Tuesday, 28 September 2010

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle - The Wrythe

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle
The Wandle continues to flow in a generally north westerly direction in two loops of which this is the westerly one.


Post to the north St.Helier
Post to the east Hackbridge
Post to the south Carshalton

Bullrush Court
Site of the rubbish destructor

Culvers Island
Where the river divides
Culvers. The estate was between Beddington Corner and Hackbridge, used as a very large bleaching ground by the Reynolds after they bought it in 1781. They were Quakers and the house was later owned by the banker Samuel Gurney, who married one of the Reynolds. He bred black swans there until 1836. The crash of the Gurney bank in 1866 meant that the estate in the area was sold piecemeal. The house was used as Culvers colony for Spanish refugees in the 1930s.

Culvers Avenue
Follows the line of the carriage drive to the house at Culvers. Built by the Reynolds family and called The Limes.
Culvers Mill. Site also called Carshalton Mill and later as Hackbridge Mill. The mill was built as a corn mill in the 1777 century and was taken over by Foster Reynolds, whose family ran it until 1824 and it later belonged to Gurney. .However it remained in use until 1902. The main mill was demolished in 1960 but the wheel pit remains plus some millstones.
Millstones in the grounds of flats at the junction of Millside.

Culvers Retreat
Millstones in the grass

Dale Park Avenue
Dale Park

Denmark Road
Victor Seymour Infant School
Council Offices

Fellowes Road
Depot now gone
Refuse destructor, now gone.

Green Wrythe Lane
1
2-36

Open space opposite 6-30
Salvation Army

Kynnerley Close
1-9

Muschamp Road
Playing Field on site of Laundry
Muschamp Primary School

Nightingale Lane
1-3 Listed 19th houses
Carshalton College of Further Education. Originally Carshalton Technical Institute opened in 1954

North Street
61-135
Carlton Towers

Rushey Meadow Lane
Rushey Meadow Primary School

West Street
117-121
120-138

William Street
2-6
14-18
69-71

Wrythe Green
Wrythe is thought to derive either from ’rye’ grown there or from the Anglo Saxon word for a small stream.
Stream – a spring rose in the area near the BP garage. It is now in a culvert and flows to join the Wandle at Hackbridge.

Wrythe Green Road
1-2 listed 19th houses used as shops, 2 has unusual window structures
1-6 Bedford Villas
Bedford Cottage
Litleferncote
1-2 Ivy Cottages
1-2 Waterloo Place
Foundry
Woodcote House.This might have been a toll house moved here. Diagonal weatherboarding and a semi-octagonal bay. built 1861-7.

Wrythe Lane
Cricketers pub. Gone. Housing on the site.
1-5 Kings Parade
1-5 Waterloo cottages
Gas works site with some holders still in place and original wall
Wrythe Recreation Ground. Underground air raid shelter with some above ground structures. Drinking fountain.

Monday, 27 September 2010

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle - Hackbridge

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle
The two branches of the Wandle from Waddon and from Carshalton meet and flow north west.


Post to the west The Wrythe
Post to the north Beddington Corner
Post to the east Beddington Park

Butter Hill
Butter Hill Bridge. Dates from 1787 but very much rebuilt.
Lower Mill. Up river of the bridge and on the east side. In 1700 this was a copper mill, converted to calico before 1770. In 1780 George Ansell converted it from a calico mill to paper. It was then occupied by Christopher Patch. ‘One of the best paper makers in the country’. The works included a Rag house. By 1788 it was also occupied by Collinson & Co., bleachers. Collinson experimented on rags from Patch’s paper mill adjacent, in Butter Hill using dephlogisticated marine acid and this produced high quality white paper. However Patch thought it was too expensive. He died in 1792 and his widow and son continued with it using Collinson’s method. In 1805 it was rebuilt and taken over by Christopher Augustus Ansell who continued to make paper there, until 1823 when it became a flock mill and operated as such until 1839.
Mill- tall brick flour mill on the Butter Hill side. Denyer’s Flour Mill
Mill cottages. A row of weather boarded one-storey cottages

Hackbridge Green
Surrey Iron Railway route came from the bridge and ran along the road at the edge of the green between the 18th cottages and the pub on the eastern side of the road.
Houses were built round The Green in the early 19th for workers for the Goad family. There are also two groups of 18th Cottages
Hackbridge House. The house was there before 1821 and was the home of the Goad family. It was sold in 1908 to become a hotel and then a hostel for army cadets while the grounds were covered by miscellaneous development. It was replaced by housing in 1970.

Hackbridge Road
The river divides at the bridge and joins up again 500 yards to the north, creating an island.Surrey Iron Railway’s Hackbridge route joined Hackbridge Road north half way between Elm Road and Link Road. It then follows it to Hack Bridge where it turned south. This was the end of the statutory section of the Hackbridge Branch and there was a depot here north of the bridge. The branch to Shepley Mills continued south along the Croydon branch of the river
Hackbridge –this is the name of the bridge carrying the road over the Wandle, The name is first recorded in 1235 and means that the bridge was at a hook shaped bit of land. It is an obvious place for a bridge because the river divides both is divided up and down stream. The current bridge is fourth on site built in 1983, the previous one dated from 1914. The medieval bridge was downstream of here and there was a later iron bridge by Butterley & Co. In cast iron segments.
Old Red Lion. Early 18th. Oldest building in the area, red brick with original casements.
Hackbridge Primary School, late 19th building.
B.Davidson, Cardboard factory 1887-1978.
Hackbridge Cable Co. engineering business and electrical cable makers. Hackbridge Electric Construction Co. Founded here in 1919.In 1923 the transformer section moved to Hersham leaving the cable company here to be taken over by GEC in 1967 to become AEI Cables Ltd. in 1968. Later became TT Group. Kelvin works Buildings now in use partly by Fabric warehouse
Monument Tools, founded 1931, make plumbing tools and equipment
Hackbridge Beaufort Kennels – opened in 1898 for Battersea Dogs Home by the Duke and Duchess of Portland because of a rabies outbreak. Closed and sold in 1934.
Elmwood House. Replaced by housing in the 1930s

Killburns Mill Close
Housing on the Site of 258 London Road. In the 1790s it was occupied by William Kilburn, one of the most prominent fabric designers of his period. Water for the will was got via a stream from the grounds of the Grange, where the grounds were used as bleaching fields. He died in 1818. Later Willsmer Engineering
Mill building 19th two-storey weather boarded mill. Formerly a cotton mill for a calico printing works which also ran as a flock mill.

London Road
Hackbridge Station. 1868. Between Carshalton and Mitcham Junction on Thameslink and Southern Trains.
Railway bridge. Built 1860 currently under reconstruction
282 Bridge House. Late 18th, Listed Grade II. Now a care home. Sunken garden with entrance to Wallington Bridge
270 Thew Arnott. The company began in 1864 for processing shellac. Current building dates from the mid-1980s following a fire.
268 Kwik Fit
Grange Restaurant, 1967 by the Borough of Sutton replacing The Grange, which was destroyed by fire in 1960. It is a replica of the house built by Smee’s son
Two blocks of flats placed at right angles, with a full glazed connecting link by Borough Engineer A. W. Poynor.
All Saints, 1931 by H. P. Burke-Downing. Rodney Hubbuck
Wallington Bridge, Early 19th, dated by a stone to 1809. Railings and bollards – the end one with a round stone on top. The bridge crosses the Wandle and also leats from ponds and weir and also a stream from the Grange.
Car Park, site of Wallington Bridge Mill. Thought to be the site of a ‘royal’ mill for corn at Domesday. It was a paper mill in 1771 and Mr Kilburn’s calico works in 1805, Converted to a flock mill in the 1830s it had also been used for corn, logwood grinding and the manufacture of horsehair seating. In the 1850s it became a paper mill by Edward Smith Manico and called the Royal Paper Mills until 1886 when it was producing white, blue and grey, royal hands and brown. It was taken over by Manico’s manager William Brown and in 1890 it was still producing 6 tons of paper a week but closed in 1893. It was derelict but was milling corn in 1914. It then and became the Helm chocolate factory. The buildings have been demolished.
Millstream from the pond to the mill now filled in.
Elm Grove pond at the corner of Butter Hill 'rustic' flint bridge from the early 19th
Lodge yellow brick.


Mill Lane
Railway bridge 1868
31 Lord Palmerston, two roomed pub
Ansell’s Mill. Slightly up river from the bridge, with buildings on the west side of the river. It was a madder mill built about 1740, replaced by the snuff mill in 1782. In 1918 it was converted to parchment manufacture, and this lasted up to 1950, was used by Vinyl Products. The snuff mill building remains at the corner with Mill Lane and is used by a print design company.
Vinyl Products in Ansell’s Mill, making Vinyl Chloride Monomer – a liquid from which PVC is made. Founded in 1939 by Jack Mayne, the company was heavily research based. Taken over by Reichhold Chemicals, and in the 1970s by Unilever. Later offices and laboratories, with a two-storey curtain-walled block with royal blue additions built in, 1964, and later additions of 1970 Norman Bailey, Samuels & Partners. Now gone.

