Monday, 20 June 2016

Riverside west of the Tower, south bank. Richmond Hill


Riverside west of the Tower, south bank. Richmond Hill

Post to the west Richmond Central and Riverside

Cambrian Road
This was land owned by the parish who obtained a Chancery order in 1845 to allow them to build for ‘best rents’.
Cambrian Road Gate. A gate into Richmond Park was provided here during the First World War to serve the South African War Hospital in the park. When that closed it became a permanent pedestrian entrance.


Cardigan Road
Cavendish Court. Modern Movement flats built in 1953 by Eric Lyons, 1953-4.


Church Road
Meadows Hall. Council day centre
St.Matthias Church.  Built 1857-8 by George Gilbert Scott. It has a tower with 195 ft spire. The choir vestry is 1884 by Oldred Scott and the All Saints Chapel of 1915 by Cecil Hare. There was another conversion in 1975 by Hutchison, Locke & Monk.

Denbigh Gardens
This is one of the 50 most expensive streets in London.

Friar Stiles Road
Friars’ Stile was at the top of the hill, near the site of the current St. Matthias Church.  It is said to be the route of the walks of the friars from the Carthusian religious house, based in what is now the Old Deer Park
18a Maria Grey nursery school
Methodist Chapel. Built at the end of the Wesleyan College site in 1850. It was destroyed in Second World War bombing.
The Vineyard School. This moved to the site of the bombed Methodist Chapel in the 1980s – the coat of arms for the Wesleyan College is still displayed on the school gates. . This was the original main entrance for the College but the area had been used as a vegetable plot in the Second World War. The Vineyard School had begun as a British School for boys in The Vineyard. Eventually a new school was built at the top of Richmond Hill. Land was acquired from the college. The school opened in 1977 for infants and in 1984 the junior school. In 1992 the two schools together became the Vineyard Primary School.
46 The Marlborough. This is now a Young’s pub. It began as the Rose Inn, and was a tea garden in the 1820s and then by 1840 was a hotel called Rose Cottage.  The garden was then a feature with a bowling green. By the 1870s it was renamed the Marlborough and the licence in this name dates from 1878.


Grosvenor Avenue
Graveyard wall. 18th and listed – the green area is the Vineyard Passage Burial Ground.


Grosvenor Road
42 Vineyard Organic Day Nursery. This dates from 2011.

Grove Road
Cambrian Community Centre this opened in 1989, and is part of the old Richmond Infirmary site. It was built by, and is owned by, the Richmond Parish Lands Charity. It is in the ground floor area of Caplan Court
Richmond Union Workhouse. This opened in Grove Road in 1787. A plaque on the building said it was 'Erected by the Munificence of His Majesty George the III for the use of the poor of Richmond and Kew'. It included an infirmary and a section for the mentally ill. An institution for ‘mentally ill and disorderly persons’ was part of it. Later there were vagrant wards, a chapel and a stone yard. In 1902 a new infirmary was added, designed by E.J.Partridge and later a nurses home. In the Great War it became the Richmond Military Hospital and after merged with the South African Hospital in Richmond Park. In 1929 it was taken over by the London County Council and renamed the Richmond Institution. It joined the National Health Service in 1948 and was renamed Grove Road Hospital which specialised in geriatric care. It closed in 1974. It was then used as student accommodation for Kingston Polytechnic, and then taken over by London and Quadrant to be converted to housing. This consists of public housing - Kingsmead opened in 1987. There is also a posh gated part called King George Square

Halford Road
Halford House. This house dates at the earliest from 1710 and it was later owned by John Halford who was a brewer involved with the Mortlake Brewery. It was also known as Vineyard House. In the 1880s it became the Richmond School of Art and Music and this was housed in an extension. This closed in 1939 and the house was used by the WVS for Civil Defence. In   1954 The Christian Fellowship in Richmond bought the house a later added an adjacent market garden. The Christian Fellowship was founded in 1951 by a group of religious young people gathered. They bought the house in 1954. The house had previously been the Richmond School of Music
British Red Cross Hall. This stood next to Halford House and was bought by the Fellowship in 2002.

Kings Road
68 Kings House School, private, fees paying.
92 Kings Road Nursery, in modernised purpose built nursery building.

King George Square
Gated development for posh people on the site of the old workhouse.
Entrance lodge to the workhouse. This is mow beside shut gates of the private housing in King George Square.
Workhouse building – the main workhouse building beneath e central cupola and clock. It says ‘erected by the munificence of His Majesty King George III for the use of the poor of Richmond and Kew”. This is now now behind the gates and part of the housing area of the posh King George Square development.


Kingsmead
Kingsmead. This is the part of the old workhouse site which is now public housing and facilities.
Fitzherbert House was built as sheltered accommodation which, until 2009, was managed by the London and Quadrant Housing Trust. It is now run by Richmond Council.

Lancaster Cottages
Built on the site of the kitchen garden of Ellerker House

Lancaster Park
Built on the site of the gardens of Lancaster House.
Lancaster House. Dates from the 1830s.

Lower Grove Road
Richmond and East Sheen Cemeteries. This square contains only that part of the cemetery nearest to Grove Road. The rest is in the square to the east.  On the 1894 map this area consists mainly of a reservation ground with only non-conformist chapel being on this part of the site.
Grove Gardens Chapel. Non conformist chapel for the cemetery which now stands outside the gates. It was sold in 1992 and was restored. The architect is unknown. It is now a nursery school.
St. Elizabeth Catholic Primary School

Marchmont Road
Vineyard School. In 1961 a new building for infants was built here, and the infants moved there in 1961. Unfortunately the construction was not suitable and children were quickly moved out

Mount Ararat Road
This was once a winding lane called Worple Way
Mount Ararat. This was an 18th house which stood on the corner with the Vineyard.
Tudor conduit collecting chamber. This was excavated into this area in 1909

Paradise Road
9-11 3-4 Hogarth House. This was the home of Hogarth Press 1915-24. It is an early 18th house once divided into two, and half called Suffield House. Virginia Woolfe and her husband moved there at a time when she was very ill. Printing was a hobby for them and it provided a diversion for Virginia. They bought a hand press in 1917 for £19 and taught themselves how to use it. It was set up in the dining room of Hogarth House.  They then published their first text, a book with one story written by Leonard and the other written by Virginia.  Between 1917 and 1946 the Hogarth Press published 527 titles, although soon they were using a commercial printer. One early publication was ‘The Waste Land’.
21 Vestry House. A vestry house was built in 1790 at the Paradise Road end of the new burial ground. A new magistrate’s court was built alongside it in 1896. The vestry house is now offices which included the owners, The Richmond Parish Lands Charity.

Peldon Court
High rise council flats built on a site where 49 houses were destroyed in Second World War bombing.


Petersham Road
55-59 The Paragon. This was once a longer terrace but some houses were demolished for road widening plans in 1938.  They are on parish owned land endowed to the church in 1375. The housing here was developed between 1720 and 1730 by or for the owner of Richmond Wells. At the end was a small malt house which was usually let to residents of the adjacent house which included local brewers.
Bingham House Hotel. The site is said to be that of a pub called the Blue Anchor extant in 1724. This had its own landing stage and handled some passengers going to Richmond Wells. When the Wells closed the pub was demolished and replaced by this house. It consists of two 18th houses named after Ann Bingham daughter of the second Lord Lucan, who joined the two together in 1821. It became a hotel in 1922.
Riverdale Gardens. This is Richmond “pocket gardens”. Riverdale House was here from 1830. In 1927 it was the home of Miss Messum of Messum's Boatyard which was adjacent. The house was demolished in the 1920s and this garden was laid out in 2008-9.
Brewery and malt house belonging to William Lewis from 1726. Lewis’ brewery was destroyed by flooding in the 1780s and the site was bought by the Earl of Leicester
Tile kilns. These were closed by the order of the King in 1766 and the site sold in 1767 to the Duke of Montagu
77 -79 Blade House. These are flats, designed by Paul Brookes Architects over existing boathouses.  The boathouses were part of Messum's Boatyard dating from the 1870s.
81-83 Richmond Canoe Club. This is in The Lansdowne Boathouse and was established in 1944.  They have produced several international competitors.
87 Three Pigeons. This pub dated to 1715 and was used by the local brick workers when it stood on the other side of the road. It was moved to the riverside land in 1870 for the Duke of Bucceugh and ahad a slipway and landing stage. The pub became a curry house in the 1980s but was burnt out in 1995.  It is now housing designed in 2007 by Paul Brookes Architects.

Poppy Factory
The Poppy Factory – this is a complicated site involving the area between Petersham Road and Richmond Hill.
The Poppy Factory. In 1922 the Disabled Society, a charity established in 1920 by Major George Howson MC and Major Jack Cohen received a grant from the British Legion to employ disabled ex soldiers to make remembrance poppies.  They set up in a former collar factory on the Old Kent Road and were soon employing 50 disabled veterans. They made a million poppies within two months. They moved here from the Old Kent Road in 1925 and initially took over premises vacated by Watney’s Brewery in 1925. 
The most northerly part of the factory site – the old brewery buildings are in the square to the north. The area south and east of that is in this square. The area also involves Cardigan House.
The site was, in the 15th part of land used for the manufacture of bricks. Petersham Road itself dates from around that time and was called ‘The Causeway’ passing along the riverbank and likely to be flooded.
Richmond Wells – in the mid 17th some of the site was leased to Thomas Warner who wanted to exploit a spring on the site which might have medicinal properties. This was developed as a spa on the northern part of the site adjacent to Richmond Hill. Most of the buildings of Richmond Well were bought and shut in 1763.  This site is now part of Terrace Gardens
Lansdowne House. This is the area mainly in the square to the north. It included however stabling and ‘The Mews House’ adjacent to the Petersham Road and was later known as the Lansdowne House estate. Lansdowne House itself was on Richmond Hill built for Collins the brewer.   In 1780 the stables were replaced by houses called Lansdowne Place and Mews House was taken over by a Brewery – which included the old workhouse called Rump Hall.  The Poppy Factory Company took over the building in 1925 (described in the square to the north). This site is now part of Terrace Gardens.
Cardigan House. This was built to the north of Richmond Wells in 1771. It was designed by William Eves and the building supervised by Robert Mylne for Robert Sayer and let to the Duke of Clarence. It was later the home of the Commander of the Light Brigade It was bought by the Poppy Factory in 1925, and was used for the Cardigan Club in 1928. Later it was renamed the Remembrance Club and the upper floors converted into flats. In 1970 it was demolished. It was sold to the British Legion who built Bromwich House and Howson Terrace on the site with 16 flats for old people and 66 flats. Some of this site is now part of Terrace Gardens.
Robins Court. This block of flats built in the early 1970s is owned by the Poppy Factory and replaced some of the early manufacturing area. Originally the ground floor was a social club and a concert hall, but was later converted to staff flats.
45-71 Richmond Hill. The Poppy Factory purchased this site on which they builf flats. 
Cellon Ltd. This chemical company was on some of the Watney’s owned buildings adjacent to the Petersham Road. They made cellulose lacquers and synthetic finishes and were eventually taken over by Courtaulds. The poppy factory bought this and built their art deco factory there which opened in 1932.
Art Deco ‘Poppy Factory’ building. A new entrance and offices were built here in the 1970s. The access road was changed to allow for car parking and a new showroom was opened.

