Barnet

 

Alston Road
9 Sebright Arms


Barnet
The modern borough, created in 1965, is named from the ancient settlement, recorded as ‘Barneto’ c.1070, ‘Barnet’ 1197, ‘la Bernet’ 1235, ‘La Barnette’ 1248, that is 'the land cleared by burning', from Old English ‘bxmet’, referring to the clearing of this once densely forested area in early times. The three manors of Barnet were distinguished one from another at an early date. Chipping Barnet and East Barnet were included in Hertfordshire because they were possessions of the Abbey of St Albans, whereas Friern Barnet was in the old county of Middlesex because it belonged to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem. New Barnet, marked thus on the Ordnance Survey map of 1887, and Barnet Vale are areas mainly developed from the end of the 19th century. Beginning of the c.19th Barnet had a population of 1,500; in 1821 this was 1,750 and by 1831 2,400.  This was a reflection of its position on the northern mail-coach road; it was an important junction and, at a distance of 11 miles from London, a convenient place for the coaches to change their teams.  Chipping Barnet had long been prosperous.  It is a centre of great urban development.  Yet in spite of all these changes the centre of Chipping Barnet is not unduly changed.
Scottish army arrived at Barnet in 1651, militia called up but Cromwell victory at Worcester sorted it out

Barnet Hill
Levelled by Macadam, 1823. Causeway dates from 1820s to lessen the steep slope
Court House 1913
Queen Elizabeth’s Girls School. 1890 in Russell House and successive extensions.
Green Man, Stamford Regent stopped there. Drastically affected as the new road was driven through its yard; the inn which remains is a pale reflection of the size and importance of its great predecessor.  For 50 years intense with the Red Lion.  After the establishing of the mail coach they grew and prospered, considering themselves no longer mere hostelries but great posting establishments, each with the aim of horsing more coaches and chaises than its rival.  They differed in every way.  On the far side, hoped to secure the south bound traffic.  The post-boys affected distinctive blue jackets and became a Whig house.  The Green Man eventually became the larger of the two, keeping 26 pairs and 11 post-boys.  It was a severe blow when the new road virtually destroyed the Green Man leaving the Red Lion intact.
Red Lion, previously called the Antelope. South side of the road for the north bound traffic. The greatest of them.  For 50 years intense rivalry with the Green Man.  After the establishing of the mail coach they grew and prospered, considering themselves no longer mere hostelries but great posting establishments, each with the aim of providing horses for more coaches and chaises than its rival.  They differed in every way.  Provided yellow jackets and black hats for its 'boys'.  Recognized as a centre for Tory sympathisers.  Against the 18 pairs at the Red Lion and 8 post-boys.
Milestone
Court House.  1913.
Queen Elizabeth's Girls' School.  Established in Russell House on Bamet Hill in 1890.  Successive extensions and rebuilding by J. Ladds from 1890, and by J. W. Fisher 1924-7 classrooms, dining room, library,   Large plain    extensions of the 1960s.

Chipping Barnet
Means ‘burnt place’, earlier written ‘Baemet’, or  'a place cleared by burning'. On this prominent hilltop the forest lands of Enfield Chase were cleared to form the village, which in time was to have its chepe, or weekly market, receiving a charter for that purpose in the region of Henry II.  The full title of Chipping, or High Barnet, summarises its origins and position. It means ‘market’ which was granted by King John 1199, and set up by the Abbey of  St.Albans to whom the manor belonged.  Thus the centre of the settlement moved from East Barnet to here.  It was built on the site of a wood called Southaw which belonged to the Abbey. The name evolves through ‘Chepyng Barnet’ in 1321, ‘Chepinbarnet’ in 1347, that is 'the Barnet manor with a market'. It was also known as ‘Westbarnet’ 1449 to contrast with East Barnet, and from the 16th century as ‘High Barnet’, as in ‘High Bernet’ in 1575, and ‘Chipping Barnet alias High Barnet’ in 1628. in 1588 a charter was granted for a horse and cattle market here by Queen Elizabeth I. There was a horse fair first week in September, which became the most important sale centre for Welsh Drovers coming into London with cattle 

Church Passage
Hyde Institute, Now part of Barnet College. Built from a bequest of 1887; 1903-4.  a late work by T. G. Jackson.  Galleried reading room , now with inserted floor. f.1888 by Julia Hyde for public system. Bequest.