Restmor Way
Surrey Iron Railway – the extension to Shepley Mills ran roughly on the line of this private road as far as the confluence of the Croydon and Carshalton Wandle where the mills stood
Felnex trading estateSutton Business Centre = built as centre for Zetters Pools
Hackbridge Mill. The Great Copper Mill. One mill was on the west bank of the Wandle where the two branches meet. The sites may be those of a fulling mill owned in the Middle Ages by St.Thomas’s Hospital. In the late 17th they were converted from dyewood milling to gunpowder milling and later owned by Josias Dewye. He had bought them from a consortium headed by William Mollins who had lost their government contract for poor quality. In 1665 Dewye was the largest supplier of gunpowder to the Ordnance. By the mid 18th the mills were used by Benjamin Steele for rolling copper and later owned by the Company of Copper Mines. George Shepley leased them for leather mills in 1773 and bought it outright in 1789 using it for dressing skins. It was burnt down in 1826 and replaced with a mill astride the two rivers continuing as a leather works through various owners. It was still there in the 1980s used by the Gilbert Group of engineers.
Hackbridge Mill. The upper of two mills on the east bank of the Croydon Wandle north of the railway bridge. The mill sites may be those of a fulling mill owned in the Middle Ages by St.Thomas’s Hospital. In the late 17th they were used for gunpowder milling and owned by Josias Dewye. By the mid 18th used for grinding dyewoods. George Shepley leased them for leather mills in 1773 usingv it for dressing skins. Shepley then converted it to an oil mill according to a plan by Smeaton with an experimental low breast wheel and the Surrey Iron Railway came here. Shepley died in 1810 and the works was leased to Daniel Watney who continued with leather and used the railway links. In the 1860s to 1910 it was used as a snuff mill by the Lamberts. Later the use of water power ended and it was used for calico. It was burnt down after the Second World War.
Hackbridge Mill. The Lesser Copper Mill. This was another lower mill on the east bank of the Croydon Wandle north of the railway bridge. The mill sites may be those of a fulling mill owned in the Middle Ages by St.Thomas’s Hospital. In the late 17th they were used for gunpowder milling and owned by Josias Dewye. By the mid 18th used by Benjamin Steele for rolling copper and later owned by the Company of Copper Mines. George Shepley leased them for leather mills in 1773. This mill appears to have been demolished around 1789.
Hackbridge mills ancillary buildings there in 1789 – lumber house, copper melt house, cottages, etc.

River Gardens
Site of the confluence of the two branches of the Wandle. This includes a weir and site of Hackbridge Mills.
Wilderness Island. This is the area between the two branches of the Wandle – reed beds and a nature reserve. Part of it was once an orchard and the whole has been licenced to the London Wildlife Trust since the mid 1980s.
Hackbridge Mill. River gardens. Hackbridge mill. One of four mills was on the Carshalton Wandle in this area. The mill sites may be those of a fulling mill owned in the Middle Ages by St.Thomas’s Hospital. In the late 17th they were used for gunpowder milling and owned by Josias Dewye. By the mid 18th used by Benjamin Steele for rolling copper and later owned by the Company of Copper Mines. Demolished by 1789 and some of it was rebuilt.

Strawberry Lane
Baptist Church
Church hall is an 18th house called Strawberry Lodge. Five windows wide, early c 18 doorway with plain shell hood, later rendering, c19 extension. The Lodge was built for gunpowder millers Josiah Dewye.

The Grange
The Grange was outside the area of the Beddington estate deer park. It was bought by Alfred Smee in the 1860s who created a very elaborate garden which he described in a book called My Garden. Smee was a surgeon to the Bank of England who used electricity for therapeutic purposes. The garden has been altered but the stone bridge by the lake, a rockery, and trees date back to him,
Alfred Smee, His son built a house on the site which was burnt down in 1960 and eventually replaced by the present building. In 1935 the house and grounds had been acquired by the Borough of Beddington & Wallington and turned into a public park.
The Grange Lake was originally a mill pond for the mill which stood at the east end of the lake near London Road. The pond was given by Sir William Mallinson to the public in the 1930's.

Wandle Road
Marconi air radio works

Monday, 20 September 2010

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle - Carshalton

Thames tributaries - River Wandle
Springs and streams feed into the Wandle from this area.
TQ 27874 64467

The interesting small town of Carshalton with its ponds, pubs, theatres, parks and an amazing collection of follies and grottos. Pity about the traffic


Post to the north The Wrythe


Beynon Road
Beynon was the name of a local family

Camden Road
Camden Junior School

Carshalton
Spring line village which seems to have been conserved because the ponds held up the traffic. The name means ‘farmstead by a river where watercress grows’. This probably refers to the Wandle, which feeds the town ponds. Watercress beds are mentioned as early as the 13th.

Carshalton Park Road
4 Wood n’Pencil Design

Carshalton Road
Railway Bridge
185 timber house. Listed
Baths. in other use
Highfield Hall, used as a dance studio
Windsor Castle pub

Colston Avenue
War Memorial Sports Ground. Carshalton Football Club. They have been there since 1920 when the ground, previously Shorts Farm, was dedicated to club members killed in the Great War. A grandstand came from Epsom racecourse in 1928 but blew down in the 1960s.

High Street
2 The Greyhound. Part early 19th but probably a rebuilt earlier
structure but a projection is 18th, painted weatherboarding. Mentioned as a local pub in 1707.
6 The Woodman. This was once a butcher’s shop and is partly 15th.
12 Coach and Horses. Green tiled interior and period details. Built 1848 and once part of a mill complex. A stream coming from the Hogpit is said to flow through the cellar.
Road bridge across the ponds with retaining walls and railings. The first bridge and embankment was built in 1825-28. Listed Grade II
Bridge where the river leaves the ponds is in white stone and attributed to Giacomo Leoni in the 18th. It has on it a carved griffin, which is the symbol of the local Scawen family.
Cascade, near the bridge. This has been redesigned in the 1960s but is associated with water management for the Upper Mill.
All Saints Church. The church faces the ponds in a raised position. It was partly rebuilt by the Blomfields in 1893 but at the back the medieval church still stands with the original 13th nave, now the aisle. The 13th tower has a spike, added in the 19th to replace a cupola. In 1723 a second aisle was added with new windows and the old chancel, is now a Lady Chapel. There is a late medieval kingpost roof. Bodley's reredos and screen date from 1900 and were painted by Sir Ninian Comper in 1931-2 who also painted the 18th reredos in the Lady Chapel, added to The Georgian pulpit and organ-case. Table-tomb of Nicholas Gaynesford, 1498, 'Esquyer for the body' to Edward IV and Henry VII, and his wife, 'gentlewoman' to their queens. Memorial to Sir William Scawen, 1722, a governor of the Bank of England and to Sir John Fellowes of Carshalton House. Brasses of a priest, 1493, a knight, 1497, Thomas Ellingbridge and wife, 1497, and others,
Anne Boleyn's Well, west of the church, and a statue through a tradition that the queen's horse stumbled in a spring here when she was riding with Henry VIII from Nonsuch – which was not built until after her execution. Also Anne Boleyn's house is supposed to have stood here. Statue to Anne Boleyn given by the architect. It may be a corruption of Our Lady of Boulogne – a Count of Boulogne was Lord of the Manor here in the 12th. This could also have been a 'holy well', dedicated to St Anne. In the Kingston Zodiac the site is on the Virgin's feet.
Timber framed cottage in the churchyard.
Fire engine house at the west end

Honeywood Walk
The Gate House. Late 19th Small irregular building
The Lodge. 1866. Used by social services
Honeywood. Was previously called Wandle Cottage and is now the London Borough of Sutton’s Heritage Centre. The house itself is late 18th built round the core of an earlier cottage, possibly early 17th, with chalk walling extending to the roof. There were alterations after 1883 when an adjacent house was demolished. There is 1903 billiard room, with original Edwardian fittings, an herb garden, a chalk block well, and a 19th belfry. The museum has a reconstructed section of the Surrey Iron Railway. A watercourse runs beneath the house.
Culverts run under Honeywood - so was it originally a mill? Or a perhaps a keeper's cottage, or a bath house? The water comes from springs in Margaret’s Pool. If there is no water from there it is pumped into the area from the Wandle. The culvert itself is listed.
War Memorial. Portland stone First World War Memorial, by E. Bouchier 1921, and Second World War II, added later.

Mill Lane
31 Lord Palmerston
Stone Court. This was the medieval manor house on the corner of North Street, demolished and replaced by Grove House in the early 19th. The outbuildings are now used as council offices.

North Street
Begins as a causeway across the two ponds and until the 1820s vehicles had to ford them
4 The Sun. Built as a railway hotel
21 North Lodge 16th. With a paved cart way entrance, stables etc.
46 Holy Cross. Catholic church 1933 by W. C. Mangan
Beechwood Court. Large block of 1930s flats.

Orchard Hill
Is it a remnant of an old highway?
1, 2, 5a Listed

Park Hill
19 Built by a pupil of Philip Webb in 1868 for the novelist W. H. White - Mark Rutherford. Brick, with tile-hanging. At the back an 1896 billiard room, faced with Lascelles patent concrete panels. Blue Plaque installed 1979.
11 Other houses in a similar style followed, built for White's brother-in-law

Pound Street
Pound – is an enclosure for stray animals.
Until the 19th the road along the ponds had to be forded by vehicles going through the water and the brick causeway was built in the 1820s.
Carshalton Ponds are the headwaters of the Wandle and there was great alarm when they began to dry up in the 1970s. Therefore 1972 concrete lining and more water. West pond railings etc., at risk. The ponds probably date from the early 18th when water flowing to the Upper Mill was dammed.
Margaret’s Pool, This is in the area on the corner with West Street. Ruskin paid to have the pool refurbished in the 1870s for his mother and brought stone from Coniston for the edgings. It was extended westwards in 1920. There is a stone with a poem explaining about Ruskin

Wall of Carshalton House, red brick and Listed
Chapel of St.Philomena’s Convent. Designed 1899- 1900 by E. Ingress Bell. Brick with stone and flint. Statue of the virgin in a niche

Rochester Road
Site of mansion owned by Samuel Long in the 18th, and subsequently of a cottage hospital.