Queens Road
Queen's Road was being described as a 'carriageway' by 1768. It was called Black Horse Lane in the early 19th after the pub of that name at the Sheen Road junction. It was also known as Muddy Lane and ran through what was a large area of common land.   It was called Queen's Road by 1845 and named after Queen Victoria
Pesthouse Common. This narrow strip along the road is part of what was extensive common land in this area, its name relating to a plague hospital demolished in 1787. Mature lime and horse chestnut trees border the site and it is sown as a perennial meadow
Queen's Road Estate. This was developed from 1971 by London and Quadrant Housing Ltd on land owned by Richmond Parish Lands Charity. The Charity Trustees wanted housing for lower and middle income families to the same standard as private housing schemes. There was also to be a school, a community centre and housing for the elderly.  The focus was to be the land and buildings released by the closure of the hospital. The winning architects were Darbourne and Darke and work started in 1978. Phase 1 stands out for the quality of the architecture. Phase 2 is said to be an architecturally less inventive arrangement.  Phase 3 was developed by separate developers and architects.

Richmond Hill
Richmond Hill. This is shown on maps from 1876 and in 1650 there is reference to Richmond Hill Common.
48 Old Vicarage House. This is another private fee paying school. This time for girls. The house was built for John Houblon, the first Governor of the Bank of England as Ellerker House. It was Gothicised in 1808 by Mrs. Ellerker.  Used as a school since the 1880s but had been Ellerker House, home of the Houblon family. In 1881 it became another private fee paying school called Ellerker College, a boarding school. In the early 20th the Old Vicarage School moved here from Chiswick as a ‘prep' school but before the Second World War it had become a  girls only school,
Howson Terrace – Poppy Factory housing on the site of Cardigan House. Lansdowne House was also in the same area and now covered by the Poppy Factory estate.
Richmond Hill Court.  Built 1928 and designed by Bertram Carter
90-112 Stuart Court. This was the site of Downe Terrace which was built on the site of Bishop Duppa's almshouses. These stood opposite the corner of Friars Style Lane. Built in the 1660s for ten unmarried women. Hey were demolished in the 1860
Downe House. Build 1771 for Charles Pearce 130
Roebuck Pub This dates from around 1720 but may be older, Haunted and also mysterious caches of money found.
Fountain with an iron cage or arbour, by T. E. Collcutt, 1891.

Sheen Road
37 Union Street. Courtyard with offices and light industry. Has had a variety of firms – adhesives, aircraft parts since the 1930s
Telephone exchange. This is in Spring Terrace and dates from the late 1930s. It had RIChmond numbers until the late 1960s and now is 0208-332, 940 and 948 numbers.
Christian Science Church. This was built from 1939 by architects W. Braxton Sinclair and Barton. It is in red brick and dour
36 Marshgate House. Built in 1699 by a London merchant, John Knapp. It was restored in 1979 by N. G. Sherwen. It was the residence here of a wealthy merchant like Knapp which led to the development of Richmond as a prosperous town.  His crest remains on the gate to the property.
Terrace Gardens
The Terrace Gardens. In the middle ages this was common land called Hill Common. From about 1630 tile kilns were installed along Petersham Road and clay was dug on the common. The tile kilns were closed down in 1767. Between 1765 and 1771 the land was bought for George Brudenell, Earl of Cardigan and Duke of Montagu to extend the pleasure grounds of his riverside house. In 1863 Lansdowne House was incorporated into these gardens. In 1886 the family sold the Richmond properties to the Vestry of Richmond. And tfhey were laid out as Terrace Gardens.  At the opening there was a central tea room, a cast-iron fountain on the Upper Terrace to the west, and a two-storey conservatory with tropical plants built in the north-east corner. A plinth was used for a bandstand on a mound, but this is now the side of the Coade stone figure of Father Thames by John Bacon, 1775, which is thought to have been in the Duke of Montagu's pleasure grounds.  In 1902 a scarlet oak was planted by the daughter of a former Mayor of Richmond to mark the Coronation of Edward VII. The 1928 toilet block at the top of the hill now serves as a gardeners' shed. The conservatory was replaced by a smaller, one-storey building, itself replaced in 2007 by a Victorian-style one.  The fountain was replaced in 1952 by a pond with a sculpture of Aphrodite in Portland stone by Allan Howes. Behind it is a granite drinking fountain from 1887. In 1962 Terrace Gardens were extended north with a Woodland Garden on an area once part of the Cardigan House estate, and the site of Richmond Wells. This includes an Icehouse allegedly built in 1790 in the grounds of Cardigan House. It is behind the summer house, with a doorway faced with oyster shells and flints. In 2006 a new summer house was built.  Near the icehouse is a carved Fishmarker Stone on a stone plinth. This was once used as a fare stage on the Thames giving the distance to Westminster Bridge. In 2008/9 LB Richmond undertook a major refurbishment of the Gardens, Bio-diversity features have been introduced, including stag beetle loggeries, dead-hedges, leaf litter sculpture, bat and bird boxes and bee homes. The sun-dial from Richmond Green has been moved to the rose garden. In 2011 6 ornamental apple trees was planted a memorial to the 145 Polish Air Force pilots who fought in the Battle of Britain

The Vineyard
12 Vineyard Life Church. The building was designed by John Davies in 1831 but was rebuilt in 1851 after a fire. It was a congregational church.  Harold Wilson attended the church while he was Prime Minister, and Tony Blair held weekly discos there. The current church using the building dates from 2013 and is a merger between Richmond Borough Church and The Vineyard Church,
Community Centre. The Vineyard Project had been in the crypt of the Congregational Church since 1979. MIND set up a day centre to help local people in distress. In 2011 Mind said they could no longer afford to keep the Project open and it is now run by a charity called the Vineyard Community Centre. It includes which the Richmond Food Bank, The Vineyard charity Shop and the Basement Door for young people.
14 St Elizabeth. The church dates from the 1790s but the present building dates from 1824 and was the gift of Elizabeth Doughty. It was designed by Thomas Hardwick but the chancel presbytery and tower were rebuilt in 1903. St Elizabeth was a 14th queen of Portugal. It claims to be oldest still standing Catholic Church in the diocese of Southwark. There is a Plaque to a hanged Franciscan
16 Clarence House. This dates from around 1696. It was built for Nathaniel Rawlins, a London merchant. William IV lived here as the Duke of Clarence in the 1780s. 1792 -1799 it was a Catholic school – which had Bernado O’Higgins as a pupil and there is a blue plaque to him outside the property. The house was a warehouse for Fortnum and Mason 1941 to 1947. It later became a private house owned by Brian Blessed, in the late 1960s.
Bishop Duppa Almshouses. Founded 1661 – but many other additions since.  Bishop Duppa was bishop of Chichester and later Winchester but lived for many years in Richmond. They were for 10 unmarried women over 50 years of age and were first built on Richmond Hill.  These were built in 1860 by Thomas little and consist of Five houses on either side of a central archway leading to garden at back. Most of left side is modern following Second World War bomb damageT.  The classical garden entrance with original tablet may come from the old almshouses of 1661and there is an original archway in the garden.
Queen Elizabeth's Almshouses.  These were founded by Sir George Wright to house 8 poor aged women and were known originally as the ‘Lower almshouses’ the name ‘Queen Elizabeth’s’ being later. They were originally built in Petersham Road. These are 20th housing.
40 British School. This building is in austere grey brick and dates from 1867. It grew out of a school opened in the Vineyard Chapel. As the school grew this school was built. Lack of space led to the school moving into new buildings after the Second World War. It is now sheltered housing
42 Dukes Head. Pub which dates from the 1870s.
Michel's Almshouses. These are Almshouses for 10 single or married men founded by Humphrey Michel, who lived on Richmond Green. .He died in 1696 and the building was finished by his nephew, John. The current buildings are 19th replacements and there is another range of 1858

Vineyard Passage
 The Vineyard Passage Burial Ground was opened in 1791. It finally closed for burials in 1874. Landscaped in 1984.


Worple Way
14 White Horse. Fullers pub licensed from the 1890s
Houblon's Almshouses. These were founded in 1757 by Rebecca and Susanna Houblon, who gave the site and the land which is now Houblon Road.  They lived at Ellerker House from a Hugonaut family and thus originally inmates had to be protestant. The oldest almshouses were built in 1757, originally to house nine poor women and A further two almshouses were built in 1857. They are now managed by The Richmond Charities


Sources
Behind the Blue Plaques
Blue Plaque Guide
Cambrian  Centre. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Cloake. Cottages and Common Fields of Richmond and Kew
Cloake. Richmond Past
Dunbar. Prospect of Richmond
English Heritage. Web site
Grace’s Guide. Web site
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Open House. Web site
London Transport. Country walks
London Encyclopaedia
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Parker. North Surrey
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry South London,
Pevsner. Surrey
Poppy Factory. Web site
Vineyard. Web site
Vineyard School. Web site
Workhouses. Web site

Tuesday, 14 June 2016

Riverside - south of the river, west of the Tower. Richmond - central and riverside

Riverside - south of the river, west of the Tower. Richmond - central and riverside

Post to the west St.Margarets
Post to the east Richmond Hill


Bridge Street
This was once called Ferry Hill and built as part of the 18th bridge construction.
O’Higgins Square. On the east side of the street at the start of the bridge is a small park. This has a bust of Bernardo O’Higgins, the first president of Chile who studied here 1795 – 1798.
Tower House. This has an 'Italian villa' type tower. It became a restaurant and is now one of the Pitcher and Piano chain pubs. Part of the Quinlan Terry development.
Milestone. This is an obelisk which commemorates the opening of Richmond Bridge. The inscription says: "The first stone of this Bridge was laid 23 August 1774 and finished December 1777". Inscriptions on other faces give distances to London Bridge and Windsor.


