Tuesday, 22 July 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Ilford Mile End

Great Eastern Railway line to Ilford
The Great Eastern railway line running from Bethnal Green Station goes north eastwards

Post to the west Globe Town

Aberavon Road
This was originally Frederick Place and was developed from 1824 as a terrace
Eaton Terrace by UBZWG for Kentish Homes built in 1983-5. The doorways are flanked by huge curving pedestals with balls, put there to disguise the rubbish bins
Anthill Road
129 built in 1869 as the Duke of York pub, for the Smith, Garrett, & Co. brewery of Bromley-by-Bow. The pub closed in 2002 but tiled signage has been kept in conversion to housing - the best monument to that brewery that can still be seen today. 

Cherrywood Close
Housing built on the site J T Davies Ltd rope works. This was a subsidiary of the wire rope manufacturers, John Stephens of Bristol and Warrington, and made fibre ropes, including from coir for Fishing Vessels, Running Gear, and Trawl Warps. They were taken over by Bridon in 1925

Clinton Road
This once residential road is now inside the park.
Grove Road
The continuation of Burdett Road northwards from Mile End Road, leads to Victoria Park
2 Greedy Cow. This was the Prince of Wales but was set up as the Prince of Prussia before 1881.  It was a tied house to the London & Burton Brewery of Stepney and on the pub sign was their insignia of ‘LBB’ as part of the iron work.  The name was changed at the outbreak of the Great War by which time it was a Watney’s house. It closed in 2005.
Rail Bridge. This carries the Great Eastern line and the road is lowered underneath it
Plaque on the railway bridge. Mile End was hit by the first V1 flying bomb in 1944, which fell next to the railway bridge. Eight civilians were killed, 30 injured and 200 made homeless. The site was derelict until it was incorporated into the new Mile End Park.
Tram depot. This horse tram depot is shown on maps from the 1890s until after Great War and ran along the south west side of the railway line. It is understood that in the 1920s it was associated with E.A.Lloyds Garage and privately run bus routes.
30 The Railway Tavern. This was a Charrington’s house which was here before 1861. It closed in 2000 and is now housing. What remains are three tiled 'House of Toby' plaques – saying: ‘CHARRINGTONS 1757’ and a 'Toby' image with 'TOBY ALE' and 'THE HOUSE OF TOBY'
51 Mile End Hotel
110 The Victoria. The pub dates from at least the 1870s. It has a clock hanging from a bracket outside
Mile End Bus station

Haverfield Road
This is now a roadway leading into the park.
The Palm Tree. This pub is now within the park but stood originally in Palm Street – which ran in the square to the north. There is a tiled panel above the corner door which says 'TRUMANS' plus a large eagle with 'ESTd 1666'; and the pub name
Mile End Climbing Wall. This opened in the late 1980s and used an old pipe engineering works. Plus the Rock On climbing shop.

Lichfield Road
The Lord Tredegar.  Pub, with his portrait on the inn sign. Lord Tredegar, was once Sir Charles Morgan who owned land here.

Mile End Park
Mile End Park is a new park. However it was part of Patrick Abercrombie's 'Greater London Plan' in 1944. There had been some land clearance by the Greater London Council and this continued after it became the responsibility of London Borough of Tower Hamlets. By the end of the 1980s the section from Mile End Road to Victoria Park was landscaped (this square covered only as far the Palm Tree Pub).  Following calls by for projects to mark the millennium, Tower Hamlets Environment Trust, under John Aldenton, as part of a partnership made a successful application for Millennium funding. Creation of the park began in 1998 and it opened in phases from 2000. The park stretches alongside the Regents Canal from Limehouse to Victoria Park. Although only a few yards across in some places the layout has been created a series of distinct spaces
Ecology Pavilion. This is an earth sheltered building using a heat storage system developed in the Rocky Mountains Research Centre. It has an insulation umbrella made of polystyrene and polythene to create a dry thermal heat store to collect heat created by the occupants, lights, equipment and the sun.  
Lake. There is a high walk around the back of the lake, bounded by tall curved ribs of timber
Wind Turbine. This is a single 6.5 kw wind turbine which is on the island in the ecology lake and powers a sump that circulates water around the lake.
Mile End Arts Pavilion An earth sheltered building like the Ecology Pavilion.