Shorts Road
Wall of Carshalton House, red brick and Listed.
24 Carshalton House. Convent of the Daughters of the Cross. A large mansion in its own grounds at the end of the village, hidden behind high walls, and adjoining extensive school buildings. Some flint and chalk walling remains inside of the Manor House or Old Farm which preceded it before 1696. The current house was built in the early 18th by Edward Carleton, a tobacco merchant bankrupted in 1713. It was sold in 1714 to Dr Radcliffe and in 1716 to Sir John Fellowes of the South Sea Company, who in 1720 was also bankrupt. later owners were, from Sir Philip Yorke, later Lord Chancellor and first Earl of Hardwicke, who let it to his son-in-law Admiral Lord Anson; George Amyand, a Hamburg merchant; and the Hon. Thomas Walpole. It is a large solid block of yellow and red brick. Wrought-iron rails flank the steps up to doorways. It has been a convent since 1893 and now St.Philomena's RC School for Girls.
Grounds laid out by Sir John Fellowes, who employed Charles Bridgeman and Joseph Carpenter. The layout is informal and picturesque. London Wildlife Trust have restored the pond. The remains of a wilderness survive as boundary plantings
Lake which is often dry. It was serpentine and replaced an earlier canal. There was a sham bridge dating from the late 18th.
Grotto or Hermitage by the lake. The chambers and passages blocked up behind a stone facade of a chalk-and-brick structure from around 1750.
Water House. This rises beyond the lake - a tower like those of Vanbrugh. Probably built for Fellowes in 1719-20 by Richard Cole, a waterworks engineer, and Henry Joynes Comptroller of Works at Blenheim under Vanbrugh in order to manage the water supply to the gardens and the house. It is red and yellow brick with the tower at the centre. The ground floor has a saloon, a bathroom, a dining room - with a marble bath with a sunken basin and blue and white Delft wall tiles. The Pump Chamber has restored remains of a water wheel. The Robing Room has a restored window, kitchen area and toilet. A long room was used an ‘Orangery or Greenhouse’. In the tower was a pumping engine to lift the water from the lake to a cistern, which supplied the house of which remnants survive. There is a lead reservoir, which provides private water for the house and stables.
Gate piers at the main entrance with crowned lions'-heads from the Fellowe’s arms
Driveway - Saxon bones were found here, so there was a battleground nearby
Secret Passage said to go from Woodcote Hall
St.Mary’s RC Junior School

Swan Yard
This was an area of squalid tenements with buildings which make a negative impact on the area

West Street Lane
2-16
7-11
25 West Lodge. 18th, weather- boarded cottage

West Street
2-1700 Waterhouse Cottage
3 Sutton Music Centre
4-12 all or partly weatherboarded, of varied shape and size, of the early 18th onwards, listed
7, 11-15
17 Racehorse Pub.
19 Nelson House
20-24 a long rendered range, perhaps basically 17th
42, 18th altered, with a 19th shop canopy,
47 Railway Tavern
48 The Hope, pub bought up by customers following threats of closure
70 18th
80 Rose Cottage. Near the railway bridge, with an early 19th front on an older house. Door and surround added later.
Carshalton High School for Girls
Carshalton Station. Opened 1st October 1868 and Built by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway. It lies between Sutton and Hackbridge on Thameslink and Southern Trains. There was no station in Carshalton at first because of objections from the Carshalton Park Estate. When it was built there was no goods facility.
Colston Court
Old people's housing in a close behind. Built by London Borough of Sutton, 1979-80.
Recreation Ground
Wall of Carshalton House, red brick and listed.


Sources
All Saints Church. Web site
Blue Plaque guide
Carshalton Football Club. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London,
Coach and Horses. Web site
Holy Cross. Web site
Kingston Zodiac
London Borough of Sutton. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry.  Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,  
Smythe. Citywildspace,
Stewart. History of Croydon
St. Philomena's School. Web site
Sutton Heritage, leaflet
The Hope. Web site
Wandle Trail. Leaflet
War memorials. Web site
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies,

Thursday, 16 September 2010

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle - Beddington Park

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle
The Wandle continues to flow in a generally westward direction
TQ 29299 65405

The majority of this square is taken up with Beddington Park - with a great deal to see in it. The Wandle flows through the park and here it is an ornamental feature - but the mills are not far away.

Post to the east Beddington
Post to the west Hackbridge

Beddington
Beddington is an old spring line village on the Thanet sands. In 900 Edward the Elder gave it to the Bishop of Winchester. Bishop (St.) Ethelwold died there. There are Roman burials in the park. In 1859 the Carew estate broken up to allow building development.

Beddington Park
Beddington Park is marked on the 1819 ordnance map but it was recorded as ‘Ye Parks’ in 1579. It is a rich archaeological sites with evidence of settlements dating from the late Bronze Age. It features in the Domesday Book. The Park was part of the Deer Park attached to Tudor Carew Manor and originally the park covered the area most Mitcham Common, Beddington Lane, Croydon Road and London Road. There is a legend that Queen Elizabeth kicked a stone and the spring started which became the Wandle. On the Kingston Zodiac is forms part of the Virgin. The Wandle flows through the park and there is a wide variety of trees. It was described by Daniel Defoe and William Kent. Sir Francis Carew’s gardens were famous in the 17th and included waterworks and orangery. By the late 18th the northern part of the park was being farmed and the remaining deer park was acquired by Canon Bridges, the local vicar in 1859 when the Carews had to sell to pay gambling debts. His planting scheme remains. It was taken over by the local authorities 1904-1927 and used as allotments in the Second World War. It is now public.
Archery Ground. There are considerable sports facilities in the park – but archery is not featured despite an apparently dedicated area on maps. Cricket Ground
Canal - In the early 18th a long canal-like lake was created in front of the manor. Filled in under Canon Bridges in the 1850s. A hollow between the avenue of trees marks the site
Tudor garden and grotto believed to have been created by Sir Francis Carew in the 16th.
Avenue. Leading to Carew Manor which was lined with trees in the 18th. Changed under Canon Bridges
Site of a Roman Villa and Bath House on the north side of the park. A Roman stone coffin was found here in 1930s.
Saxon cemetery from 5th was discovered in the 19th
Secret Tunnels. These could be entered through a manhole at the back of the School, There are 18th accounts of a moat and drawbridge and in 1979 workmen uncovered a conduit around two sides of the building. Water wells up in the floor and exits through an arch. At the far end is a small 'beach' and there is a wall built across the end. The exit of the water is into the Wandle bank some distance away.
Canon Bridges' Bridge. This has ornamental terracotta, plus brick and Portland stone. Canon Bridges' monogram can be seen on the keystones. Listed
Stone and brick listed bridge
Pond, kidney-shaped pond in the north of the park which was part of Bridges' planting scheme,
Flock mill which stood on the corner of the lake. The main lake in the south west of the park was originally a mill pond.

Church Lane
Church Paddock
The Warren
Boundary walls. Listed.

Church Road
Beddington Hall. This belonged to the Carew family until the mid 18th. Sir Nicholas had acquired it in 1349 and it was rebuilt in 1599 by Sir Francis Carew who entertained Elizabeth I here for three days. Part of the Tudor mansion survives, including the 15th hall, although there were many subsequent rebuildings. A hall, which is probably 15th, remains between two later wings. Its windows are 19th replacements of Georgian ones. It has a hammer beam and arch-braced roof with tracery and bosses with Tudor roses. There is also a large plaster trophy of arms. There are also brick and stone extensive cellars but little else is known of the Tudor house. The moat and drawbridge were repaired in the Civil War and Evelyn said the house was decaying, but 'a noble old structure, capacious ‘. It was rebuilt in 1702-14 on a half-H plan and altered again in 1818 by Daniel Alexander. In 1865 it was drastically rebuilt by Joseph Clarke for the Lambeth Female Orphan Asylum. The projecting wings must be on the same site as in the 18th but they are now linked by a lower corridor. Listed.
Carew Manor School. The manor house was altered in 1866 to take the Royal Female Orphanage from Lambeth. Thus subsequently moved to High Wycombe. It currently houses a school for children with special needs, and some council offices.
Entrance gates and wrought iron screen. Listed but 20th facsimiles.
Garden walls. Listed.
Dovecote. This is a brick octagonal building from 1715- 1720 to replace an earlier building. It has 1,360 nesting boxes, for pigeons or doves. Their squabs provided meat for the manor house table or, because of its very large size, it may have been commercial. Listed.
Orangery. Sir Francis Carew is said to have raised the first oranges in England here. Oranges preserved in winter by a temporary wooden shed. The trees were destroyed by a severe frost in the winter of 1739-40 and the building was destroyed in the early 19th. All that remains are walls - One is nearly 200 ft long, with blank arcading divided into pairs by pilasters which may date from 1707-12. It is in English bond and may be older. It can be seen with its heating ducts from the hall windows. Listed.
Boundary walls. Listed.
St Mary’s Church. This stands next to the manor house. A flint and stone church, it was built in 1387 through a legacy of Sir Nicholas Carew and the tower, porch, and chancel are from then. The Carew chapel was added in the mid 15th. There is a late-Norman square font of Purbeck marble, a pulpit of 1611 with linen fold panels and arabesque decoration. A window by Clayton and Bell was given by Canon Bridges, along with as the Organ Gallery by Morris & Co. Bridges also commissioned Joseph Clark to build the vestries and also rebuild the nave roof, chancel arch, chancel roof, and decoration in 1867. Monuments include brasses to Thomas Greenhill 1634 and to Nicholas Carew and his wife of 1432. There is a table-tomb to Sir Richard Carew, governor of Calais, and his wife 1520 and an alabaster monument to Sir ‘Francis Carew 1611. He was a friend of Sir Walter Raleigh who it has also been said is buried here.
Lamp standard in the churchyard. Listed
Lychgate. 1868 by Joseph Clarke, Listed.
Churchyard Walls. These are of red brick where they adjoin the Manor House and are 17th or earlier. Listed
Masonry fragments from 13th and14th. Listed
Beddington Park Cottages a much-altered group of outbuildings of the late c16-early c19. Listed walls.
East Lodge. Built for Rev. Bridges in 1877, an elaborately arts and crafts influenced half-timbered building by Joseph Clarke. Listed

Croydon Road
Housing development began along Croydon Road in 1866, after the land was sold to Joseph Borsley.