Cholmondeley Walk
The walk is named after George, 3rd Earl of Cholmondley who owned land and lived here in the 18th. This is land reclaimed from the river in the 16th,
Garden Wall to Trumpeters House. This is 17th wall with a Tudor wall standing at right angles behind it. Behind the wall is a large lawn between the house and the riverside which is the site of Fountain Court – the central court of Richmond Palace and of the Privy Lodgings.  The western part of the garden next to Asgill House is part of the Great Orchard and became part of Asgill House grounds in 1756.
Gazebo. This 18th structure is at the end of the garden of Trumpeters House ands built into the river wall. It was a bathing pavilion, built in the 1760s. It is now used as an artist's studio.
Queensberry House. Cholmondley House which had stood on the riverside was renamed Queensbury House in the 1780s. It was built for George Earl of Cholmondley. The grounds stretched from the sire of Wardrobe in the old Palace to the riverside. It was rebuilt by Lewis Vuillamy in 1835 using the materials of the old house. There are now flats on the site facing Friars Lane.
Library. The Earl of Cholmondley built a cruciform shaped library in his grounds on the riverside.


Church Terrace
Bethlehem Chapel. This is an independent Calvinistic church. The building dates from 1797 and still has its original galleried interior with pews and pulpit. It was built by John Chapman, and is a Huntington Chapel opened by Calvinist William Huntington. The church is traditional in worship and doctrine and uses the King James Bible. Richmond Messian Fellowship also use the building


Church Walk
6 restaurant in what is said to be the parish refectory
Parish Rooms for St.Mary’s Church. These are above the Refectory

Compass Hill
This is named after a pub called The Compasses which dated from at least 1737 and replaced a pub called The Rising Sun. It was demolished in 1952.

Duke Street
5-6 H.Beard & Co, Richmond Cycle Stores and workshops in the 1890s. They also used 1 The Green round the corner.


Friar’s Lane
This marks the boundary between the old Palace of Shene and the Convent of the Observant Friary set up by Henry VII.  Henry V moved to an old Manor House known at Byfleet at Shene and then began to build a new palace. Henry VII later gave these Byfleet Buildings to the Observant Friars.
Chapel – a building near the south end of the west side appears to be an old chapel.  It is said that a chapel building in the street was used by industry in the 1960s and earlier.
Lissen, Ltd., Lissenium Works. This was one of several sites owned by this firm, which made wireless sets in the 1920s and 1930s. Founded by a Mr. Cole in 1922 as a manufacturer and retailer of parts for radio receivers including audio transformers, variable resistances and rheostats. In the late 1920s they became involved with Ever Ready and taken over by them in the 1930s and they were wound up after the Second World War.
Richmond Brewery. In 1833 the Crown had sold the site and a brewery and malt houses were subsequently built. The brewery was built here about 1840 on the site of what had been Cholmondley House's stables and it brewed AK Dinner Ale.  . By the 1890s it was owned by a Vincent Rollinson. In 1894 has been speculated that it was the works of the Ajax Non-Alcoholic Ale and Stout Co. Ltd,
Goldsmith and Sons. Dyers and cleaners. They were in the brewery buildings by 1903 until the start of the Great War
6 Sichel Adhesives Ltd. they made vegetable and synthetic adhesives, acquired the old brewery site in 1936. They remained until 1965 when the council bought the site for a car park.  A sign for the works is said to remain on one of the walls.
Gazebo. Series of 6 brick arches ending with a hexagonal tower or gazebo. This gazebo has been restored into a little house. It was built in the mid 18th with one storey and basement. There is a battlemented parapet.
Queensberry House flats. The current flats were built in 1934 on the site of Queensherry House. A cast-iron fountain in the garden was probably from 1830 development. There are two plaques in the wall:-one records the site of the Palace of Shene here and the other refers to the building of Queensbury House.
Boathouses and stonemasons yard. The road curves at the end to take in a section of the riverside at the end of Cholmondley Walk.


George Street 
The main street taking its name from George III. It was previously known as Great Street.
12 Martin’s Bank. After it was closed in 1971/2 it was taken over by Marks and Spencer next door.
22-24 Greyhound House. Offices from 1983-4 in the building which was once the Greyhound Hotel. It has begun as a pub called the White Horse and in the 1730s was rebuilt and named Greyhound. It was a major pub in the town and used for town meetings and for clubs and societies. It closed in 1923.
29 Tesco. The building was Wright’s Department store. High up on the gable are the initials WB and the date of 1896. Wright Bros used the overhead fast transit system round the store and lasted until the 1970s.
37 site of the old Castle Inn, replaced in 1761 on a different site
35/38 Police Station. This was closed and converted into shops in 1912. Opened in 1840.
St.Mary’s parochial schools. These were set up in the Lilypot Inn which was on the corner with Brewer Street. In 1713 and remained here until 1834.
52 Car Phone Warehouse with external handing clock. In the 1890s The Richmond Clock house was at 51 George Street- next door - but the external clock here seems to indicate their interest. It has unreadable lettering on it.
55-56 Courlander, Jeweller's shop. They are the oldest jewellers in Richmond and, Herman Courlander was Mayor of Richmond in the 1940s. They originated in Gracechurch Street City in 1881
70 George Street was the first Richmond Post Office. Built in 1886
80 House of Fraser. Built as Dickens and Jones opened in 1970.  It had been Gosling’s opened in 1795 and which took over part of the Queen’s Head Hotel. Burnt down in 1968 and re-opened.

Heron Square
Heron Square. Herring or Heron court was a late 17th development with three houses facing the river. It was built in the site of the Royal Mews. The Royal Hotel was built here.  The Heron Square development was designed by Quinlan Terry in 1988. It is mainly office buildings but incorporates Heron House which uses the façade of the old Palm Court Hotel and the old Tower Hotels.
The Drebble. This is a fully working submarine based on a design by Cornelius Drebbel from the Netherlands. Note the oars for rowing underwater. It is said to have was rowed underneath the surface of the Thames from Richmond Palace through London to Greenwich while watched by King James I

Hill Rise
Several varied shop fronts up the hill
Bills. Restaurant in stuccoed, late Georgian building. This was the Kings Head Hotel which began as a small alehouse called the Plough extant in 1659. It became the King's Head in the 19th and was enlarged several times. A series of dance halls and night clubs have since been in the building which has had a number of names,


Hill Street 
1White Hart Inn. This was on the corner with Water Lane from in buildings of 1696 and opened as a pub by 1724. It appears to have remained open until the Great War. Writing on a plaque above the door of the current ‘flat iron’ building appears to have been erased.
3 this was the site of the shop where the Maids of Honour tarts were sold. In the 1950s the façade was removed and it was modernised. The commercial production of Maids of Honour here began in 1750 when Thomas Burdekin took a small shop and later expanded here. They were further exploited by the Billet family. . The shop closed in 1957. The recipe was however passed to the Bullen family who still make the tarts in the Kew Road.
5 New Royalty Kinema. This opened in 1914 operated by the Joseph Mears chain.an 18th house was used as the foyer.  The original wood panelling and stars of the town house were retained, as was an original fireplace, which heated the foyer on cold winter nights. At the rear of the foyer, a short flight of steps on the left led down to a tea lounge.  The auditorium was what had been the garden and the decoration was in a French Classical style and it had a sliding roof for hot summer days. In 1922 a Hill Norman & Beard organ was installed. In 1929 it was re-named Royalty Kinema. It closed in 1940, because of the war and re-opened in 1942. It was taken over by Odeon Theatres Ltd. In 1944 and eventually became part of the Rank Organisation who changed the name to Gaumont in 1949. The Gaumont was closed in 1980, and the auditorium was demolished in 1983 and part of the site –with a covenant on retention of cinema use is Curzon Richmond on Water Lane. The 18th facade and foyer were kept and are now in use as dentist, offices and a beer cellar.
7 Spread Eagle. This opened in 1761 as The Kings Arms, a taproom for the Castle Hotel. In 1823 it became separate from the hotel and was known as the The Spread Eagle. It closed in 1909 and is now a shop.
9 This was originally the Ellis wine business with a meeting hall above. It later became the London and County Bank, which, in 1852, was the first bank in Richmond.  By the 1890s it was Hetherington’s pianoforte gallery
19 Etherington’s used this as their music warehouse in the 1890s, calling it Bach House. The business had been set up in Twickenham in 1792, moving to Richmond in 1830. In 1842 they moved to the corner of Hill Rise and later to this address in Hill Street. By the 1890s they had another premises opposite.  Etherington's pianos were said to be widely advertised and popular. When Etherington Hall was built -possibly to the rear – these premises became their gramophone showroom.
23 the Royal Arms also called the Royal Hotel. This dared from from 1834 and was converted from a mansion built in the 1820s. The Royal Arms pub. This was the tap room for the hotel. By mid 1850s The Royal it had become three houses
32 in 1837 this was a showroom for Mears Motors,
34 TheTalbot Inn. Previously the Dog Inn before 1768
38 The Talbot Picture Theatre was built on part of the site of the Talbot Hotel, in 1911. The facade had a small tower feature and inside there were boxes each with a separate staircase. The auditorium in was in green and blue.  In 1917, it was sold to Joseph Mears, and was closed in 1930 a week before Mears opened the Richmond Kinema. The frontage of the Talbot was demolished, and shops with flats above, were built. The auditorium survived at the rear and was used as a garage and works until 1978, when it was demolished.
72 The Richmond Kinema opened in 1930 built for the Joseph Mears Theatres circuit and designed by Leathart and Granger. It was re-named Premier Cinema in 1940 to allow the removal of the Richmond name from the facade. It was taken over by Oscar Deutsch’s Odeon Theatres in 1944 and was re-named Odeon.  It had Halophane concealed lighting and was converted into a triple screen from in. the old circle retains the original auditorium in the style of a 17th Spanish courtyard with Spanish tiles, Moorish windows and plaster oranges and doves. The foyer plasterwork depicts the various trades carried on by the employees of the original owner, Joseph T. Mears.


King Street
This was once called Cross Street and then Furbelow Street.
Feathers Pub was on the corner with Water Lane.  Before that it was the Golden Hynde. It was rebuilt in the 18th and then turned into offices in 1850s and demolished for road widening in 1907.
Feathers Yard lies behind the shops here. A building here was Broad & Co Printing Works. It had also been used as a Mission Room. It became a print works in 1853 for Thomas Darnell and Broads from 1893 until 1988,
3 The Old Ship with a 17th core and later additions. In 1682 it was called the Six Bells and then The Ship in 1724.
9 Before 1800 this was the post office run by a shopkeeper and sending three mail coaches to London a day.
12-13 at one time this was a pub called the New Ship
14 Wickham House. This was the offices of the Richmond and Twickenham Times owned by the Dimbleby family since 1874 when Frederick Dimbleby joined the paper.  There was a print works to the rear. It was sold in 2001 and has now been converted to flats. It is said to have been the home of the Wickham family in the 18th, hence the name


Lewis Road
Richmond Hill Health Club. This was built on the site of Mears Motors Garage


Northumberland Place
This is on the riverside upriver of Richmond Bridge. 
Northumberland House stood here from 1766 built for George Coleman, dramatist, who named it Bath House for his patron.  It was later called Cambourne House, and then, as the home of the Duchess of Northumberland, it was Northumberland House. It was used by the Richmond Club – a ‘gentleman’s club’ - from 1888 and was been demolished in 1969 and replaced with modern up market housing.
Rotary Gardens. This is a “pocket gardens”, Cambourne Path is a step free path linking the tow path to Petersham Road, Northumberland House was once called Cambourne House.