Mile End Road
401 Essex House. This was an 18th mansion, the home of the Morrison family and said to have been built by a Lady Essex. 
Guild of Handcraft. In 1891 Charles Ashbee moved his Guild of Handicraft and the Essex House Press here. He hoped to further the aims of the Arts and Crafts movement by preserving and practising old skills of printing, bookbinding, furniture making and metalwork. It is also where he founded the Survey of London.   After eleven years, the guild moved to the country.
St Philips Settlement.  This was founded in, 1894, by Lady Margaret Howard helped by a group of women including her sister Lady Mary Howard. It moved to 401 Mile End Road in 1903 where there was accommodation for clubs and meetings. This was a Roman Catholic body – the ladies were the sisters of the Duke of Norfolk. It was thus a convent for the Sisters of Charity until 1929
Barclay's Bank leased the building from 1929 until it was taken over by the cinema chain.
Odeon Theatre was built for Oscar Deutsch’s Odeon Theatres chain. It was designed by the Andrew Mather firm, with Keith P. Roberts. It had the distinctive Odeon style tower and cream faïence tiles. It opened in 1938 with Max Miller. It closed in 1972. It was converted into a Sundown concert centre/dancehall which opened in 1972 with Slade. The venture was a failure and it closed in 1973. In1975 it opened as the Liberty screening Bollywood films and finally closed in 1978. It was demolished in 1984 and an office/residential block built on the site.
401 Onyx House. The building is by Piers Gough in 1986. There is s coved cornice free of the parapet which swoops in a deep inverted line through the brick facade to reveal glass curtain walling. This new building has gone through several names includng Kentish House, and Besso House.  The extensive garden to the rear is now the site of flats.

Morgan Street
New Testament Church of God. This was Holy Trinity Church built 1834-9 by Daniel and James Austin, local surveyors. It is on a large site, with its own burial ground. The New Testament church took it over in 1996 after period of redundancy and vandalism.  It was designed as a proprietary chapel, funded by a lawyer, E.A. Dickenson, who hoped to make his son the clergyman. The site was given by the landowner Sir C Morgan. By 1836 Dickenson's money had run out and the church was finished by the Metropolis Churches Fund in 1839 and given its own district in 1841. The church suffered bomb damage during the Blitz and was closed in 1984.
Churchyard with a variety of monuments. It was closed in 1853. A number of sea captains are buried there.
Church Hall of Holy Trinity Church built 1901. This is now the New Testament Church of God.

Railway
Coal depot - A viaduct built in 1852 lay alongside the main line to the south associated with the coal depot. This was to facilitate transshipment of coal from railway to canal for distribution.  The depot was not finished until the mid-1860s and there were five sidings used for servicing movements within it.  The viaduct was bombed in the Second World War – as indeed were other parts of the depot - and rebuilt after it. Parish boundary markers were displayed on the viaduct.  When use as a coal yard ceased it was taken over by Tarmac as a depot for the movement of aggregates.  Up until the 1950s a number of coal merchants were based on various parts of the depot site
Apple Tree Yard. Some of the arches were used as a business and light industrial complex.