Guy Road.
Was once called Chatt’s Hill
Wandle – the main stream of the Wandle and the mill stream from Beddington Mill join slightly to the north of Guy Road. There is a weir at the junction and there was once a pond here. Further west another leat leaves the main river.
Brandries Cottage. With Listed walls and kitchen garden. The cottage has a date plaque on it of 1650 and might pre-date the big house. In the 19th it was described as a Coachman’s or Gardener’s Cottage
6a in the front garden there was once a well and pump

Derry Road
Beddington Park Primary School

Streeter's Lane
Sherwood Park School

The Brandries
Originally known as Brandries Gardens, houses built in the early 1930s by J.W.Hunt.
Camden House, This was once Brandries Hill House. Probably early 18th with a late 18th rendered front; five bays. The front was probably done for Francis Baring, who bought the house in 1790 and spent £2,400 on it. Richard Jupp (Surveyor to the East India Company, of which Baring was a director) has been suggested as architect. Pump and well in the basement. There was an ice house in the grounds. Garden walls and gate. Listed. The house had various occupants through the 19th and early 20th, latterly Wallis the Beddington mill owner and David Clack of Beddington Brickworks. It was renamed Camden house and converted into flats in 1937 and later used for refugees from the Spanish Civil War.
Rear garden walls, cottage and former kitchen, listed
Camden Cottage. Built as a garage during the occupancy of David Clack in Brandries Hill House. He was a brick maker and used his own brand white bricks.

Whelan Way
A diversion off the Wandle lies to the north of this close and a pond was laid out here in 1972 for flood relief. This area was once watercress beds.

Sources
Beddington Park. Web site
Chelsea Speleological Society. Newsletter
Kingston Zodiac, 
Lewisham History Journal

London Archaeologist
London Borough of Sutton. Web site
Osborne. Defending London
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry, Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Smyth. Citywildspace
Sutton Heritage leaflet
Wandle Industrial Museum.  The Wandle at Work
Wandle trail,

Wednesday, 15 September 2010

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle - Beddington

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle
The Wandle flows westwards


The Wandle emerges here and rapidly becomes a substantial stream between Wandle Park and its earliest appearance west of Beddington Mill. The area is bisected north:south by the traffic choked A23 with trading estates and big shed stores on either side. This was a busy industrial area with mills along the Wandle supplemented from the 1930s with units on what had been Waddon Marsh.

Post to the east West Croydon
Post to the west Beddington Park
Post to the north Ampere Way Waddon

Aldwick Road
Iron and Bronze Age finds here

Beddington Lane
Beddington Village Hall. Listed. A plaque says it was in memory of Magdalena Trollope in 1901.The site had originally been an ornamental garden and was bought and passed to the Rochester Diocese. There was local fund raising for the building which has been in use ever since and once included a library.
1-32 7-117 listed
Park and ornamental gardens between the Wandle and the Village Hall.
Park Farm
Harvest Home. Pub dates from 1895 but there was a pub on site in 1860. It includes a skittle alley.

Blandford Close.
Listed houses

Bridges Lane
Named after Henry Bridges and his son who was the local vicar. Lived here in Beddington House and did a lot of good works.
7-17, 6. Listed
Wandle Court. Listed flats. Wandle Court had been the home of Tritton family who owned the Ram Brewery in Wandsworth and promoted Surrey Iron Railway. The original house was demolished in 1930
1, 2, 3 Mount Pleasant, Listed. Supposed to have been built in 1884 for mill workers. The river runs in front of them and there are bridges over to them.

Bridle Path
Sluice over which water pours from the southern pond at 1.6 million gallons a day. A mill stream diverges to the south of the main river to meet again on west side of Hilliers Lane.
1-8 Riverside Mews. Listed.
1-31 2-32. Listed
Hereford House. Listed. Light industrial premises at the rear of the mill buildings

Commerce Way
Part of 1930s trading estate
Phillips Electronics factory. Philips are a Dutch multinational specialising in electrical and electronics devices who opened a factory designed by Wallis Gilbert here in 1956. Made colour TVs.

Hilliers Lane
Where the river crosses here was once a ford.
Old Ford House. Listed flats

Kingston Close
Listed buildings

Mill Lane
Waddon ponds. Opened as a park in 20th. There were once two ponds here said to be a source of the Wandle – although actually it is the just the first place where is surfaces and can be seen. They were the manorial millponds and extensive areas of water belonging to Waddon Court but only this, the southern pond remains. The Wandle has been damned to form a lake but in the 19th this was changed and the river diverted north and east, leaving land used for watercress culture. The area was owned partly by the owners of Waddon Lodge, and by Waddon Court and some of this was bought by Croydon Corporation in 1928.
The second pond was filled in when the river was culverted in 1964.
Waddon Court House stood at the southern end of the ponds
Waddon Mills. Site of the corn mill, which stood here until 1928. In 1789 it was redesigned by John Smeaton. In the 19th had four pairs of stone driven by three overshot wheels; there was eventually a railway connection to it which ran north to the Croydon/Wimbledon Line.
Modern factory buildings built over the north pond filled in 1964.
The Sutton/Croydon boundary is at the western end of Mill Lane. This boundary was once known as Mere Bank - a Saxon term for boundary.

Progress Way
Part of 1930s trading estate
16 Fleetline Accident Services
London Transport Food Production Centre. Bought by LT in 1948 and became Croydon Food Production Centre in 1950. Made vast quantities of stuff – meat, sausages, veg, etc as well as home sales and their own brands, like Griffin. They made wedding cakes etc.as special orders. It was an emergency feeding centre for disasters. The work later went to outside contractors.

Purley Way A23
Tunnel between the gas works and a print works on the other side of the road
Siding to Croydon Gas Works in 1920 which went both east and west of the line.

Richmond Green
Going to Brandy Bottle Hill. This area was watercress beds into the early 20th. It is now sheltered housing built in the early 1950s.
13 the river divides at this point and the millstream diverges to go under Beddington Mill.
1-23. Listed Petersham Terrace
23-50 listed

Richmond Road
1-71 2-52 listed

Trojan Way
Part of 1930s trading estate
Trojan Cars. The company moved here from Clapham in the early 1920s to produce cars but later moved to Kingston in a deal with Leyland. Trojan returned to Croydon in the 1930s where they made cars and vans, and then bombing accessories in the Second World War. Later they made scooters, bubble cars and racing cars.
PC World. First branch opened here in 1991.

Waddon
Means ‘Woad Hill or ‘Woden’.

Wandle Court Gardens
1-8 Wandle Lodge listed

Wandle Road
Mount Pleasant cottages
Beddington Mill. There is a tall Victorian mill building still on site and other associated workshops to the rear. This is a mill site dating back to Domesday, when two mills are listed. Earliest records describe a corn mill but after 1780 it was Lambert's snuff mill, although this eventually moved to Hackbridge. In 1878 it reverted to corn milling. The current building dates from 1891 for J. & H.T.Wallis as a flourmill and bakery until 1950. The water wheels were replaced by a Little Giant double turbine and a gas engine. It may be that another building on site is the remains of the snuff mill
Mill House. 18th but refaced and bay windows added


Sources
Chelsea Speleological Society. Newsletter
Field. London Place Names
GLIAS Newsletter
Grace's Guide. Web site
London Borough of Croydon. Web site
London Archaeologist
Pevsner and Cherry. Surrey
Stewart, Croydon History
Wandle Trail

Tuesday, 14 September 2010

Thames Tributaries - the River Wandle - West Croydon

Thames Tributaries - the River Wandle
The Wandle flows westwards through this area, largely in culverts, and picking up tributaries



Post to the east Waddon
Post to the east Croydon

Alton Road
Waddon Caves. This is an odd group of underground structures in a tunnel which appears to go towards the stream in the park. They were discovered in 1902 under the lawn of what was then Waddon House. They consist of three chambers cut into the sand and shaped like beehives. A fourth cave was found in 1953 following heavy rain. They contain what could be scratched drawings from the Middle Ages. They are thought to be Neolithic in origin and like others at Croham Hurst.

Bog Island
The area around Pump Pail and Salem Place was sometimes called Flag Mead. It was often flooded with intermittent Bourne water. The Bourne ran right round the area. A mill in the area was owned by a Mr. Harris who removed a wash mill in the area. A mill dam was removed by the Board of Health and they wanted to build a culvert from there to Wandle Park. The course of the stream through the area could once be traced by willow trees.


Booth Road
Slip road alongside Roman Way named for General Booth, founder of the Salvation Army.
Salvation Army Citadel in red brick. Built in 1900.

Church Street
The Saxon village of Croydon is probably under the floor of the parish church floor and the Old Palace. Church Street was part of Tramway Road
124 Rose and Crown pub with a weather boarded back,
St. John the Baptist. Founded pre-950, and rebuilt in the 15th. It was dedicated to John the Baptist, the saint of the wilderness and may describe what the area was like when it was founded? The old church was burnt down in 1867 during a snowstorm, leaving only the tower. It was rebuilt by G. G. Scott in 1870 but the porch and tower are medieval. The old church, built on the grandest scale, was at the expense of Archbishops of Canterbury six of whom are buried here. It is flint with stone dressings and many fragments remain of the old church –a late 15th tomb and two 14th corbels. There are lavish furnishings and decoration including a wall painting, of the Feeding of the Five Thousand and screens of the 1890s, given, by the Eldridge family. The tower screen is a First World War Memorial, by J. Oldrid Scott. Monuments: Brasses to Gabriel Silvester 1512; to William Heron 1562 and wife. Hugh Warham of Haling Manor, a brother of the Archbishop, c. 1536-8 with a Tomb-chest of Archbishop Whitgift 1604 and one to Archbishop Sheldon 1677 realistic hour-glasses, bones and skulls.
Churchyard The Wandle originally began in the area of the church. The Bourne flowed here from Bog Island and then moved westward to meet the Scarbrook – and from thence was the Wandle.
Cattle Trough - granite Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association trough.
Gothic Villas. flint walled,timber framed buildings on the site of the Palace stables.