Old Deer Park
Obelisk. This is one of three obelisks which are meridian marks set up for the purpose of adjusting the transit instruments in the Observatory Thus  pillar corresponds to the west wing of the building.


Old Palace Lane
This was once called Palace Lane and also Asgill Lane. The Palace stood to the west of the lane.
1 The Virginals. This was called Cedar Grove until 1963.  This is an 18th house built on or near the site of the King’s bake house.
28 White Swan Pub. This dates from 1787
Asgill House. This was built for Sir Charles Asgill, City banker and Lord Mayor who died 1788. It is a Palladian villa by Robert Taylor’s' and it was restored in 1969-70. It was Built 1757-8 as a summer residence Charles Asgill on the site of the palace brew house. It stands close to the river to exploit the river views. The garden is not large and has a winding path, made after 1969,
A stone plaque on the wall records that the royal palace extended to the river here and that Edward III, Henry VII and Elizabeth I all died here. It says: "On this site extending eastward to cloisters of the ancient Friary of Shene formerly stood the river frontage of the Royal Palace. First occupied by Henry in 1125”.
Crane Piece. This was the site on the riverside at the end of the Lane in the 17th where there was also a wharf. Near it was the Rock house, an unexplained feature which has been interpreted as a never finished giant water feature to adorn the grounds of Richmond Palace, but abandoned after the death of Henry Prince of Wales in 1612. It was later convertd into a brewhouse which was still functioning in the late 18th. There was also a cistern house for the Palace here which later became an armoury.


Old Palace Yard
This corresponds approximately to the outline of the Great Court of the Tudor Palace. All traces of the Palace have disappeared on the north and south-west sides but on the south-east side is a section of the original palace, in the range called the Wardrobe. These were some of the areas kept by the Crown in the late 17th.
The Wardrobe.  This is an important relic of the Tudor Palace. It has blue diapered brickwork and blocked ground floor arcade. It was once storage for the monarch’s personal possessions. But it was altered in the late 17th and early 18th to link it to the Gatehouse; windows were added and the doorways were bricked up. The garden front at the back was in 1710. It is now converted into houses.  There is wall plaque to George Cave. Lawyer, Home Secretary and Lord Chancellor who lived here for nearly 40 years
Trumpeters House. This was built in 1702-4 by John Yeomans for Richard Hill. The entrance is on the site of the Tudor Middle Gate building. It was named from two stone figures of trumpeting heralds that had stood on the Middle Gate and used in the new building. A portico was added in the 1740s. The main front faces the river across a lawn which is where the Privy Lodgings of the Tudor palace stood. Metternich lived here as a refugee in 1848, In the Second World War it was used as a Red Cross Club, and hit by a V1. In 1952 it was restored by C. Bernard Brown and is now flats. Middle Gateway would have led into Fountain Court, with the Royal Chapel on the south-east side, the Royal Apartments on the south-west side and on the Great Hall on the north-west side the Great Hall
Path, from Old Palace Yard to Old Palace Lane is the line of the Palace entrance for servants
Ormonde Avenue
Housing development in what was the garden of The Rosery, in Ormonde Road.


Ormond Road
The Free Church - Unitarian church. This was built in 1896, and was designed by T Locke Worthington. It has five windows by Morris & Co. installed in 1912. A rear extension designed by Kenneth Taylor was opened in 1966.
The Rosary. This is one of two houses built in 1699-1700 back to back by Nathaniel Rawlins, a Habersdasher and building speculator.
The Hollies – the other house built by Rawlins
7 Ormonde Lodge. St.Mary’s Vicarage – this moved here from Richmond Green in 1947.


Paradise Road
St.Mary Magdalene. This is the old parish church lying between the green and hill with a tower of built around 1507 and faced with flint and stone. The body of the church dates from 1750 but the front is earlier in yellow and red brick. There was an original chapel which was built around 1220 but it was entirely rebuilt during the when Henry VI rebuilt the palace here and renamed the town of Sheen as Richmond. It has been added to and rebuilt several times since then. In 1866 Arthur Blomfield replaced the nave ceiling with timber, added galleries and bench pews. In 1903–04 George Bidley replaced the chancel, two Chapels and the vestry. The tower has eight bells dated 1680 to 1761 which were re-hung in the 1980s. The organ was built in 1907 by J.W.Walker and it is on the National Pipe Organ Register
Churchyard. This is surrounded by low retaining walls and flagged footpaths. Some gravestones have been placed along the wall, with other tombs and monuments among the grass. There are mature trees including yews and also a stone war memorial.


Petersham Road
The road name dates only from 1895 and it was previously the Lower Causeway or the Lower Road.
Almshouses. These were built in 1600 a few hundred yards down river from the ferry. They were founded by Sir George Wright. They were gradually enlarged and called Queen Elizabeth’s Almshouses. They were later moved to the Vineyard
39 Belle Vue House. This sign is painted across the front of the house which might indicate some commercial use. It is believed to date from the late 18th and once overlooked a stretch of riverside gardens. In the 19th it held night-time river fetes with fireworks. It is now let into flats.
Rump Hall. This was a 17th house leased by the Vestry in 1730 as a workhouse. The brewery and poppy factory were later on the site
Hobart Hall. This was a house called Ivy Hall which replaced a previous house built before 1726. It was enlarged in 1757-8 for the widow of John Hobart, the Earl of Buckinghamshire. It became the home of her son Henry Hobart. By 1820 it was a boy’s school. Most recently it has been a hotel, now apparently closed.
18 Mews House. This was built as stables for Richmond Wells. In 1840 it was rebuilt and renamed in 1853 as the Lansdowne Brewery. 
Lansdowne Brewery Store. The site on the Petersham Road was used for offices, stabling, storage, bottling and barrel washing – not actual brewing.  The brewery itself was to the south. The building is red brick with RICHMOND BREWERY STORES" in white lettering on blue. The brewery closed.
Royal British Legion Poppy Factory took over the building in 1926. Poppies were made there until 1933 when the new factory opened. .  Nearly 40 million poppies are made here each year, employing disabled war veterans. The old building was kept and the centre buttons for the poppies were made there, but it mainly a store and social club. 
Rovex Plastics took over the building in 1954.  They made plastic toys for Marks and Spencer.  The company nameplate was placed over the brewery sign. By 1956 the factory was too small and they moved to Margate.


Red Lion Street
This was once called Back Lane
Olde Red Lyon, this was on the corner with George Street built in the 16th probably on the site of an earlier establishment. .It closed in the 1720s. It had been Richmond's principle hostelry from the mid-16th until the 1730s.
Red Lion Inn, This was built near to the site of the police station. It was built in the 1780s and closed in 1909. It is said to have had a plaque 'established 1525' but this related to the original inn.
Police Station. The station was moved here in 1912. The police no longer own this building,
Lion House. Modernist building of shops and flats. It is faced in light brick from the first floor upwards. The ground floor is tiled in contrasting horizontal bands of black and white tiles and. above, the floors mirror the banding of the tiles below. There is a projecting corner tower with an entrance to the building. The tower had a corner window for its full height. There are three vertical flagpoles atop the uppermost canopy.It dates from the 1930s and the architect is apparently unknown.
Odeon Studio Theatre. This opened in 1992 in a building which had previously been a Mecca Billiard Hall. It is in sub-divided into 3 screens and advertised separately to the main Odeon.
4 Haleon House. This address is given for the Etherington piano business then established in an adjacent premises in Hill Street. In the 1930s they appeat to hafe been taken voer by the larger firm or Robert Morley who are also listed for this address.  A desdription is gficen in a trade paper of Etherimngton new oresmises in 1912.  Mtyge address of it is given as George Street – however it appears to match this address in Red Lion Street. It should also be noted that Haleon House is adjacent to Bach House, their premises in Hill Street. The new building was to the designs of Smith and Brewer, architects and it was fronted with Doulton's Carrara ware. It is also said there us a staircase leading up to the first floor, which forms quite an imposing concert hall. A hall to the south of Haleon House is shown on maps from the period of the Great War and this is soon after marked as a billiard hall.  It appears to be on the footprint of the current Odeon Studio Theatre


Retreat Road
This was a private road to Villa Retreat, which later became Retreat House
1 Friends Meeting House
The HQ 14th Richmond Viking Scout Boat Centre. The 14th Richmond was founded in 1921 and became a full Sea Scout section in 1946 with a group who have stayed together until the present. Viking is a rowed life boat originally purchased in 1932 from the Leander Sea Scouts at Kingston. She was originally built in 1904 by Harland and Woolfe as the lifeboat for the Bibby Line’s SS Worcestershire
Richmond Glass Works. Glass manufacturers who were here in the 1920s.
Print works. This was the works for the Richmond and Twickenham Times based at 14 King Street.


Richmond Bridge
Richmond Bridge, this is an 18th stone arch bridge designed by James Paine and Kenton Couse. It was built between 1774 and 1777 to replace a ferry. It was built with funding raised through a tontine scheme and it was tolled. It has five spans. The bridge was widened in 1937–40 and the foundations strengthened, but otherwise it is as its original design.  It is the oldest surviving Thames bridge in London. There were tollhouses at each end of the bridge but tolls were abolished in 1859.  Labourers removed toll the gates from their hinges and the toll houses were demolished, and replaced by seating in 1868. In 1931 the bridge was taken into the joint public ownership of Surrey and Middlesex councils.
Ferry.  The Richmond ferry was considered to be very important and may date to the reign of Edward III. By the 16th the lease of the ferry was a sinecure for Crown servants who would lease it to a ferryman. It was a horse ferry.  In  the mid -18th it was becoming outdated and the then holder, William Windham, applied to built a wooden bridge and a number of complications arose concerning aristocratic landowners and also watermen’s rights. It eventually closed, after the bridge was built, in 1777.


Richmond Railway Bridge.
Richmond Railway Bridge.This runs alongside Twickenham Bridge. It was built in 1848 when the railway was extended from Richmond to Windsor. Joseph Locke and J E Errington designed the original bridge with three 100-foot cast iron girders supported on stone-faced land arches with two stone-faced river piers. There were concerns about its structural integrity, and it was rebuilt in 1908 on the original piers and abutments to designs of J.W.Jacomb Hood for the London and South West Railway. The main girders and decking were replaced in 1984. It is preceded by seven arches and viaduct over the Old Deer park as dictated by the Crown Commissioners.