Regents Canal
Coal depot. Sidings from the Mile End coal depot spread south during the early part of the 20th fanning out over the area to the north of Mile End Road. Most of this site is now covered by the of halls of residence for Queen Mary College, University of London
Spencer’s works.  Edward Spencer had a saw mills here with a wharf on the canal  based at 81 Longfellow Road (now demolished along with, Longfellow-road) before and during the Great War) 1918. Spencer also made Medical Soaps.
Avon Wharf, Longfellow Road.  This was the veneering factory of John Wright and Sons from the early 20th – they were there until at least the 1950s. They cut veneers to a wide range of specifications and were specialist in aircraft construction and interior decoration.
Railway bridge – this was an iron bridge on the Eastern Counties Railway built in 1839 when the line to Bishopsgate crossed the canal. 
Two boundary stones alongside the towpath almost under the railway bridge. They mark the border between the boroughs of Hackney and Tower Hamlets and date from before 1880. The taller stone has the remains of six lines of writing, but is too worn to be readable.
Mile End Lock. Lock with converted lock cottage. The lock, at this point on the canal, has a drop of eight feet when heading south to Limehouse Basin
Pump House at Mile End Lock, There was a system for back-pumping water up the canal to above Mile End Locks from the canal basin at Limehouse via a 3-foot diameter back-pumping pipe installed in 1898. Attached to the lock cottage here was a single-storey boiler house with a steam pump maintaining the water level in the pound above the locks.  The pipe runs under the towpath from Commercial Road Bridge to the Mile End pound. The pump house has now been demolished.
Lock keepers cottage.  Double fronted 19th building. This is at the east end of the College Campus and had been vacant for some time. The pump house has been demolished and the extension is a series of interlocking forms wrapping around the cottage. This is clad in aluminum rainscreen cladding, which leans out. The ‘North Wing’ projects out over the tow- path, providing the common room with a window overlooking the canal lock. Over the main entrance door is a notice saying Graduate School. The disabled access and cottage are connected via a bridge and staircase formed like a sculptural ‘Tendril’ in the double height foyer. The first floor of the cottage now a single space, with the ceiling opened up to follow the existing roof profile. This space accommodates a seminar room with three original sash windows overlooking the canal. The ground floor is a workroom with two workstations and toilet facilities.
Packing case factory. This was a branch of the packing case manufacturing business of John Wright.
Dust yard. This appears to be part of the Great Eastern coal depot. There was an arrangement for them to take Mile End street sweeping refuse. Possibly for sale on to brick makers.  A dust depot on the site in 1915 belonged to the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney.
Young’s Wharf. This was a chemical works north of the railway
Commercial Wharf. This wharf was used by a variety of manufacturers. In 1854 H.O.Gray was making Crew’s Disinfecting Fluid there – contained chloride of zinc and was said to prevent cholera. At the same time Mr. Gray was inventing methods of preserving potatoes. In the 1880s Gardner Brothers, lightermen and cowkeepers were there. In the 1960s it was used by a fencing manufacturer.

Westfield Way
This is an internal road in the Queen Mary College campus.
Sources
Ackroyd, Dickens’ London
Blacker, Lunn, Westgate. London Buses
Bow Heritage Trail. Bow Planning.
Brewery History Society. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London,
Day. London’s Underground
East London’s Free Art. Web site
Essex Lopresti. The Regents’ Canal
GLIAS Newsletter
Grace’s Guide. Web site
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Lost Pubs Project. Web site
Nairn. Nairn’s London,
National Archives. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. London East
Smythe. Citywildspace,
Thomas, Ben’s Limehouse.

Sunday, 20 July 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Ilford Globe Town

Great Eastern Railway Line to Ilford
The railway to Ilford running from Bethnal Green Station goes north eastwards