Coldharbour Lane
Became Purley Way

Cornwall Road
The road is directly on the route of the Surrey Iron Railway and this continues down the footpath alongside council depot.
Oil factory here in 1845.
Houses on the edge of the park are on the site of where Croydon Local Board of Health built a sewage works nearby the river Wandle. It was later replaced it with a Slaughter House. Housing built in the 1980s following site clearance.
Croydon Scout HQ and Scout hut

Cranmer Road
Named for the Archbishop

Drury Crescent
New road through the old gas works site, full of warehouse shops.
Purley Way Centre

Duppas Hill Lane
A Bridge crossed over the Bourne between here and Pump Pail with brick arches.Site of Croydon Workhouse Infirmary built in 1867.

Factory Lane
Surrey Iron Railway Route –the line went down what is now Factory Lane from Waddon New Road.
This was the site of a bleaching ground, in the early 29th owned by, Loin and Co. This was probably the factory after which road is called
Banbury Ironworks. Smith’s house of 1896
Croydon A Power Station. The Station was a borough initiative dating from 1896 with numerous additions. Parts of the generator hall survived on the east side of Factory Lane, and the transformers, switches and control room on the west. It was on the east side of the railway line and connected to the railway from the mid-1920s, with its own internal electric railway system. Cooling towers
Croydon Gas Works. Site of Brimstone Farm where a new gas works was built in 1860 by the Croydon Gas Co. The majority of the complex was on the west side of the railway and there were two gasholders. Co-partnership scheme from 1908. Closed in the early 1970s.
Gas Works sidings. Shunted by the gas company's own locomotives, which were painted in green.
GasholderReliance Iron Works
East Surrey Iron Works. The name can be found on street furniture around the area
Vine Cottage
School
ICI Plastics and Vinyl Factory

Harrisons’s Rise
The Rise is made up of an isolated section of Blackheath beds.
Waddon Cottage

Howley Road
Named for Archbishop Howley and who provided a water supply to the village of Addington.

Lower Church Road
The Surrey Iron Railway route went along Lower Church Street from its beginning to Waddon New Road. It intercepted with the canal and the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Tramway in this area.
Depot for the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Tramway with a weighbridge and toll house.

Old Town
When the Bourne rose Old Town was flooded and people had to get to their houses over planks. Site for the house of the Croham Manor.
92 Fire Station, 1960-1 by Riches & Biythin. Partly three and four-storied it includes two maisonettes. Sited here in 1938 to provide cover for the airport.
Duppas House
Old Town House
143 Running Horse. Coaching house and pub now gone. Bourne ran under the west wall of the pub – where windows were supported on posts. There was a bridge over the stream by the front door. Another bridge crossed to the skittle ground.

Pitlake Road
This is now partly Roman Way but in 1895 the northern section was Handcroft Road. Pitlake means a stream in a hollow
Pitlake depot – part of the barracks site.

Purley Way
Was previously known as Waddon Marsh Lane. It is Croydon’s 1924 by-pass which was the first use in the UK to use sodium street lighting in 1932. It was previously an area of brick fields and bleaching grounds,

Railway Lines
Rail line – West Croydon – Waddon Marsh- the Surrey Iron Railway is followed by the line of the railway from Mitcham but immediately south of Waddon Marsh the line leaves the route of the Iron Railway, and skirts Wandle Park. There was once a junction here since removed. This became The Wimbledon & Croydon Railway which was opened in 1855 by George Parker Bidder who ran it for 8 months after which it was leased by LBSER. It was electrified in 1930 when the council estate of Waddon Marsh was built. It closed in 1997 and the line replaced by the Tram link.
Siding to the Power Station built in 1925, which they worked with their own locomotives.
Sidings for Croydon B power station from 1948. This was a large complex of sidings with their own shunting locomotives

Rectory Grove
Victorian villas.
11-21 flint houses
Harris mill. Watermill on the Wandle - but the site is partly under the motorway. The mill dam held back water in Old Town.
Cidu Engineering

Reeves Corner
Was Ellis Davis Place. This area had horse slaughterhouses, bone-boiling establishments, and a solid sewage filtering establishment,
The Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Tramway came through here and went as far as Church Street.
Surrey Iron Railway. The Railway had its terminus here which was roughly triangular on a site now covered by the bridge, and extending to the corner. It included a timber yard, a house, a stable and coal sheds. The route of the railway began at the junction of Cairo New Road, Reeves Corner and Jubilee Bridge and then on to Lower Church Street.
Bath Cottage. Where the bath was
Reeves Corner Tram Stop. 1998. Between Centrale and Wandle Park on Croydon Tramlink

Ruskin Road
John Ruskin, after who this is named, was a frequent visitor to Croydon since his aunt was landlady of a local pub.

Tamworth Road
The road was laid down in 1845 on the line of a short iron railway serving the Croydon canal basin and the Croydon, Mersham and Godstone Tramway. The railway had been built shortly after 1801. The trucks were pulled by mules with an incline at the canal basin. It was bought up and closed by the London and Croydon Railway.
The area around the road was bought by the London and Croydon Railway in the 1840s and sold for development.
On the line of the Surrey Iron Railway.
37 Strict Baptist Church. Built 1866 with a classical facade.
52 Eagle pub. Inn which served coaches between London and Brighton.
62 Tamworth Arms. Detached pub, a 19th building with a tiled exterior and stepped doorways
Buildings of the John Ruskin Grammar School, in other use.

Theobald Road
Theobald was Archbishop in 1139
Stubbs Mead Depot. On the site of East Surrey Iron Foundry. Disinfecting station of 1913 replaced. Dust destructor, Recycling centre

Vicarage Road
The Paragon Works. Owned by Wenham & Waters Limited who were sanitary, heating, electrical engineers, and iron and brass founders here 1881- 1911. William Philipps Wenham traded in 1856 in Church Street and from 1883 at North End and then Oxford Street in central London. Paragon Works included an engine house with its 20hp horizontal steam engine, a smiths' shop with forges and a steam hammer, an iron shop where 100 tons of iron were stored; a fitting room with guillotine machine and lathe, a brass foundry and a carpenters' shop. It was later used by Trojan Ltd, making cars. Trojan, owned by Leslie Hounsfield, were here from 1914 but production moved to Kingston following a deal with Leyland, and later, when that arrangement ended they moved to Purley Way.
Wandle Park Tram Stop. 1998 Between Reeves Corner and Waddon Marsh on Croydon Tramlink

Waddon New Road
The road was laid out in the late 1840s along the new railway line with houses along one side and the railway along the other.
The Surrey Iron Railway’s line had come along Lower Church Street to Waddon New Road and then down what is now Factory Lane. There was a crossing on this part of the route.
132 between the road and the railway it dates from the early 1850s, and was connected with a coal siding on the Sutton Line. It had been thought that it was Surrey Iron Railway’s tollhouse since there is what could be a "toll" window blocked up in the north wall and a corner corbelled so that wagons could go under it. Inside are marble window-sills, and massive door bolts. However, it is not on plans before 1852.
73a Pitlake Arms
90 Wandle Arms

Wandle Park
The name ‘Wandle’ is taken from ‘Wandsworth’ the town at its mouth. The earlier name of the river was 'Loudbourn' that is 'stream called the loud one’ or Ledebourne said to derive from Saxon Hlidabourne - meaning loud and/or sloping. The earliest written name is Latinized ‘Vandalis riuvlus; in 1586, by Camden but there is no evidence it was ever called this.
The river Wandle used to emerge from its 1850/51 culvert into the Park but the culvert has now been extended to the borough boundary. In 1967 the river was put into a straight liqne culvert and grassed over. The river’s original course can be traced in the line of willows and flint wall at the children’s playground was once along the river side at the edge of Stubbs Mead.
The Tramlink, after crossing the railway, follows approximately the line of the 1855 railway to Mitcham Junction and Wimbledon, and it forms the park boundary.
The park was opened by Croydon Corporation in 1890. There were bandstands and bowling greens. The land was bought by the local authority in 1890 from corporate owners. It is a former marshy area - Frog Mead and Stubbs Mead and consists of made up ground.
Lakes – although these were originally planned as part of the Wandle the river remained in its culvert and the lakes filled with ground water. There were two lakes with islands, and facilities for boating. However as the water table dropped from the 1930s they became difficult to maintain and were eventually filled in.
Electricity supply box, probably for cable junctions perhaps from the late 1890s or early years of the 20th century.

Warrington Road
Ravenswood
The Hawthorns

Saturday, 4 September 2010

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle - Central Croydon

Thames Tributaries – the River Wandle
Ponds and small streams around the area flow west and feed into the Wandle.