Richmond Green
One of the biggest village greens in England and once was used as the jousting field for the palace. The site had been common wasteland, and used for archery in 1649.  Cricket has been played here since the 18th and the earliest known fixture on the Green was Surrey v Middlesex in 1730. Cut and cover shelters were built here in the Second World War.
The Outer Gateway, This was the main access to Henry VII’s Palace, and led directly into the Great Court. Hinge pins remain from what were once large doors here and there is also a blocked opening on the east side. Henry VII’ arms were restored in 1976. This is a simple gateway with a large and a small stone arch.
The Gate House. This is mostly Tudor with renewed windows and chimneys. There is diapered brickwork in the tower beside it.
1-4 Maids of Honour Row. These houses were built in 1724 by a Thomas Honour for the Maids of Honour attending on the Princess of Wales, Princess Caroline of Anspach. The maids received £200 per year plus board and lodgings in one of two of these houses. However, the houses were only occupied by maids of honour until 1728 and from then on they were occupied by ordinary and wealthy people. They are sited on what was part of the Privy Garden and its wall. In 1744 4 belonged to Heidegger, the Manager of the Kings Theatre Haymarket. His scene painter, Antonio Jolli, painted the hall in the house with panels showing views of Switzerland, Italy, China, and emblems of the arts and seasons.
1 Shakespeare House. There is a story from the 17th that this was owned by Shakespeare's friend Simon Bardolph but there is no evidence of this. From about 1897 to 1926 this was the address of the bicycle manufacturer Beard and Co. whose showroom and workshop were round the corner in Duke Street.From 1979 it was offices of the Nichiren Shoshu.
2 This is an 18th house used as the Richmond Nursing Home from 1903 to the Second World War. During this time it was also the Office of the Richmond Corporation for Trained Nurses.
3 Gothic House
4 Levinge Lodge. This dates from 1755. From 1887to 1889, it was the Metropolitan Institution Servants Home and then from 1895 to 1918 it was the Princess Mary Adelaide Training Home for Young Servants.
9 Onslow House. This was built about 1710 by Lord Onslow. Much of the material used was re-used from the recently demolished Palace. In the 19th it was a school for young ladies. It is currently occupied by a firm of solicitor which had been set up in 1917 by Arthur Calvert-Smith and Norman Sutcliffe who moved here in 1954
11 Queen Anne House. This dates from the early 18th. In the basement is a lead cistern dated 1715. In 1726 this was used as a Coffee House and in the late 19th it may have been a boys' school.
17 From the early 18th this appears to have been a coffee house and in the 19th a school of cookery. Virginia Woolfe and her husband lived here temporarily in 1914 when it was a boarding house. In the 20th it was used as offices and eventually by Boots – whose store is to the rear in George Street – as offices and a depot. They turned the central window into an entrance and have removed most of the original interior.
19 St. Luke’s Mission Hall.There was a house here from the early 18th, used as a ladies school and a boarding house. It was demolished and replaced by St. Luke’s Hall in 1904. It is now an architects’ office. St. Luke’s mission is written over the door.
20 Shearwater House.  Offices.  A house here was demolished in 1903 to make an entrance to the GPO Sorting office in Park Lane to the rear.
21-22 These are known to have been built in 1692, which makes them the first example of an urban brick terrace in London. In the late 19th they used by the Post Office along with adjoining buildings in the High Street, with a yard between the buildings for carts and vans. A telephone exchange was installed necessitating the strengthening of the floors for the heavy equipment. The dormers were also removed to provide mechanical cooling for the equipment. Later they were converted to office use, with a new building in the yard. They have since been converted back to housing.
The Cricketers. Claims to date from 1770, when a pub called The Crickett Players stood here, but it may be earlier. A previous pub was The White Horse Inn. This building was burnt down in 1844. It was quickly rebuilt. It was owned by local brewer Edward Collins in the late 18th but taken over by Whitbreads.
28 Princes Head. The building dates to 1705. It was originally called The Duke of Ormonde’s Head, after James Butler, the 2nd Duke of Ormonde who became popular after his victory at Vigo Bay in 1702. Later the pub was known as The Duke’s Head.  And from 1778, The Princes Head. In 1902 the proprietor of the Prince’s Head was royal barge master and champion sculler Bill East.
Drinking fountain. Late 19th in Portland stone and in a very plain Gothic design. A plaque says that it was repaired in 1977 to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of HM Queen Elizabeth II".
29-32 Old Palace Terrace. This was called Powell’s Row until 1850. They were built in 1692 by Vestue Radford, a local barrister.
1 Old Palace Terrace was premises of Lloyds, pharmaceutical chemists –established in 1826 and an apothecary’s shop before that.
5 Old Palace Terrace was at one time the home of Stephen Rigaud of the Kew Royal Observatory from 1769 - 1814. It was then a carpenters’ shop and then a boarding house
29 Oak House on the site of the house of the Franciscan Observant Friars founded by Henry VII and dates from the mid 18thy  It was used as the headquarters of the Richmond branch of the YMCA 1897-1915.
Theatre Royal.  This stood the Green, at the top of Old Palace Lane next to where Garrick Close has now been built. . The first manager who also probably built it was an actor called James Dance. Inside the lobby was as those in Drury Lane. There were boxes for most of the audience and a galley and an orchestra pit. It opened in 1765, and later George III and Queen Charlotte became patrons. In 1831, Edmund Kean leased it and lived next door. However his health was poor and he died in 1833. Gas lighting was installed in the first half of the 19th. From 1858 the theatre became very prosperous. The last proprietor was John Russell, whose first season opened in 1880 but after initial success, attendance dropped and he was forced to engage street entertainers. In the early 1880s it closed and was demolished in 1884. Garrick House was built on the site,
Old Palace Place, Built around.1700, this is on the site of a 16th timber and plaster building. The remains of this earlier house were discovered during the Great War when it was used as a Red Cross Hospital. For a time it became two houses but they were reunited by Wellesley & Wills in 1928 for Sir Kenneth Clark. The original bread ovens remain in the basement. The south-west corner of the house is from around 1580 and it is a vaulted basement with a Tudor fireplace, a Tudor bedroom with a powder-room and a beamed galleried landing. Remains of Tudor wall paintings have been discovered.  The house was subdivided again in 1982-3
Old Friars. This is on the Site of Observant Friars building. The date of in 1687 – is marked on a rainwater head and it was refronted around 1700. An extension on the east built in 1749 was used as a concert room called Beaver Lodge. In the late 19th it was used by the Richmond Liberal and Radical Club. There is a wrought-iron gate.
Old Court House. This was built about the same time as Maids of Honour Row but has been changed

Richmond Palace
Richmond Palace was built by Henry VII in 1499-1501 on the site of the manor-house of Sheen which had itself been established by at least 1125. A royal residence had stood here probably built by Edward III who died there in 1377. This had been destroyed by Richard II in 1395 following the death his wife Anne of Bohemia there in 1394. Henry V built another palace there 1413 – 1422 but this was burnt down in 1497 and it was this that Henry VII rebuilt.  He died here in 1509 but Henry VIII lived here less frequently than his father. He gave it to Anne of Cleves wino lived here from 1540-47. Elizabeth later lived here as her favourite home and eventually died here in 1603. From the 17th it was used infrequently by the royals and was gradually demolished during and after the Commonwealth as new buildings replaced it.


Riverside
The Richmond riverside in this square is broken up into a number of sections. The square begins on the towpath at the southern end of the Old Deer Park, and then became Cholmondley Walk (see above), there is then a short section of the end of Friars Lane (see above) and the riverside then continues as a riverside walk extending and continuing beyond Richmond Bridge.
Towpath.  In 1777 the City of London were authorised by an Act of Parliament to build a towpath suitable for horses between Kew and Ham.
The White Cross. This Young’s pub dates from 1835.  It has a stained glass window to remind us that it was built on the site of the Observant Friars' convent whose sign was a white cross. The original pub here dated from around 1727 and was called the Waterman’s' Arms.  In 1742 the landlady was a widow whose name was Cross, and the name was changed then and drawings of 1749 bear this out. It was rebuilt in the 1760s and in 1835, it was owned by Collins Brewery and sometimes called Eel Pie House. Young and Bainbridge, brewers bought it in 1870.
Barge House. This was sited at the end of Friars Lane
St. Helena House. 1815. Recording Napoleon’s banishment
St. Helena Terrace – the terrace dates from the mid 19th but the arched boat houses under the terrace dating from 1835 and may be older than the terrace.  The doors open directly onto the riverside. In the early 20th some of these were used by coal merchants and others for building and repairing boats. They are know let out for boat storage but that also includes a potter's studio
Drawdock.  This is at the end of Water Lane
Castle Inn. This pub was on a large site fronting onto Hill Street and Whittaker Street. The Gardens with the Assembly rooms stretched to the riverside.
Richmond Riverside. Designed by Quinlan Terry between 1984-7, the development includes two listed buildings and it is in the 18th architectural style   including elements of English and Italian architecture, and the Gothic revival of the 19th. The development is made up of offices, flats, shops, restaurants, community facilities, underground car parks and riverside gardens. It was a joint development by Haslemere Estates and the Pension Fund Property Unit Trust, It opened in 1988.
Tootsies. This was Hotham House which had been developed in the late 17th. It was occupied around 1810 by Admiral Sir William Hotham and was thus named from him. By 106- it was semmi derelict and collapsed. It was rebuilt and is the largest of the Richmond Riverside Development buildings facing the river. In Heron Square it is supposed to represent the style of an English late 17th country house,
Heron House. This was the south of Hotham House and smaller. Built in 1716.  It is said to have been the home of Emma Hamilton 1808-1810.
Palm Court. This was a 1850s building of a hotel said to be much used by aircrew from Heathrow.  By 1875 it was empty and semi-derelict and was used as a women's refuge organised by Erin Pizzey. It has been rebuilt in Heron Square and is an office block
Royal Family Hotel. This was a house from the 1690s rebuilt in the 19th and later became a hotel,
Slug and Lettuce Pub. This was Riverside House which was originally part of Collins Brewery, which was founded in the 1720s and closed in the 1870s,
Bridge House Gardens.  These gardens are on the site of Bridge House. The council acquired the derelict house in 1959 and it became a small public gardens. The lower level is now leased a café. The garden was restored in 2008 as part of the London’s Arcadia project. The upper level is O’Higgins Square.
Bridge House.  This house dated from the late 17th and was south of the ferry. It was built by the Rev Abiel Borfett, Minister of Richmond, on the site of an early 17th cottage. By the early 20th it was a tea rooms but it was derelict by 1959
Richmond Bridge Boathouses. The royal shallop “The Jubilant” was built here by Mark Edwards, commissioned by the Thames Traditional Rowing Association for the Jubilant Trust.  He also built the 42 foot shallop the Lady Mayoress, for the Company of Watermen and Lightermen. Gloriana, created for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee, was also finished with her gilt paint here
Plane tree. This is claimed as London’s tallest Plane and on the tow path. It is likely to be 300 years old


St. Margaret’s Ferry
St. Margaret’s Ferry. This appears to have been a horse ferry in the 1880s with sixteen boats working it. It continued to run and after the bridge was built in 1933.