Post to the west Bethnal Green
Post to the east Mile End

Bancroft Road
The road was built to access the Mile End Workhouse from Mile End Road.
238 The Carlton Arms Pub. This dates from at least the 1850s.
Devonshire Road Goods yard. This was near to Globe Road station at ground level built in 1880. It was accessed by a ramp from the main line above and it was worked by small GER locomotives.  An entrance with a sign faced onto Bancroft Road. The yard was on both sides of the line with coal drops on the south side. It closed in 1967
Jewish Burial Ground. The abandoned cemetery of long closed Maiden Lane synagogue in Covent Garden. The Maiden Lane Synagogue was the result of disputes in the 19th. This break away congregation bought its own cemetery at Globe Fields and the first burial was in 1811.  By 1884 it was in disrepair and by 1895 filled up.  Then Henry Harris donated land in Edmonton for a grave yard this to community and Bancroft Road. Maiden Lane's declining membership brought on a financial crisis, and by 1907 they were bankrupt and terms were agreed with the Westminster Synagogue for a takeover. Bancroft road cemetery was bombed during World War Two and little now remains. Following publicity about the state of this cemetery a group has been formed and work to tidy and restore it is taking place.
Mile End Workhouse. In 1857 Mile End Old Town became a separate Poor Law 'Hamlet'. A new workhouse, was built in 1858-9 adjacent to the Jews' burial ground. The first stone was laid in 1858 and the building was designed by William Dobson and constructed Messrs. Ayers of Dover. It had an entrance block facing onto Bancroft Road with board-room and offices; casual wards with a stone-breaking yard, accommodation wards, dining room, chapel, infirmary, an imbeciles' block and a school block with its own laundry, playgrounds, and sheds. In the 1920s it became Mile End Hospital.
275 Mile End Hospital. In 1858-9 a new workhouse and infirmary for 500 inmates was built to the north of Mile End Road.  The Mile End Old Town Infirmary for the workhouse opened in 1883 on the site of the old infirmary and imbecile wards.   A Nurses Training School was established in 1892.   During the Great War WW1 the Infirmary became a military hospital.  In 1930, it came under the London County Council and was renamed Mile End Hospital.  It joined the NHS in 1948.   In 1968 the London Hospital took over the management and it became the London Hospital (Mile End). It is now a community hospital caring mainly for elderly patients.  A Centre for Mental Health opened here in 2007.
Crown Works. Mineral Water factory. This was Stower’s Lime Juice Cordial works owned by Alexander Riddle & Co. Stowers had begun in Commercial Street as British Wine & Pickle makers and were taken over by Riddle in 1880. They moved, Bancroft Road in 1912 and stayed there until 1960
Crown Works. In the 19th this was the works of Henry Roberts and Co. manufacturers of brewery plant and equipment.

Longnor Road
Entrance to hospital car parks
Entrance to complex of University Halls of Residence.


Meath Crescent
New housing on the site of the goods yard.
Boundary mark stone which says “St. M. M. E. B. G. M. E. O. T. 1885 1885”. This appears to mark the boundary between St. Matthews Mile End, Bethnal Green and Mile End Old Town
Devonshire Road Goods yard.  The yard was on both sides of the line with an entrance in Bancroft Road on the south. The north side is said to be the original section and which handled perishable goods. In the 1870s an incline was built north of the line which served street level sidings and which connected to the south by lines under the viaduct. From 1922 it was called Mile End and Devonshire Street depot and from 1939 it was Mile End only.


Meath Gardens 
This was originally Victoria Park Cemetery.  This was notorious for the scandalous conditions when it was a neglected private cemetery. The site was bought for building purposes in 1840 by the MP of Tower Hamlets, Butler who gave the land but it was not paid for and meanwhile burials had taken place and a chapel had been built.  The cemetery was never consecrated and closed in 1876 contain some 300,000 bodies and was described as 'gruesome state' by Lt. Col J J Sexby of the London County Council Parks Department.   Butler’s son agreed with the Metropolitan Gardens Association that the land should be used for a park and but this could not happen for legal reasons until the London Council had been formed. After fund raising and donations work began under the Association’s landscape gardener, Fanny Wilkinson, using unemployed labour.  It took a year to complete. It was called Meath Gardens after the Earl of Meath, who was the Chairman of the Association and it was opened in 1894 by the Duke of York with gardens and children’s playgrounds’. Management was by the London County Council. A playground was added in 1990, and beyond the boundary are the Prospect Allotments. A tree was donated by Hillier Nurseries Ltd to the Aboriginal Cricket Association in 1988, and a plaque is inscribed ‘'In memory of King Cole, Aboriginal cricketer, who died on the 24th June 1868. Your Aboriginal dreamtime home. Wish you peace'.
A Gothic arch with plain initials 'VPC' and date 1845. This was the former entrance to the cemetery and may be by Thomas Ashpitel, who designed the now demolished mortuary and chapel.


