chessum & Sons for their Crown Wharf yard.
A.    Younger furniture. Abraham Younger Ltd was a high quality furniture manufacturer and leader of style in the 50s, 60s and 70s and they aimed at the top end of the market. They made Scandinavian style furniture in the 50s and their teak Moselle suite. Their designer was John Herbert who won three awards in 1960 for a sideboard and two tables made of afromosia and later designed a dining set in African walnut. Later with Alan Pledge they produced with reference to traditional Spanish design with Toledo in 1970.  The chimney in Crown Wharf Yard at one time had ‘Younger’ written on it.
Roach Road Works. D. Anderson makers of roofing felts and Belfast Truss roofs of Lagan Works, Belfast. Roofing materials – including aluminium and felt and various coating, among many other manufactures.
Stour Space and The Counter Café

Rothbury Road
25 Mountain of Fire and Miracles. This is a Nigerian evangelical church
Victoria Park Industrial Park

Smeed Road
BOC Gases
Smeed Road School. Opened in 1886 and renamed Fordway County Primary in 1951, Closed 1968 and since demolished.
Algha Works. Optical product manufacturers. In the 1920’s Max Wiseman had a business selling lenses, cases and frames and wanted his sons to manufacture Rolled Gold frames in England. They purchased the contents of a complete factory from Rathenau, and opened the Algha Works in 1932 with 10 German technicians. This was to become known throughout the world as Algha Works. In the Second World War they made gas mask frames and aviator goggles and after 1947 manufactured for the NHS. In the 1980s the factory was taken over by American Optical and the Savile Row Collection was launched. In 1996 it again became a family business. The works was built in 1908 as a printing factory designed by Henry C Smart and was named Algha Works in 1932. A new form of glazing was used – the prismatic stall-board light - enabled light to flood the semibasement, and throughout the building, a specialized form of floor construction ensured well-lit working spaces on all floors

Stour Road
Vittoria wharf – artists’ studios and craft workshops
Foreman Salmon Smokers. Harry (Aaron) Forman came to London from Russia in the late 19th and imported salmon in barrels of brine from the Baltic. He then developed a cure for Scottish Salmon. It remains a family business. Forced to leave their factory for the Olympics their new 2008 building is in the shape of a piece of salmon and includes a restaurant and a viewing gallery. 
Byron and Byron curtain poles manufacturers started in 1984 to supply hand crafted accessories for interiors by Italian Orazio Gualtieri.
Primrose Works – trading estate and industrial units

Wallis Road
The road may have been named for G. & T.Wallis whose wharves were at the river end
G. & T.Wallis. Varnish works. Wallis had previously been in Long Acre, Southwark and the company may have dated from before 1810. They had won medals for their varnish in the 1850s and had moved to Hackney Wick by 1870s.
127b Johnstone Boat House, presented to the Eton Mission Rowing Club in 1934 by their president.  Gilbert Johnstone. Red brick building.
68 Vision Gospel Mission. This is in what was the Carless Institute. The Institute was built in 1926 as a social centre for all local workers, bequeathed by William Leonard. 
Falcon Chemical works. Edward Beanes and Co. which survived into the 1960s. This was on the riverside and in 1876 was a paint factory also producing other chemicals. A new building was erected in 1889. In 1922 Frederick Beanes developed a new tobacco pipe. By 1959 they were making wine finings and it was also a 'herb factory'
Victoria Works. J.E.Barringer Spice Grinders. Founded 1846 and taken over in 1931 by Stafford Allen.
Alexander Fife label works 1969
Parkseine works. This dated from 1855 set up by Alexander and became the British Xylonite works, makers of the first plastic. A wall plaque reads: - "First plastic in the world, known as 'Parkesine', invented by Alexander Parkes.  First made near this site, 1866".  Parkesine was a compound of cellulose nitrate and some small examples were displayed at the 1862 London International Exhibition.  Production was taken over by Daniel Spill in 1868.  He re-branded the product "Xylonite" and transferred production to his Homerton works.  The Company later move to Hale End, and products were sold under the "Halex" brand name. The Company eventually re-located to Brantham, Suffolk.  .   
99 Central Books building. This covers the site of Daniel Spill's waterproof cloth works.  It became the Vulcan Works and then Clarnico. The Communist Party of Great Britain, as an archive store, took over the building for a period.  It is now occupied by Central Books a commercial enterprise. Book publishers and distributors since 1939.                                    
George Spill’s works was involved in rubber technology and he invented the little holes under arms in rubberised garments. He had done well out of selling items like groundsheets to the military. He was joined by his brother Daniel who became the main backer for Parks' venture into plastics.  Part of the gable of a surviving bay of George Spill's rubber cloth factory of 1860 remains.
Vulcan Bedstead Works. This was next use for the Spill factory. Vulcan Cottages were in front of the building. Owned by George Horrel
Clarnico – Clarke, Nichols & Coombs, Clarnico, had extensive premises in the area and many buildings were used by them in the early 20th. They were established in 1872, as a sweet manufacturer - mint creams, butterscotch, caramels, and chocolates etc. By 1913 they were employing around 2,000 people, mostly female.  It was one of the first companies in Britain to operate a profit-sharing scheme.  The Company ran its own choir, band hospital, and fire service and offered its female employees a dowry on marriage.  It had wharf facilities on The Lea Navigation.  It was taken over by Trebor/Sharps in 1972, and production transferred to the latter's premises. 
Phoenix Chemical Works. W.C.Barnes. This factory was here before 1849 and was connected to Henry Barnes who had been a drysalter in Long Acre and Upper Thames Street.  In 1868 Barnes was involved in the adjacent Xylonite Works and later became a partner in Brooke, Simpson & Spiller venture when they took over Perkin's Greenford Works in 1874.  He eventually moved to premises at Rainham, Essex, where he specialised in aniline dyes.  In 1876 on Wallis Road the firm produced chloroform, paraffin, nitric acid, antimony, etc.  And made a speciality of oil based materials for lighting
Daro Factors is a family business established in 1923. They make the Spegelstein range of fittings as well as dealing in a wide range of other fittings.
Spegelstein furniture fitting manufacturer.  Opened in the 1960. They undertook electro plating – much of it for the Lesney Matchbox factory. They made a wide range of fittings of all sorts
Lion Works.  Complex site incorporating buildings of various dates, on the site of a mid-nineteenth century iron works, used by Achille Serre from c1903 until 1927 and now in multiple occupation.  The oldest surviving building probably dates from the 1880s.  The name Achille Serre remained in faded mosaic above the door.
Button Manufactory 1870s
Sheppey Chemical Works 1870s.  Likely to be one of the chemical manure works owned by the Stevens family
Willow Works – chemical works owned by Barnes
Main Yard, artist’s studio in print works building
Imperial Glass Bottle Works 1895