Twickenham Bridge
Twickenham Bridge. This was built in 1933 as part of the Chertsey Arterial Road and is part of the current A136. The architect was Maxwell Ayrton and the engineer was Alfred Dryland. It has three reinforced-concrete arches supported on art deco concrete piers. It was the first bridge to embody hinges enabling it to adjust to changes in temperature. The balustrades and lamps were constructed of open bronze work. In 1992, the first Gatso speed camera in the United Kingdom was launched on here,


Wakefield Road
Bus Station



Water Lane
This was once known as Thames Lane and it ran alongside a small stream going to the river
This lane has a cartway of twin lines of granite bricks and setts between the brick lines of stone, so that carts could go down in the mud at low tide before the weir was built and goods could be loaded over the side of boats. It was originally called Town Lane and was the route from the Town Wharf into the town.  It leads to the old ferry
Collins Brewery. This was at the bottom of the lane. It was built in 1715 and closed in 1860.  It was the first Richmond brewery.  A brew house was first set up here 1711 and 1728 when t was sold to John and William Collins.  They owned many tied houses in the town. ‘#
Water Works. Thus was a municipal works set up by Richmond Vestry with a pumping station on the site of Collins Brewery. A well was sunk beneath it and a bore hole.  They had a Boulton and Watt engine. The pumping station was only used as a standby after 1931.  In 1967, electrically-driven booster pumps were installed to pump water from the Hampton mains up to the Richmond Park reservoirs. It Closed in 1980.
Enclosure. At the bottom of Water Lane, behind the White Cross, is a small railed enclosure which contains the head of a shaft to the tunnel which carries the the Hampton — Barn Elms 42" diameter.water main under the river.There is an identical turret on the opposite side of the river.
12 Waterman's Arms. This is one of the oldest pubs in Richmond, dating back at least to 1660. It was once called the King’s Head at the Ferry and a favourite drinking place of bargemen.
Curzon Cinema. This was opened in the late-1980’s as the Richmond Filmhouse. It was built on part of the site of the auditorium of the demolished New Royalty Kinema because a covenant on the site said that a cinema should remain there. In 2008 it was re-named Curzon Richmond.


Whittaker Avenue
The road was named because a condition of the gift of the Castle was that a road should be made between Hill Street and the river in order to give more access to the riverside. This was called Castle Road, but the council later agreed to alter this to “Whittaker Avenue.”
Richmond Library. This was originallt Richmond Town Hall.  In the late 1870s Richmond Vestry needed new premises and considered buying the Castle Hotel. John Whittaker Ellis bought the site in 1888 and gave it to the Vestry for a new municipal building. Followimg a competiopn they chose a design by W.J. Ancell. This was “Elizabethan Renaissance” in red brick and ut included a Council chamber, committee rooms, Mayor’s parlour and Councillors’ rooms as well as offices.The main entrance was in Whittaker Avenue, with a business entrance on Hill Street..By the time the building was finished Richmond had become a Borough The building was opened in 1893 by the Duke of York , the 2nd World War, the Town Hall suffered severe fire-bomb damage. The roof and top floor were completely destroyed and the Council Chamber was gutted. After the war so a modified scheme was approved. The restored Town Hall was re-opened in 1952. In 1965, Richmond was incorporated with the Boroughs of Barnes and Twickenham to become the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames and Twickenham’s York House became the main municipal building.In the 1980s the whole of the riverside area between Water Lane and Richmond Bridge was redeveloped to a design by Quinlan TerryThe Old Town Hall was refurbished and modified as part of this. In 1987 the Central Reference Library was opened on the first floor. The Local Studies Library was given its own space and a small museum dedicated to the history of Richmond was also included
Gardens. The ground between the Town Hall and the towpath was laid out as a pleasure ground with 3 terraces and steps to the river bank. The site included the gardens to the river where the War Memorial now stands
Castle Hotel.  This had an Assembly Room which overlooked gardens which stretched to a boathouse on the river. There was also a restaurant and ball room .The pub had been moved here from George Street in around 1760. It closed as a hotel in 1876 and in 1888 it was given to the town for the first municipal offices. Used for a whole as Richmond’s first cinema – The Castle Electric Theatre in 1910.  The Town Hall was built on this site
War Memorial  - built by the people of Richmond and unveiled on 23rd November 1921 by Field Marshall Sir William Robertson, Bart.
4 This was built in the 1980s as part of the Richmond Riverside development,
2 This new building includes the headquarters of Pay-Pal Europe


Sources
Behind the Blue Plaques
Bethlehem Chapel. Wikipedia. Web site
Cinema Theatres Association Newsletter
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Cloake. Cottages and Common Fields of Richmond and Kew.
Cloake. Richmond Past
Cloake. The Growth of Richmond
Clunn. The Face of London
Dunbar. A Prospect of Richmond
Environment Trust. Web site
Faded London. Web site
Field. London Place Names
GLC. Thames Guidelines.
GLIAS Newsletter
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Encyclopedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Transport Country Walks
MOLAS. Web site
Panorama of the Thames Project. Web site
Parker. North Surrey
Pastscape. Web site
Patrick Baty. Web site
Penguin.  Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Pevsner, Surrey
Port of London Magazine
Richmond Free Church. Web site
Richmond Museum. Web site
Richmond Upon Thames. Official Guide
The Kingston Zodiac
Thames Panorama. Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Walford. Village London
Wikipedia. Web site. As appropriate

Thursday, 2 June 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Old Deer Park riverside

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Old Deer Park riverside

This posting relates to sites south of the river only. North of the river is Isleworth

Post to the south St. Margarets
Post to the west Mogden

The area of the south bank shown on this square is an area of riverside within the Old Deer Park. It appears to have neither roads nor buildings


Isleworth Ferry
Church Ferry - this ran from Isleworth Church Street and apparently accessed the south bank at a point now in the Old Deer Park.  It existed from at least the 14th and is thought to have carried bricks across the river for the building of the Convent at Syon. A lane is said to have run from Richmond Green to the ferry landing, but that this closed in 1774. The ferry appears to have run until 1939 but by then to have landed on the south bank to the nor4th at Isleworth Gate in Kew Gardens.


Old Deer Park and Riverside Path
Riverside. The area shown on this square is partly some of the area of the Mid Surrey Golf Course and woodland between the course and the riverside path. The path is leased by the Crown to the London Borough of Richmond and is very overgrown. A water-filled ditch lies between the Park and the riverside path which is kept flooded by spring tides spilling over the path from the river. The ditch is heavily shaded by trees, and supports little aquatic vegetation.  The willow-dominated woodland has been designated a nature reserve.
Railshead Ferry
Railshead Ferry ran on the upstream side of Isleworth Ait. The name is not connected to any railway and existed from at least the mid 17th.  The ferry itself was established under George II. It appears to have closed after the Second World War.


Richmond Lock
Richmond Lock and Footbridge. This is the most downstream of the locks on the Thames and is the only one owned and operated by the Port of London Authority. It dates from 1894 and was built by the Thames Conservancy in order to maintain the depth of the navigation upstream of Richmond following the demolition of old London Bridge which meant that depth fell at low tide in this area.  Initially a barge lock was built on the surrey bank plus a weir and slipways for smaller craft on the Middlesex bank. Two footbridges were built as a superstructure. The engineer was  F.G.M. Stoney and the contractors were Ramsome and Rapier.  These bridges were opened in 1894 by the then Duke of York. It is a half-tide lock and barrage, plus the footbridge.  Boats can travel freely through the sluice gates when they are raised for two hours each side of high tide but when the gates are closed they must use the lock.  Weather conditions can alter this arrangement and there are sometimes multiple low waters. Very small boats - row boats, skiffs and canoes may use the slipway. The lock keepers originally lived under the steps on the banks and manually operated the sluices.  A lock foreman is on duty round the clock.  This arrangement maintains the water level up to Teddington Lock. Originally pedestrians crossing the bridge were charged 1d to cross, but if they came back to the same side again it was 2d. These tolls were abolished in 1938 but four toll houses for this arrangement remain.  PLA completed a major refurbishment of the lock and weir in the early 1990's and it was then repainted in its original colours.
Mooring arrangements for boats waiting to use the lock are on the Richmond bank.

Sources
Cloake. Cottages and Common Fields of Richmond and Kew
Port of London Authority. Web site
Richmond Lock, Wikipedia. Web site
Where Thames Smooth Waters Glide. Web site
Thanes Landscape Strategy. Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames.

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Kew Gardens west

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Kew Gardens west

Post to the north Brentford


Isleworth Ferry
Isleworth Church Ferry crossed just past the south edge of this square. It ran from Isleworth Church to a point on the riverside in the Old Deer Park near Kew Observatory.  There is however in Kew Gardens the ‘Isleworth Ferry gate’ and it may be that the ferry, which ran until 1939, actually went there after the Gardens opened. Kew Gardens archive apparently contains letters and petition from the 1850s asking for the ferry to be used to access the gardens from Isleworth and this was apparently undertaken in the 10th for 1d a trip.