Central area of the large town of Croydon built on a medieval town centre dominated by the archbishops.  Many new buildings 'Croydonisation' - plus interesting older municipal buildings, concert halls, pubs, markets - this is a proper place and not a suburb

Post to the west West Croydon
Post to the south South Croydon

Addiscombe Road
12-16 NLA House (Noble Lowndes Annuities) was Lowndes House built 1968 by R.Seifert.it is octagonal and 24 storeys high. It is Britain's 88th tallest tower and was refurbished in 2007

Barclay Road
Named after medieval poet John Barclay who lived, and is buried, locally. Supposed to be part of a Croydon ring road which never fulfilled its ambitions.
Law Courts. Designed and built in 1968/9 By Robert Atkinson & Partners,
Multi storey car park. Built in 1961-2 by D. H. Beaty-Pownall
Entrance to Park Hill Recreation Ground

Bell Hill
Narrow alleyway from the medieval period.
Restaurant, corner building, which was a 17th pub, The Britannia
Black Lion- ex 18th pub with a black lion over the doorway

Cherry Orchard Road
There were orchards here until the railway was built.
General Accident Fire and Life Insurance. 1961/3 design. Since superseded

Church Road
Once called Tramway Road because the Coulsdon, Merstham and Godstone Railway went along it. The road went on the edge of the grounds of Croydon Old Palace. This part of the tramway line ran from Church Street to Southbridge Road.
Bleaching grounds once lay to the south of the palace. There was a mill attached to the pond which was involved with the manufacture of calico.
Laud's Pond, or ‘My Lord’s Pond’ was between the Palace and Church Street. The stream ran down the length of what is now Church Road and crossed it westwards near the site of the almshouses, eventually drained into the Wandle. Draining it was the first act of the Board of Health. Laud's (or My Lord's) pond provided drainage for slaughterhouses, privies, and the first gas works. Ryland’s house on the site and built on rafts because of it
O1d Courtyard house using some of the old shoe factory.
Stella House. Old shoe factory 1892 a plain industrial building, with a little polychrome brick detail. Quelch Boot and Shoe factory 1890s.
2-8 cottages mid-19th on site of palace stables, elaborately half- timbered, flint and brick
9 Ryland House Telephone exchange and offices. High building of ighH 1977. Said to be built on rafts because of the dampness of the underlying ground.
26 First Steps Day Nursery in old chapel.
27 Whitgift Arms. Closed and gone,
Mill. Chasemore Brothers Steam Flour Mills there in the 1890s. On the east side between Old Palace Road and Charles Street
Palace Wall. During its use as a factory, the Old Palace's great hall’s eastern wall collapsed into what is now Church Road. It has been rebuilt, and this is now the main school hall in Old Palace School.
Recreation ground 1890s. Now no sign of it. Mann and Halstead Close are partly on the site.

Church Street
A major shopping street winding up to Crown Hill.
128, 132, stuccoed,
Ramsey Court. This was the Elys Davy Almshouses, founded in 1447. It has two brick ranges dated 1875 and 1887 facing each other across a small garden. Listed. In red brick with a tiled roof. Wrought-iron railings along the street. Curved lamp brackets over the gates. The stream passed by the side of the north wall of the almshouse, near where it joined the main stream. It ran through a brick-arch still visible in the 1880s.
11-13 shops
15 Listed
61-65 shops 1740 brown brick row now in use as shops with modern fronts. Tiled dormers to end houses, Rendered rear walls
83 Gun Tavern Pub used as a music venue. Archaeological dig located a channel, probably a tributary of the Wandle going to Laud's Pond. The channel was probably filled for the Surrey Railway.
91-93 shops 17th timber-framed houses. The fronts were probably jettied originally but now there are modern shop fronts.
Church Street tram stop. 1998. Between George Street and Centrale and also Wandle Park on Croydon Tramlink

Cranmer Road
Cranmer was Archbishop, and stayed here, in 1522. The road is said to have been built on the site of the Bishop’s fish ponds.

Crown Hill
The Crown pub, after which the road is named, stood on the corner
1 Art Deco building. Clad in cream & black tiles with a curved plan and classical details
11/13 16th timber frame buildings faced with weatherboarding and mathematical tiles, were re constructed in 1982-3 using the original materials where possible
Tesco's – a mill stone found during building
Croydon Hippodrome Theatre, a Variety Theatre under the management of Oswald Stoll. Demolished
Civic Hall. This was where concerts were held before Fairfield Hall was built. It was long with a balcony down both sides.

Croydon
This is cited as ‘Crogedene’ 809 in an Anglo-Saxon charter, which means 1240, that is "valley where wild saffron grows', from Old English. The valley is that of the River Wandle. Crocus may have been introduced by the Romans for a dye.
In the Dark Ages Croydon was a minster – a church founded by a king as an administrative centre,

Dingwall Avenue
Dingwall House stood in what is now Wellesley Road
1-9 Link House
Focus house
London House
Alders Car Park

Dingwall Road.
Dingwall House stood in what is now Wellesley Road
1 AMP House. Australian Mutual Provident Society. 1986/7 with a broad concrete fascia, by Fuller, Hall & Foulsham. Above the door sculptural design.
17-21 Job centre
22-26 Carolyn House 1961/3. By D. Rowswell & Partners and of 17 storeys
London Assurance House
Warehouse Theatre. Founded by Sam Kelly, Richard Ireson, and Adrian Shergold to present a varied season of plays with an emphasis on new work. The first production opened in May 1977, with a 50 seat auditorium sharing the building with a Caribbean night club. It is in a converted Victorian warehouse, built in 1882 for a sand, cement, and lime merchant. It has picture tiles from the 1880's, in the cellar and a "crab" winch and wall crane in full working order on the side of the building. The bar, opened in 1985, is in the old stable block.
East side – site of railway sidings, coal yard and goods yard buildings.
Church Institute. Gone.

Fell Road
Rev. Fell lived locally
Underneath the road are two shallow tunnels running eastwards from the Town Hall basement. One goes to a manhole in a rockery beside the old public block, in Queens Gardens and was the emergency escape route from the Borough's Cold War Emergency Control Centre. The other connected the courts in the Town Hall with the former police station and cells.

George Street
The previous name was Pound Street, since it led to the town pound. The pound itself was on the Wellesley Road corner.
2-4 remains of arch which was the original entrance to the George Inn stable yard
15-23 Jubilee Buildings 1897
17-21 The George. Wetherspoon pub. The original George stood on the corner with the High Street.
25-45 built between the wars
42-44 decorated with terracotta mouldings
43-45 four storey building with ashlar stonework corner.
71-79 elaborate terracotta shopping terrace of the 1890s.
94 George IV pub, closed and demolished
96 statue of a horse and rider clearing a hedge.
100 Essex House. Slab block built 1960 by Raglan Squire & Partners. Used by British Rail, Southern Region, Divisional Manager's Office. Demolished
100 St. Matthew’s House. Eight-storey office block of 1980 which replaced St Matthew's church
St.Matthew’s church. Demolished 1972. Stood south side west of the station. It was built in 1866 by Arthur Blomfield. The Parish Hall stood parallel to it
Suffolk House. Vertical job. Among the earliest in the new Croydon. Four-storeyed throughout. By Raglan Squire & Partners, 1960
67 J.D.Shakespeare, funerals. Only remaining villa of the 1840s.
Allders frontage – main shop in the Whitgift tower
East Croydon Station. 21st September 1841 Trains from here run between London Bridge and Redhill on Thameslink; between West Croydon and also Selhurst and also Norwood Junction and South Croydon and also main line destinations on Southern Trains; Norwood Junction and main line destinations on South Eastern Trains; Plus Some other main line destinations. It is on the South Eastern Railway old main line. The present main line through the station is still the original. One of the busiest of suburban stations, with Long glazed ramps from the platforms up to the ticket office over the tracks. Now Modernised and rebuilt with a hi-tech approach and four tall masts from which hang two trusses providing a column-free space.
Junction at the south end of the station is for the railway line to South Croydon.
Junction at the south end of the station, facing London was put in for a line which went to Central Croydon Station.
East Croydon Station Tram Stop: Between Lebanon Road and Wellesley Road and also George Street on Croydon Tramlink
George Street Tram Stop. 1998 Between East Croydon and Church Street on Croydon Tramlink.
London Bar pub on the station
Porter and Sorter pub. Opened in 1880 as the Station Hotel, it was renamed in 1971
Surrey Bar pub on the station

High Street.
The High Street was originally a field path which was turnpike under the Croydon and Reigate Trust. On the west side frontages date from road widening of 1890-96 which was part of a reorganization of Middle Row.
1 National Westminster Bank –on the site of the original George Inn
5 Yates Wine Lodge in converted premises
10 GPO. Built 1893 of stone By Henry James of the Office of Works. Like much else in the road it results from the road widening of 1890-96
12 Bar Monaco. Built in 1894 by R. W. Price in brick and terracotta. Now an amusement arcade
14-18, Tiger Tiger pub Grant Department Store built in 1894 Metcalfe and Jones. Four storeys with attics above. A panel forming the initials 'GB'. Sign below says: 'Millinery/Ribbons - London House - Lace/Gloves - Silks/Dresses - London House - Mantles/Linens'. Listed
18 Edwards Pub
20-28, built 1895 by R. M. Cha
32-34, built in 1897 by Alfred Broad. An archway into an arcade leads to the steep drop down to Surrey Street.
36, Mojamba which was Babushka bar. Built 1895 by Price as offices for the Croydon Advertiser. The paper was founded in 1865 in nearby Katharine Street.
39-45a. Spread Eagle. Built as Union Bank Chambers, built by Porter & Hill in 1893. It is brick and stucco, and part of a group with the municipal buildings in Katharine Street. Three storeys and basement. Panel on the pediment with 'BUL 1893’.
46 17th building, since altered, with a jettied front
47 Ship. Old pub. Said to have been rebuilt in 1835 but there are indications of an earlier structure. Ship's figurehead between the first floor windows.
48, 1894 by Thomas Hepwell
50-52 Milletts at the fork with Surrey Sreet. Built in 1896 by Broad with a wooden turret and a balcony
Space which commemorates the widening of the High Street.
58-60 Green Dragon House. Pub
63-65 Red Square Bar
68 Black Sheep Bar
69-77 Davis House, built 1960 by G. & D. Crump,
66 Davis Picture Theatre built in 1928 by Grace & Marsh of Waddon for Robert Cromie with a capacity of over 3700. Also Kinestra. A Crompton organ installed 1928. Their most prestigious order for that year. The Davis family sold their chain of Pavilions to Gaumont-British and engaged Robert Cromie to design a super on American lines for Croydon, with over 3,800 seats. It was planned as a silent house with Symphony Orchestra and giant 21-rank Compton in four chambers above the stage, the largest Compton ever to be installed in a cinema. The plain console was on a lift and an upright piano was provided in one of the chambers. The organ was used almost continually until closure of the theatre in 1959.
119-121 brackets of human heads like those on Wrencote added by Robert Cromie in 1956 plus a rear extension.
121 Wrencote. Built 1715-20 with doorway brackets carved as beasts’ heads. Built of red rubbed brick. Inside a staircase with twisted balusters.
125 The Grand Theatre. Built by Brough in 1896 and opened by Herbert Beerbohm Tree. It was originally used for plays but by the 1920s it was a touring house. It closed in the Second World War during bombing but reopened in 1942. After the war it continued with repertory and pantomimes. It closed in 1957 despite a petition signed by 100,000 people. Offices and shops have since been built on the site.
125 Grosvenor House. Built 1960-1 by H. Hubbard Ford as an eleven-storey office block.
233 Leon House a 1968 built slab block and low rise shopping area by Tribich, Liefer & Starkin
242 Crown and Pepper pub previously the Catherine Wheel pub
282, Half and Half which has had a number of names including Barrel and Belly pub
Bridge and flyover. This cuts the High Street in two. It was constructed in 1967-68 and has pedestrian underpasses and the River Wandle culvert of 1850-51
Castle Coffee Tavern from the widening of 1890-96

Howley Road
Archbishop Howley provided a local water supply in 1843. The road is said to be laid out alongside the sites of medieval fish-ponds, which were used to supply the Palace.