Waterden Road
Golden House.  Brooke Bond Liebig., Oxo factory. This had a stucco facade stepped recessed windows and Egyptian style doors. Later in other use including as the Kokonut Grove night club
44 Hackney East Bus Garage. Stagecoach bus depot
Wolsey Match Works of 1916 by 1950s this was the Wolsey Cattle Feed Works.
Seemeel Wolsey Works.  This was British Feeding Meals in 1929. They made fish meals and fish by-products -  Animal food produced from fish waste which was collected from Billingsgate, fish curers, retailers and merchants throughout London.  In the Second World War they were pioneers in converting domestic refuse into animal food.  Became a subsidiary of Spillers
Later owned by Spillers,
Fish meal factory 1916 by 1950s Premier Works Patent Foods
Wolsey Works, owned by Spillers 1979

Waterworks River

White Post lane
Lea Chemical Works. After the Great War Carless established a works for distilling solvents, especially xylene, used in the manufacture of printing inks.  .
33/37 Superproofers. Rot proofed ropes;
Lord Napier pub closed
52-54 Mr. Bagel. Bakery in place since the 1980s.
92 Achille Serre.  Achille Serre Moved from Dalston and established his dry cleaning business in a corner of Griffith's Tar Yard, now Queen's Yard.  Two of the three multi-storey blocks on the south side of White Post Lane were built in 1905, the other, nearest the canal, with flat roof concrete lintels, was built in the early 1920s. 
10 Caslon typefounders
Lea Tavern. Smaller scale of a Truman's pub of 1897 with cut brick gables. Demolished December 2008; The date above the dormer windows reads 1897..
Queen's Yard.  Six-storey stock-brick block built 1913-4 for Clark, Nickolls & Coombs Ltd (Clarnico) as a chocolate factory as part of their Queen's Yard complex.  The rest of Queen's Yard has been redeveloped. Base and piers of blue
Victoria Iron works. Victoria Metallic Cask and Iron Mesh Co. This Company closed down in the 1950's, having been established in the 1870's.  Subsequently, the site has been occupied by a variety of small businesses (for example, mirrors). 

Wyke Road
Courage Brewery Distribution Depot

Broadwood Piano. Web site
CNC History of Clarke Nichols and Coombs
Discover Bow Back Rivers. Leaflet
East London Record
GLIAS notes on Hackney Wick (including notes by Mary Mills, Chris Seagrave and Chris Grabham )
London Borough of Hackney web site
London Borough of Newham web site
London Borough of Tower Hamlets web site
Mills. Gas and Chemicals in east London
Mills. GLIAS. Notes for walk c. 1990
Mills. The Early East London Gas Industry and its waste products
Morning Star web site
Morris. Archives of the chemical industry
Museum of London web site
Sainsbury, West Ham 1886-1986
Saville Row Collection web site
Wikipedia. Bow Back Rivers web site
Wildlife on the Bow Back Rivers. Notes.