Kew Gardens
Queen’s Cottage. Built in 1772 and said to have been designed by Queen Charlotte - but probably designed by her daughter  Elizabeth.  It is a small building with a second storey added after it was first built. The cottage has only two rooms and two small kitchen, but four entrances. Disused by royalty the public could look at the outside from 1845. This part of the grounds was in the Richmond Lodge area and was given to the gardens with 37 acres of woodlands by Queen Victoria for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897 and she asked for the area to remain wild – and it is now set up as a conservation area. The cottage’s thatched roof requires regular replacement and in 1950, Norfolk reed was used. The Cottage is not maintained by Kew but by Historic Royal Palaces.
New Menagerie. Queen Charlotte’s Cottage was originally within an area of pheasant pens, at the end of what was called the New Menagerie. It was used to keep creatures from the British Empire, including black swans, buffaloes and kangaroos. George III also had a quagga - an animal now extinct.
Bluebell woods. Queens Cottage grounds has a 300 years old bluebell wood.
Boathouse Walk. This runs east-west across the southern part of the gardens and accesses the Isleworth Gate.
Isleworth Ferry Gate. This is an early to mid 19th cast-iron drawbridge with fluted columns. It is Situated at end of Boat-house Walk and possibly used for boats bringing passengers from  Syon House opposite or from the Church Ferry landing in Isleworth
Log trail. Play area for the over 7s.
Mount Pleasant. A mound planted with lavender, gorse and rosemary,.
Badger sett. Where children can go into a pretend sett.
Minka House. This was given to Kew in 2001 by the Japan Minka Reuse and Recycle Association. It came from Okazaki City, in central Japan.  In 1940 the Yonezu family bought it and moved it across the city and after the last family member had died in 1993 it was sent to Kew. It has a frame of pine logs tied together with rope, wattle and daub walls and a lime-washed exterior.  The joints are constructed without nails. It stands on a base of large stones- in Japan these houses are not cemented so that they can move in an earthquake.
The Bamboo Garden.  The Minka House is in the Bamboo Garden which dates from 1891. It originally had 40 species of bamboo, mostly from Japan. There are now about 1,200 species from many countries
Rhododendron Dell. This is believed to date back to Kew's early days when around 1734; Charles Bridgeman created a sunken garden on the Richmond Estate and it is likely that it was extended in the 1770s, with help with the digging from the Staffordshire Militia. It was then named it Hollow Walk but in 1847 it was replanted as a shrubbery. Joseph Hooker travelled to the Himalayas on a plant-collecting mission and brought back orchids and rhododendrons and now many varieties grow in the Dell.
Solar-powered interpretation post. This lets visitors identify birdsong around them.


Old Deer Park
The Old Deer Park is a fragment of the land connected named from the hunting park created here by James I in 1604. It was part of the royal estate until the mid 19th when a Ha-Ha was built between the ornamental gardens at Kew and the parkland to the south. This square covers a small slice of the park south of the Ha Ha which consists of woodland and a part of the Mid-Surrey Golf Course
King’s Steps Gate- this leads from the Deer Park into Kew Gardens.
Mid Surrey Golf Club. The club dates from 1892 and has two courses. This square covers part of one of them.
Obelisk – the obelisk in this square was the marker for due north of Kew Observatory and provided for adjustment of instruments.


Sources
GLIAS Newsletter
Kew Gardens. Web site
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site

Mid Surrey Golf Club. Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames


 

Riverside. south bank, west of the Tower. Kew Green and Gardens


Riverside. south bank, west of the Tower.  Kew Green and Gardens

This post only covers sites south of the river in this square. Sites north of the river are in Brentford

Post to the east Kew
Post to the west Brentford

Bush Road
This road is on the line of the first Kew Bridge
Kew Marine Seahorse Houseboat and recycling facility
Kew Marine Moorings
Kew Wharf. Another set of Berkley Homes built riverside flats.  On the old hotel site. The wharf was once the ferry landing stage and included boathouses alongside.  This was a ferry run by the Tunstall family
Royal boathouses. Three large boathouses here in the 18th and 19th were probably for use by royalty.
Ladies’ lavatory converted into a house.
Boathouse Hotel. This stood on the riverside and is now demolished. Homeland Films Syndicate were based in the hotel and made a series of films with Lupino Lane there in the early 20th

Ferry Lane
The entrance to the gardens was resited here when George IV blocked the original road.  There is no ferry any more and the lane leads to a car park covering the Lawn
Ferry Steps
Kew Green Preparatory School.
Layton House. Another private fee paying ‘preparatory’ school.   Opened 2004.
Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Brentford Ferry. The ferry ran to what is now the Brentford Gate at Kew Gardens and was always owned by the Crown. It dated from at least the middle ages.  It continued as a row boat service until 1939. Excursion and other vessels still call here.
Great Ford. This is the point at which the river could be forded and it is claimed that this is where the invading Roman army crossed the river.
Kew Farm. This stood at the end of Ferry Lane north of the ferry. In 1603 it was the largest house on this stretch of riverside. It has been the home of Thomas Byrkes who had had its chapel licensed in 1536. It was soon after owned by Robert Dudley. Elizabeth was entertained there later by the then Speaker of the Commons. It was rebuilt around 1631 to become an even larger house and probably demolished in the late 17th.

Kew Gardens
This square covers only a northern section of the gardens. The gardens are included in three more squares to the south.
Kew Gardens were opened in 1840 and are maintained for purposes of botanic study. The gardens formally started in 1759 but can be traced back to the exotic garden at Kew Park, formed by Lord Capel John of Tewkesbury. It is the world's largest collection of living plants.  The library contains more than 750,000 volumes, and the illustrations collection contains more than 175,000 prints and drawings of plants. It is a World Heritage Site. They are managed by the Royal Botanic Institute which is a non departmental public body sponsored by the Department of the Environment. It is an internationally important botanical research and education institution which employs 750 staff. The gardens consists of 300 acres of gardens and greenhouses, four Grade I listed buildings and 36 Grade II listed structures, all set in an internationally significant landscape. It was formerly the grounds of Kew Palace, where a botanic garden had been formed by Princess Augusta, mother of George III, in 1760.  The grounds were later laid out by George III when Prince of Wales, and completed by the Princess Dowager.  In 1841 the gardens were established as a State institution and, under Sir William Jackson Hooker, the botanist.
Aquatic Gardens. These were installed in 1909 replacing a tank built in 1873 altered in 1935. It houses 40 varieties of hardy water lily plus sedges and rushes. Eucalyptus trees grow around the site and Newts, water boatmen and dragonflies are also found
Bonsai House. Built in 1887 this was used for alpine plants – and for plants whose flowers would be damaged by bad weather and rain. . in 1981 a new Alpine House was opened and then in the 1990s its old rotting wooden structure was replaced with aluminium and it is now used for bonsai – miniature trees.
Bootstrapping DNA. The sculpture is in steel by Charles Jenck and is an interpretation of the double helix, the structure of DNA. It was installed in 2003, the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the double helix.
Brentford Gate.  This opened in 1847. It has a pair of simple cast iron gates supported on Portland stone pillars.  The gate originally served people coming to the gardens via the Brentford Ferry.
Broad Walk. This runs from the Palm House to the eastern end of the Orangery, where it takes a 90-degree turn and continues on to Elizabeth Gate.  It was laid out by William Nesfield in 1845-6 who Nesfield planted deodara cedars and rhododendrons along it. These died and were replaced in the early 20th by Atlantic cedars. These too failed and were replaced with North American tulip trees which also did badly. In 2000 it was replanted with cedars from the Atlas Mountains. In the 19th William Barron invented a horse-drawn machine for transplanting trees.  Kew has the only remaining machine in the world and it was used for the work in 2000 between the Orangery and Palm House, is a weeping beech planted in 1846 by Sir William Hooker.
Climbers and Creepers.  This is a children’s play area designed to teach them about plants. It is in what was previously a cycad house
Davies Alpine House. This opened in 2006 and was the first new glasshouse to be commissioned for twenty years. Alpines are plants that grow above the tree level. This was designed to create the cool, dry and windy conditions that these plants like,
Duke’s Garden. This was the garden of Cambridge Cottage, taken over by the Royal Botanic Gardens in 1904. The only collection here is the Lavender Species Collection. With climate change a ‘Gravel Garden’ has been designed here, sponsored by Thames Water, this contains plants that are drought tolerant
Grass Garden. The present Grass Garden, located between the Duke’s Garden and the Davies Alpine House, was created in 1982 to showcase some of the world’s 9,000 species of grass
Jodrell Laboratory and Lecture Theatre.  The first Jodrell Laboratory was built in 1877 and paid for by T.J. Phillips Jodrell. It had four rooms and an office. In 1934, an artist’s studio and darkroom were added. This building was replaced in 1965 and sections on physiology and biochemistry were added. Seed collection became important while there was also a focus on plants which might be useful in medicines. See conservation moved to Wakehurst but in 1994 the Jodrell Laboratory was tripled in size and later the Wolfson Wing was added,
Temple of the Sun. This dated from 1861 and was built by Sir William Chambers. In 1916 a tree fell on it in a storm. It has since been demolished. It stood south east of the orangery
Dairy House. This was here in the 16th and was owned by Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. The crypt is said to exist below the Dutch House which was built on its site.
Dutch House – Kew Palace. This was also called the 'Old Palace' and was built in 1631 by Samuel Fortrey.  It was leased by Frederick, Prince of Wales and the pleasure-grounds were laid out by Sir William Chambers. The building was leased by George III from later owners and eventually bought by George III from them.  His mother, Augusta, set up the gardens here. It has recently been restored and is open to the public
Kew Palace. This was designed in part by George III, with James Wyatt. Started in 1802, it was a gothic "castellated palace" , but built around an iron shell.  In 1828 Parliament, ordered the shell to be demolished, and the staircase was later used at Buckingham Palace, It was blown up, killing two workmen in 1828. It was near the western corner of Kew Green
Sundial. this marks the site of the White House which stood opposite Kew Palace. It is thought to have been a 16th building called Kew Park and originating as a hunting lodge.  Prince Frederick of Wales rented this in 1730. It was not until 1799, that George III acquired the freehold, and in 1802 it was demolished. It is intended to mark the outline of the building on the lawn. The sundial came from Kensington Palace and is by Tompion. The inscription on it commemorates the discovery of the Aberration of Light at Kew,
Melon Ground. In the 19th this was next to the Jodrell Laboratory.
Water Lily House. This square glass house surrounds a circular pond.  It was built in 1852 to display the giant Amazon water lily. The ironwork is by Richard Turner, and was originally the widest single-span glasshouse in the world. The Amazon lily did badly and within a few years was removed. In 1865 it displayed plants of medicinal and culinary value nut was converted back to lilies 1991. It is Kew’s hottest and most humid environment.
Kew on Plate. Demonstration kitchen garden on the site of the kitchen gardens door the palace.
Museum No.1.   George IV proposed a museum be built at Kew around 1820 Eventually William Hooker began set this up many drawings and collections. These became a Museum of Economic Botany opening in 1848.  Decimus Burton was then commissioned to design a purpose-built building to house the museum which opened in 1857. In 1987, it was closed for repair and reopened in 1998.
Nash Conservatory. Designed by John Nash.  This is the oldest glass house at Kew and was one of two pavilions outside Buckingham Palace.  It was once known as the Aroid House displaying varieties of ginger, arrowroot and so on, many of them exotic.  The building is now used to hire out for corporate events and weddings.
Orangery. William Chambers completed the Orangery for Princess Augusts in 1761. Built of brick and coated in durable stucco, it is the largest classical style building in the Gardens. It was designed as a hothouse for but the levels of light were too low. In 1841, Hooker began to use it for other large plants instead. Fromm 1862-3 it was a timber museum. It was converted to a tea room in 1989 and in 2002 to as a restaurant. Princess Augusta’s arms are above the central bay.
Plant Family Beds. This area was originally a kitchen garden for the royal family.  The land was given to Kew and Hooker filled it with herbaceous plants according to the classification of French botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. In 1869, this was changed to the arrangement described in Genera Plantarum George Bentham and Joseph Hooker, William Hooker’s son. There is now a new understanding of how plants are related to each other using molecular characteristics and DNA gene sequencing. The Plant Family Beds are thus being reorganised. 102 separate beds will display 93 plant families.
The Rose Pergola. In 1870, a Rose Walk and in 1901, a Rose Pergola. The current structure stands over the main paths of the Plant Family Beds and dates from 1959.
The Princess of Wales Conservatory. This was commissioned in 1982 and named after Princess Augusta. It contains ten computer-controlled climatic zones under one roof.
Queens Gardens. This is a modern re-creation.  Formal in design, it contains only plants, which were available in the 17th. There are also several pieces of sculpture - a marble satyr, a Venetian well head and five 18th terms, commissioned by Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1734–5 and probably the oldest pieces of sculpture at Kew. There is also a wrought iron pillar from Hampton Court Palace and a gazebo. In the pond at the centre of the parterre is a copy of Verocchio's 'Boy with a Dolphin'.
Rock Garden. This dates from 1882 when it was decided to design a 150-metre valley with at the centre a winding path using cheddar limestone, Bath oolite and rocks salvaged from ruins. From 1929 limestone was gradually replaced with Sussex sandstone. In 1991 plantings were rearranged to fit a geographic theme.
School of Horticulture. Kew started training courses in 1859, with a two-year evening course in economics, systematics, structural and geographic botany, physics and chemistry. Since 1990, the School has been based in a Grade II listed building built in 1848 by Decimus Burton.
Secluded Garden. Thus was created in 1995 by Anthea Gibson, to stimulate sight, smell, touch and hearing with plants. There are panels with extracts of poems highlighting the senses. At the centre is a circular seating area bounded by pleached lime trees, with a water feature '7 Slate Towers', designed by Daniel Harvey.
Student Vegetable Plots. These are for first year diploma students and open to public view
Temple of Aeolus built for Princess Augusta by Chambers in the 1760s but rebuilt by Decimus Burton in 1845. It is on top of Cumberland Mount, which is an artificial hill built with spoil from the Lake and enclosing a brick water cistern. It is surrounded by a woodland garden
The Sower.  By Thorneycroft on a Lutyens base. This is in the Grass Garden
Treehouse Towers. Treetops-like playground for kids.
White Peaks. Café
Sir Joseph Banks Building. This is next to Kew Palace and was built in 1985. Only the glazed roof is visible and much of the building is underground. A thick layer of soil provides insulation and conserves energy. The site has two lakes connected by a waterfall. It houses 83,000 items of the Economic Botany Collection. Joseph Banks was Kew’s unofficial director in the late 18th and sent plant collectors around the world to bring back exotic species to Kew.