Katherine Street.
This was originally Kings Arms Yard and when this road was built it was named after the landlord’s daughter.The Kings Arms is said to be where George VI would stop on his way to Brighton – and where a local drunk is said to have asked ‘where’s the wife, George’.
Town Hall and Library 1894. On the Library is a relief of two children reading comics. This is now Croydon Clocktower Centre in the old Town Hall building and including a number of facilities. The building, with its landmark clocktower, was built in 1892-6 by Charles Henman Jun. and in front is a paved area with a statue of Queen Victoria. It includes both the library and the corn exchange. The town hall porch includes Carving by J. Wenlock Robbins and W. Aumonier. Inside is a marble staircase hall and the Braithwaite Hall, with an open timber roof... The redesign dates from 1985 by Tybalds Monroe. It includes a local history museum display, the Museum of Chinese pottery and the Clocktower shop and cafe.
Central Croydon Station. Opened 1st January 1868 by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway. The entrance was on the south side of the street near the junction with Croydon High Street. There were two platforms parallel to the Street with saw tooth canopies, a cab yard there and a two storey stationmaster’s house. Trains ran from London Bridge and Kensington but it was not much used. It was rebuilt at the Corporation's request in 1886 but only took 4d on the first day. It was closed in 1890 and the site redeveloped for the Town Hall and Library. A section of cutting and retaining wall remain in the gardens.
Queen's Gardens a small area of garden which was opened by the Queen in 1983. It had previously been the Town Hall gardens and was site of Croydon's police station and Croydon Central Station. It now had lawns, trees, a fountain with benches, and a sunken garden area with formal flower beds and trees exploiting the former track bed and station wall plus original railings on top
15 Gas Board offices, Built 1939-41 by William Newton (son of Ernest Newton) in a Moderne style. The ground floor is "Empire stone" with Bronze casement windows. There is a plaque with the date 1940 and the letters C G C for Croydon Gas and Coke Company. There are pots of green smoke over the door. Inside are is a ceramic panel of shells, lotus flowers and vegetation of the Carboniferous Period and a bronze plaque to the Company's war dead.
SEGAS house, extension built 1975-81 by G. R. Toogood of the S.E. Gas Board with an arched arcade over the pavement.
Metrogas Building Society shop
War Memorial. By sculptor Paul Montford sculptor. This is a 30 ft high Portland stone pylon, with a sarcophagus on top. There are also figures of a soldier (exhibited at the Royal Academy) and a grieving widow. The original was erected for 1914-18 and 1939-45 was added later. It was unveiled in 1921 and paid for by a public subscription.

Lansdowne Road
3-5 Marco Polo House. YMCA 1958 by E.F. Starling.
17 Corinthian House by R. Seifert & Partners, 1964-5,
Royal Automobile Club offices built 1960 by R. Seifert & Partners
Roneo House. Roneo Vickers, built 1962 complex by Newman, Levinson &' Partners

Laud Street
Laud was Archbishop in 1633. A street made up of modest terraces, early 19th

Masons Avenue
2 Centrillion Point this is a redevelopment of Lennig House. 10 storeys by Tribich, Liefer & Starkin

Meadow Stile
The name reflects a more rural, but prosaic past. Alley from Queen Street to High Street.

Mint Walk
The name reflects the local aromatics industry, There was also a rope walk here.

Middle Street
3-9 Roffey and Clark's printing works was linked to their high street stationers' shop by a footbridge - now gone. Built of yellow bricks with red decoration.

North End
151 Arkwright’s Wheel Pub, previously called the Railway Bell.
Allders. This was once the main frontage of the 1926 shop. Allders is the fourth-largest department store in Britain. It was established by Joshua Allder in 1862. Allders was originally opened in 1862 at 102 and 103 North End as a 'linen draper and silk mercer'. The shop expanded into 104, 106 and 107 North End. Allder was closely involved in Croydon’s public life and died in 1904. In 1908 his family sold the business and it was developed into 50 departments with 500 staff. In 1926 the North End facade was created and in 1932 the Arcade from North End to George Street was completed. The building was damaged in the Second World War but never closed. Later it included a cinema auditorium and Croydon's first escalators in 1954. In 1958 it was sold again and in the 1960s it expanded, into the Whitgift Centre. By 1976 Allders had 1,700 staff and 500,000 square feet of floor space including the largest carpet department in Europe. Other shops in the chain were renamed and branded as Allders and the firm continued to expand with takeovers and new buildings... However the chain went into administration in 2005 and the Croydon store was bought by the owner of Jaegers.
32-34 W.H. Smith. Shops built 1926 with decorative panels. Listed.
36 Burtons. Built 1926 in Burtons House style
38-40 Horne's. Built 1910 in Arts and Crafts chequerboard style with carved decoration. Tower and gables above sheer walls
49-55 19th.
57 site of the Queen’s Cinema
59-62 19th shops in brick with carved heads
60-66 old Woolworths building 1912 brick and terracotta. Part of the frontage is the Cinematograph cinema of 1910 with carved cherubs. Listed
75 brick with decorative ironwork
77-81 1930s building in white faience. Listed
87 Rising Sun pub, arts and crafts design of 1906. Now in other use.
Whitgift Hospital of Holy Trinity. Founded by Archbishop J.Whitgift, 1596 For 16 poor brothers and 16 poor sisters from Croydon. Over the door are the arms of the founder. They are red brick almshouses round a quadrangle. Street front with three gables, Inside is a quadrangle with a 16th original clock plus a hall, laundry, chapel and common room. A suite of four upstairs rooms was originally for Whitgift himself and used by the warden. The East window was given in 1597 by, William Thornhill, Whitgift's chaplain. It was restored in 1860. Listed Grade I.
Whitgift Middle School built as the Whitgift Grammar School in 1871. Demolished 1965 and replaced by the Whitgift Centre. The school was renamed Whitgift Trinity School and moved to Shirley.
94 entrance to the Centre is the site of the Empire Cinema. Site of the Theatre Royal. This was originally built in 1800 and was rebuilt and reopened in1868 as the New Theatre Royal. In 1897 it was again redecorated and became a music hall, the Croydon Empire. It closed again a year later and reopened under a variety of names, including the Hippodrome. In 1906 it had been redecorated by Sprague as the Empire Theatre of Varieties. Films began to be shown but management mixed cinema and variety up to the early 1950s when it became the full time Eros Cinema. It was closed in 1959 and eventually demolished.
Whitgift Centre. 11 acre shopping centre built.1965/70. The architects were Fitzroy Robinson & Partners. It consists of a Centre Tower and two tall slabs, with and some lower offices flank. The pedestrian shopping mall is on two levels because of the fall of the land. There are entrances from both Wellesley Road, and North End. There is a service road underneath.
100-106 shops from the 1880s with iron balconies.
108 site of Electric Cinema
127 this was the Lido Dance Hall but built as the Prince’s Picture House in 1921

Old Palace Road
Archbishops Palace. This was founded by Lanfranc in 11th and so the Manor belonged to the Archbishop of Canterbury before Domesday. This was one of the series of palaces between Canterbury and Lambeth, and became an administrative centre. The Great Hall dates from 1381 but was refurnished by Archbishop Morton in 1443/52. The palace now consists of a group of buildings mostly 14th and 15th. The Archbishops sold the palace in 1780 and some buildings were demolished. The Duke of Newcastle presented the complex to the Sisters of the Cross, in 1887 as a girls' school.
Before modern drainage and intense building up of the area the Palace was surrounded by streams and ponds and was essentially on an island.  A room called The Guardroom may have been a 12th hall
Calico printing factory with extensive machinery stood on the north western corner of the palace. Using water-power from an artificial branch of the stream. In 1792 the palace area was used as a calico printing works by Abraham Pitches and in 1798 Samuel Starey used it for a calico printing and bleaching factory and this continued until 1872
Old Palace School, a direct-grant school for girls under the control of the Community of the Sisters of the Church in the buildings of the Old Palace.
Pickfords - long three storey building which was Pickford's, removal and warehousing company, first depot.