High Street
A number of small low buildings, some timber-framed in origin, still reflect the town's older history, although old fabric is well hidden and the scene fails to add up to anything consistently picturesque.
For 140 years, from 1826 until 1966, the north end of Barnet High Street marked the parting of the Great North and Holyhead roads.  With the completion of Telford's engineering works, Barnet itself became the junction of the two Great Roads.  In this century the Green Man junction was for long signposted: Al London; Al Hatfield; A6 St Albans.  Now that the by-pass, two miles to the west, has taken over the name and number of the Great North Road, Bamet merely marks the division of A1000 and A1081.
105-107, a former interwar Burton's, has the store's typical detail to the upper floor.
114-118, a four-bay, three-storey 18th house with a 19th shop front on its side.  
126 Salisbury
149 King George
17th militia HQ
58 Mitre Inn good etched glass where General Monk stayed when he led his army into London to welcome Charles II at the Restoration. Posting house whose successor is still near the church,
60 Old Bull community and arts centre. House with later shop front.
Crown And Anchor one of Truman Hanbury & Buxton'sfrontages
King George
Lloyds Bank, by T.M. Wilson, c. 1931; 
Moon Under Water
Post Office, near the little green by the church, 1903-4, 
Power Station. Built by NMEPDC 1900. Northmet 1906.
The Spires Shopping Centre, 1986-9 by Essex Goodman & Suggitt, starts on the between the twin turrets preserved from a Methodist church of 1891, and stretches back over a long narrow site to Stapylton Road.  a top lit arcade with shops on two levels, then shops around two planted open courtyards, ending with supermarket and car park fronting Stapylton Road
White Hart, General Monk stayed there

Leecroft Road
Thomas Watson cottage homes. 1914 for old and loyal employees of Messrs. Sutton carriers, One-storey cottages spaciously arranged on three sides of a large court. Central community building 

Meadway Gate
Cattle trough used as a planter
Cranmer School old school, used for meetings
Mission Church
St. Stephen

Moxon Street
A series of earlier 19th villas.

Mutton Lane
Our Lady of the Assumption 1950

Ravenscroft Park
Outside Grimsdyke House, stone block boundary stone of the turnpike trust, probably earliest. Park was Barnet Common and laid out as a recreation ground 1883.

Stapylton Road
Library. By Barnet Borough Architect's Department.  Octagonal public library with reference section on mezzanine floor above, the ground-floor spaces around the edge open to the roof, with well-lit corner sitting areas
Lodge to almshouses
Pillar box by A. Handyside & Co. Ltd.  V.R. cypher 1887 - c.1899

The Drive
Pillar box by A. Handyside & Co. Ltd. V.R. cypher 1887 - c.1899                      

Union Street
Laid out 1837
Leathersellers Almshouses, 1544, moved from the Bishopsgate 1837. Three ranges round a courtyard. chapel, 1866, rebuilt 1926. The wings of pale brick, originally single-storeyed, 1836-7 and 1851 were tactfully rebuilt in 1964-6 by Kenneth Peacock of the Louis de Soissons Partnership.  Lodge of 1861. Iron gates brought from St Helen's Place, Bishopsgate, in 1926.
Town Hall
RC chapel
St. Mary Immaculate & St. Gregory. RC 1974, built by Lanner Buildings after a design by Steel, Bretman & Partners.  Presbytery by Scott & Jakes.
Ravenscroft Lodge annexe 1976-8 by R. E. Barnes, fine alabaster busts of James Ravenscroft, dated 1670, and his wife Mary, dated 1672, attributed to Thomas Burman
Wood Street
Ravenscroft Almshouses, the Jesus Hospital Charity founded by James Ravenscroft, 1679, although only the central archway and gable, and the gate piers with carved stones 'JR' and '1679' from then.  Single row of one-storeyed dwellings, largely rebuilt in the c19.  For six poor women
Garrett's Almshouses, 1731, a very simple one-storey row of six cottages.  Much restored c. 1902 and modernised 1981.
Museum set back, 
29 Registry offices. The competition for new Urban District Offices was won in 1913 by H.A. Cheers.  
55 is a more substantial 18th house with 19th seven-bay stucco front, later a maternity hospital, converted in 1996 to flats, with extensions
Tudor Hall. Barnet College, The former Queen Elizabeth Grammar School is now the Tudor Hall of the college.  It was built c. 1577 and altered c19.  The hall was originally open to the roof.  The interior was remodelled in 1968.  Behind the hall, three phases of local authority architecture.  The buildings are grouped informally around a quadrangle.  
library of 1957; blocks of 1965 Hertfordshire County Council Architect's Department G. C. Fardell, linked by a glass bridge with red brick towers at either end.  They demonstrate the confidence with which the Herts CC could mix new with old buildings.  additions to the SE Barnet Borough Architect's Department: B. Bancroft, 1974-6.
Barnet pillar to the Battle of Barnet, erected 1790 by Jeremy Sambrook of North Mimms
Crown
Elizabeth Allen School. 1824 on the gable. 
Ewen Hall
James Garratt Almshouses. 1731 one storey six cottages modernised 1981
Marie Foster Home single-storey, , by Peter Barefoot & Partners, 1974.
St.John the Baptist. Originally Norman. Another restoration began as Chapel of Ease to East Barnet. 1420 maltster John Beauchamp enlarged it. 19th enlargement by Butterfield in the 1870s. Marks the centre of ancient Barn. A church has existed here for centuries but not only has the first vanished and the Norman building which replaced it, but the exterior of the church which John Beauchamp built about 1450.  What remains now is a drastic restoration, which incorporates Beauchamp's nave as an aisle of the newer church.  A 15th embattled doorway with original door, formerly in the wall of the old chancel.  
United Reformed Church. 1884, extended 1892.  
Ewen Hall, 1906 by W. Charles Waymouth.

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