Kew Green
The parish church lies on the green, asymmetrical and very effectively placed.  The green is triangular
3-5 The Botanist Pub and restaurant
11 This may have been the site of a pub called the Rising Sun which later became The Coach and Horses, and then moved across the road to its present site.
33 Kings Cottage. Owned in the 18th by the John Stuart 3rd Earl of Bute who helped Princess Augusta develop the botanical garden after Prince Frederick’s death in 1751. He was honorary director of Kew Gardens, 1754 – 1772, and, later, Prime Minister. It was later the home of the Duke of Cumberland. Later home of Cosmo Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury.  It has also been known as Church House.
37 Cambridge Cottage also known as Kew Gardens Gallery, and at one time as Museum 3. 18th house with large portico.  It was owned by The Marquis of Bute who advised Princess Augusta. It was purchased from Lord Bute by George III and presented to his seventh son, the Duke of Cambridge. In 1840 it was remodelled and extended to form his permanent residence and renamed Cambridge Cottage.  Edward VII donated it to Kew Gardens following the death of the second duke in 1904.  Now a museum and gallery, marketed as a wedding venue.
Militia Barracks here in 1802. They were closed in 1843 and the area on which they stood added to the grounds of Cambridge Cottage
39-45 The Gables.  Remodelled but the shape of the gables is genuine 17th.   Houses built here in 1908 for gardening staff on what had been the stables of Cambridge Cottage
47 The Admin Building. In the early 1840s the Clerk and Admin offices were here with the original entrance to the gardens adjacent. In 1931 J. Markham designed a new director’s office which replaced a cottage previously used as a library for gardeners. A new admin block was opened here in 198. A plaque on the right of the gate marks what was the original main entrance to the gardens
49 The Director’s official residence. This is the site of several previous buildings. It became the official residence of William Hooker, as Director in 1851 when it was known as Methold House. Many alterations have been made to it since
Hell House. This was a school in the 1730s on the site of 49. This is said to have been a charity school set up by Lady Capel. This was demolished by 1814.  Various people lived there and it was later rebuilt and called Methold House. The gardens were passed to the Botanical Gardens.
51 Royal Cottages.  Plain late Georgian house used as a grace and favour residence. In the 18th it was the home of Mrs. Papendick, dresser to Queen Charlotte
53 Used as an official residence it has been the home of a number of curators.
55 Herbarium House. The official residence of the keeper of the Herbarium. It is early 18th in red brick with a Corinthian door case. It is, next to the main gates.
Elizabeth Gate. This is the main gate into the gardens. It was designed by Decimus Burton in 1845 with gates by Walkers of Rotherham. There was originally no grand entrance to the gardens but In 1825 George IV had had a gate and railings erected on Kew Green flanked by two lodges, topped with a lion and unicorn by ordinary visitors could not use it. In 1841 William Hooker commissioned Burton to design the existing Elizabeth Gate
57 Hanover House, once the home of artist Peter Lely.
The Herbarium.  This is a big building with an eight-bay centre with giant pilasters, attached to a seven-bay Georgian hose.  It originated in a house built in the 1770s by Peter Theobald and sold in 1800 to Robert Hunter, and thus becoming known as Hunter House. It was bought by the Crown in 1818   used as the home of the Duke of Cumberland until he became King of Hanover in 1837 and it was then known as Hanover House. The central section of today’s building incorporates the facade of this house.  Two years later, Kew’s Herbarium (dried collections of preserved specimens) was put here. In 1877, as the collection expanded, a new wing was added to the building. Three further wings were added between 1902 and 1968, with further expansion into the quadrangle in 1988. In 2007 Kew commissioned Edward Cullinan architects to build a new building to house part of the Herbarium and Library as the collections continue to grow by some 35,000 specimens per annum.
61 Abingdon House. 18th house. In 1950 this was acquired by the Royal Botanical Institute. Has since been used as a restaurant, and a film location.
63 18th house. In 1950 this was acquired by the Royal Botanical Institute. Used as a book store the basement was flooded. It has since been used as a restaurant.
65 Warden House. 18th house – with a notable garden and summerhouse occasionally open for charity events
67 White House – with a notable garden occasionally open for charity events
69 – Another house with a garden occasionally open for charity events
71 late 18th house with garden occasionally open for charity events
73 Danbury House. Late 18th house occasionally open for charity events
75 Carlton House
77 Beaconsfield. 18th house. This is said to have been built for plasterer Francis Engelheart.
79 The Cricketers. This was previously called the Rose and Crown. Licensing records date from the 1850s.  The pub probably dates from 1704 and moved to its current site in 1729
81 Flora House
83 Capel House. Said to be the dower house of Lady Capel.  Early 18th building.
85 Ask. Italian Restaurant which was the Kings Arms. Licensing records date from the 1830s. Said to have been built by George Shennerstedt in the 1770s on land bought from the Earl of Bute, which had previously been owned by the ferry owning Tunstall family.  It was then supplied by Collins brewers.
Lampposts. Gas lamp posts for street lighting in this area were of two types -both represented here. Two of the earlier design stand outside the church. There are also several of the later, hexagonal pattern. One of these is marked with the maker's name, — W. Edge, Hammersmith and B.G.C. for Brentford Gas Co.
Sewer Vent. This is in cast iron. It is marked with maker's name — F. Bird & Co., 11 Gt. Castle St. Regent St.
Kew Cricket Club.  Cricket has been played on Kew Green since at least Prince Frederick's time.  He was a keen player himself and in 1737 captained a side against the Duke of Marlborough eleven.  The royal team won.  The Club is an amalgamation of two Kew Oxford Cricket Club and Kew Cambridge Cricket Club, in 1882.  Their pavilion dates from 1964.
War Memorial. This was unveiled in 1921. It is a Portland Stone cross; in a prominent position on the Green. It originally commemorated 96 men of the parish who died in the Great War. A bronze plaque was later added to the plinth commemorating those who lost their lives in the Second World War. It was originally maintained by the Kew Commonable Lands Committee
St.Ann's Church. Kew was not a parish and had no church until residents petitioned Queen Anne for permission to build in a disused gravel pit on the common. The first Church here was thus built in 1714 on land given by Queen Anne, and at her expense. It had twenty-one pews and an upper gallery. It was in brick with a clock tower and an octagonal bell turret. It was enlarged in 1770 at the expense of George III, to designs by Joshua Kirby. An extension was for a Charity School and Beadle’s Lodging and was later taken in to become part of the church. In 1836 the west end was remodelled by William Wyatville at the expense of William IV and added the portico, and a raised stone bell-tower, with a cupola, Various Royal Marriages and funerals have been held here. Inside there are monuments and a mausoleum,

Kew Road
This was Kew Horse Lane
288 Maids of Honour tearooms. This is run by the Newens family.  The Maids of Honour is a little curd pastry. In I887 Alfred Newens brought the recipe from Richmond where the cakes had been made at least as far back as the early 18th. The current shop was opened in 1870 but was rebuilt following Second World War bombing.
356/358   originally one house and the residence of Francis Bauer Kew's chief botanical draughtsman and painter until his death in 1840.
Curator’s Office. Now in other use.
Fire Engine Station. Owned by Richmond Council and closed in 1928. This was next to the Curator’s Office
274 Cumberland Arms. Extant in the 1880s, demolished.
Drinking fountain. This was a memorial fountain which stood at the junction with Mortlake Road.

Sources
Aldous. Village London
Blomfield. Kew Past
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Cloake. Cottages and Common Fields of Richmond and Kew
Desmond. The History of the Royal Botanic Gardens.
GLC. Thames Guidelines
GLIAS Newsletter

Guide to London's Georgian River. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Kew Cricket Club. Web site
Kew Gardens. Web site
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Transport. Country Walks
Meulenkamp and Headley. Follies
Penguin Surrey
Pevsner. Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,
Royal Botanic Gardens. Illustrated Guide. 1951
St.Ann’s Church. Web site.