Overton's Yard
Site of steam flourmill – Mill stones have been found on site,
Royal Oak Brewery. Page and Overton were brewers. Page had owned the Ludlam and Grant Brewery at Shirley and he joined Overton in the Royal Oak Brewery. Taken over by Hoare’s in 1929 and became Charrington in 1933. It closed in 1954
Croydon's first gas works in what had been a fellmonger’s yard, adjacent. This was built by Barnard and Defries in 1827. Henry Overton owned and ran it until 1847 when it was taken over by the Croydon Gas Light & Coke Co. Nearby was a medieval stone-vaulted Undercroft

Park Lane
Fairfield - where the annual fair was held – they were suppressed in 1868. The area then was a site for railway lines from East Croydon to Central Croydon as well as gravel pits, railway sidings and a railway training school.
Fairfield Yard. What was left of the railway line to the Central Croydon Station. It was used for railway engineering until 1933. It was then sold to the Corporation and used as a car park Relics of the line are earthworks near the Town Hall.
Underpass dates from the 1960s.
Fairfield Halls. Built 1960 by Robert Atkinson & Partners as an 1,800 seat concert Hall.
Arnhem Hall. Named for a link with Arnhem. A 500 seat multi seat space.
Ashcroft Theatre. Named for actress Peggy Ashcroft who was born in Croydon. A 750 seat theatre
Blue Orchid pub used to be the Greyhound. Also called Bogarts. The Greyhound was a coaching inn clearing coaches between Brighton and London. As the Blue Orchid it was a punk rock venue. Closed down now.
Taberner House and Alsop’s Third City Vision. Stands behind the Town Hall on both sides of Fell Road and fronts onto Park Lane. A 19 storey high slab Municipal office block built 1964-7. Designed by H. Thornley, architect to the Council. There is a bridge between the blocks. Built in 1964-8. Amazing views. Named after Ernest Taberner the ex-Town Clerk
69 Commercial Union House. 1965/8 office block home to head office departments of Commercial Union Assurance, from the early 1980s until merger with first General Accident (to form CGU) then Norwich Union to form Aviva Plc. The last of the company's departments - the local sales office - vacated the building in 2005. There are luxury flats included.
71 Police Station. By J. Elliott chief architect to the Metropolitan Police planned 1967, completed 1980.
St.George's House. Nestle HQ. Designed by Ronald Ward & Partners with St George's Walk inside.
60 Friends Meeting House. The meeting house proper is by Hubert Lidbetter in yellow brick. The Adult School Hall adjoins the current Quaker meeting house. It was opened in 1908. It was founded by Theodore Crosfield, a 19th-century Quaker. The previous meeting house of 1820, destroyed by a land mine in 1940, and the foreground area was a Quaker burial ground. It’s simple headstones were re-laid horizontally as a path along the western side The Hall was designed by William Curtis. It is built of local brick and Pine column support an open timber roof. Nothing is concealed.
Croydon College - Technical College. The Pitlake Technical Institute was founded in 1888, and later became Croydon Polytechnic. In 1868, the School of Art had been founded in George Street and in 1932 was taken over by the Council. In 1941 the Polytechnic school was burnt down and in 1948 it was planned to merge the two and in 1953 building work started. It was then the largest technical college in the South of England. Designed by Robert Atkinson & Partners in Brick and Portland stone.

Pump Pail
Name of slip road which is the site of the parish pump and its fence.
Croydon Bowling Club included walls and buildings made of sleeper blocks from the Croydon, Godstone and Merstham Tramway. Demolished when the flyover was built.
Buriel Ground which was flooded by the Bourne - so that coffins sometimes floated.


Queen Street
This was once a footpath going from the High Street to Duppas Hill. It Crossed the Wandle by way of a brick four arched footbridge. The Wandle here was 20' wide

Salem Place
An area of council homes built on what was in the 19th- century called Bog Island. The entire area was waterlogged and insanitary. Eventually the ponds were filled in by the new local Board of Health.

Scarbrook Lane
The Scarbrook itself was a tributary of the Wandle. Early in the 19th the road ran between springs and ponds. But these went as a result of the 1848 Public Health Act when Croydon Local Board of Health was set up and developed a mains water supply and drainage, before Bazalgette. The road follows what was the west side of the Coulsdon, Merstham and Godstone trackbed.
Croydon Central Baths. With an indoor pool was built in 1866 And an outdoor pool which closed in the 1950s. The complex closed in 1973.
Scarbrook Chambers
Central School was the original John Ruskin College which opened in 1920. In 1945 it became a Grammar School having moved to Tamworth Road. It subsequently moved to Selsdon.
Croydon Polytechnic had begun in 1888 as the Pitlake Technical Institute. Burnt down in 1941 but eventually became part of Croydon Technical College.
Borough Grammar School for Boys opened in 1904 using the same buildings as the Polytechnic. During and after the First World War it moved to a purpose built school in The Crescent, Selhurst.
Surrey House

Sheldon Street
Sheldon was Archbishop in 1663
An intermittent spring at the western end of the road fed the Wandle
1 Royal Standard small Fuller's pub extended in the early 1990s.a step leads down to a stone-flagged area which could easily be the oldest part of the building, but is in fact the newest. A cricket bat signed by the 2002 Surrey team in the lounge.

Surrey Street
At one time known as the Shambles. The street market here is medieval in origin with a charter dating from 1273 and Surrey Street was recorded as ‘Le Bocherrowe’ in 1549 - “butchers' row'. It was also known as Fleshe Market. In the 1890s that was the first area of redevelopment in Croydon when what was then a slum district of medieval streets, alleyways and tenements was cleared and the High Street widened.
The Scarbrook stream crossed the road coming from the Scarbrook ponds and going to the Palace fishponds.
24 Dog and Bull. Especially handsome red brick front. Yard survives. 18th-century, listed building in Croydon's street market behind the 21st-century Grants leisure complex. Bare wooden floors throughout the bar area
44 Horn and Trumpet pub. Demolished
34-38 Butcher Row projecting first floors supported on iron and timber columns retaining the earlier name of the area. The row once had hooks and rails under galleried upper floors so that butchered items could be displayed. Mathematical tiles in the upper levels give an impression of bricks.
Croydon Advertiser's former printing works were beside the footbridge to the multi-storey car park.
Multi storey car park. The ground floor level is used to store market-stalls.
Sturt's Yard, otherwise Waterworks Yard has lost both its names. The yard represented a lost path from Surrey Street to the Benson Spring. It was called Spring Walk.
Water Works. This is a brown brick and stone building displaying the date 1851. It was part of the West Croydon engine house of the Atmospheric Railway re-erected here for the Croydon Local Board of Health by Cox. But it was not reassembled to exactly the same design. The building in Surrey Street is taller than the original although re-used bricks, windows and doors can be recognised. The tall chimney has gone. There was another engine house on site - A castellated tower-like building added in 1867 by Baldwin Latham, engineer of the Croydon Local Board with an extension to house a compound horizontal engine added in 1876 and there were further additions. From here water was pumped to the town's first reservoir at Park Hill, which has since been demolished, and from 1867 the surviving water tower. Although these buildings are redundant the wells are still pumped using remote controlled electric pumps.
Benson Spring - this was another spring which flowed down to the Wandle. It rose 50 feet north of the engine house and was said never to freeze.

Tamworth Road.
The road was laid out in 1845 along the line of the railway which had been laid from the canal basin, at what is now West Croydon station. The surrounding land had been bought for development by the Croydon and Epsom Railway.
Centrale Tram stop. 1998. Between Church Street and also Reeves Corner and West Croydon on Croydon Tramlink
Tramway approximately the alignment of the Croydon Canal Company's tramway to Pitlake
Barlow and Parker's warehouse, on the roof of which Christopher Craig and Derek William Bentley were caught in attempted burglary in 1952, was on the north side about halfway down.

Wandle Road
Course of old road from Croydon to Waddon. A pocket of modest streets of little terraces, earlier c19
Classical chapel now housing
Bull’s Head pub.

Wellesley Road
This was called New Lane but renamed in 1852 for the Duke of Wellington. It is effectively now the main road through Croydon between London and Portslade and part of the fast-traffic system constructed in the 1960s. The underpass under George Street into Park Lane, the flyover above the High Street and the widening of Old Town and Church Street belong to the same period.
128 The Goose and Carrot. Gay pub once called the Bridge Hotel
Black Clawson House 1962, by Newman, Levinson & Partners
20-26 Norfolk House 1958 the start of the new Croydon. Right angles to the street. By Howell & Brooks, T.P. Bennett & Son, consultants. A tall slab which includes the hotel, Jury’s Inn
30 Voyager house
40 Lunar House
9 Prudential. 1962 by Roy Moore Associates, Sydney Clough, Son & Partners,
Southern House 1963/7. By G. & D. Crump
36 Apollo House, Lunar House continues. The entrance motifs are identical.
11 Phoenix House
Electricity House former Municipal Offices of Water and Electricity Departments, begun in the late 1930s and in partial use from 1941. Built 1939-42 by Robert Atkinson for the County Borough of Croydon of Portland stone on a prominent corner site. In Dingwall Avenue there was a carriage entrance to a circular courtyard and it was planned as a cookery demonstration hall. eight-bay frontage to Wellesley Road with Bronze double doors in moulded black marble surround, with steps and a canopy with inset round lights, on a granite plinth is 'County Borough of Croydon Electricity Department'. Parapet, with bronze tripartite glazing. On columns are carved square urns, dedicated to 'fire', 'air', 'earth', 'water', 'time', 'energy', 'flight', 'Elysium', and 'Hesperides'.
Wellesley Road Tram stop. 1998. Between East Croydon and West Croydon on Croydon Tramlink

Sources
Anderson. History of the Parish of Croydon
Bayliss. The Surrey Iron Railway
Bourne Society. Journal
Bygone Kent
Canals of Croydon and Surrey,
Chelsea Speleological Society, Newsletter
Clunn. The Face of London,
Croydon by gas light, 
London Archaeologist,
London Encyclopaedia
Nairn. Nairn’s London

Osborne. Defending London
Penguin, Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry, South London
Pevsner and Cherry. Surrey
Stewart. History of Croydon
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry. Report
Wilson. London’s Industrial Archaeology