Morpeth Street
Morpeth Secondary School has nearly 1,200 pupils who students come from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds. It specialises in the Arts and Music.  A Central, Secondary school, Morpeth Street, was opened in 1910 for the School Board for London.  The school was by T.J. Bailey, roughcast rendering and chequer-pattern tiles. It followed the pattern for central schools of a hall flanked by pavilion wings and single-storey rear classroom block. The entrances have Art Nouveau details and inside, are staircases with bow-fronted balustrades with heart-shaped motifs. There was cupola with a weathervane of swallows in flight. After the Second World War it provided general, technical, and commercial courses and an enlarged site included the ormer Portman Place School. They also took over the old John Scurr School in Wessex Street as an annexe. A new block with containing workshops, gymnasium, library and hall was added in 1974. An extension was added in 1997 by Norman & Dawbarn. And in 2001 a library by the same firm. A new Performing Arts building was opened in 2007 by the British film director and producer (and former Morpeth parent), Danny Boyle.
Portman Place School. This was opened by the School Board for London in 1878. And a new block added in 1896, with drawing room, laboratory, cookery and manual training centres, and a special school. This was designed by T.J. Bailey, with a tall, pyramidal roof to a stair tower. It closed in 1947/51 and the site was taken into Morpeth Secondary School.


Palmers Road
The canal area alongside which the road runs is currently being developed for housing
Palmers Wharf.  This was the name of the site from the 1890s when it was owned by the London Oil Storage Company They dated from 1885 and were an early company developing tank farms, in riverside and other locations.  The wharf it was heavily bombed in the Second World War.  Structures were later replaced by canal side wharves with cranes and an overhead canopy over the canal. The wharf is said to have largely dealt in timber. Latterly as Suttons Wharf it has been occupied by Suttons International specialising in exhibition display and other items.
Victoria Works Palmers Wharf. Making oil and candles 1869-1946. By the 1940s they were also making furniture.
Steelux Holdings Ltd. This company was making future on the site in the 1980s.  It has also been used by Stringer Limited, now based in Greenwich, who make office and retail furniture and display items.


Roman Road
Globe Town Market. Traditional market in a 1950s built shopping precinct.
170 Angel and Crown. This pub dates from at least the early 19th but was rebuilt in 1951.


Smart Street
Meath Gardens Childrens Centre


Walter Street
Chemical Works 

Sources
Aldous. London Villages 
Bethnal Green Free Art and History. Web site
British History Online. Bethnal Green 
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
City and East London Beer Guide
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Liverpool Street to Ilford
East London History Society Review
GLIAS Newsletter
London Encyclopaedia
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site.
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Lost Pubs Project. Web site
Lucas, London
Mementos of Tower Hamlets. Web site
Morpeth School. Web site
Morpeth School. Wikipedia. Web site.
Workhouses. Web site

Great Eastern Railway to Ilford. Bethnal Green

Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Ilford
The railway running from Bethnal Green Station goes north eastwards

Post to the south Bethnal Green
Post to the east Globe Town

Bancroft Road
This part of Bancroft Road was called Devonshire Street in the 19th
Devonshire Street Station.  Opened in 1839 by the Eastern Counties Railway.  It was a simple wooden station used as a temporary terminus for the Eastern Counties Railway while Bishopsgate was being built. The entrance was to the north of the viaduct reached by an alley way from the alley called Providence Place. It closed in 1840 when the line was extended to Shoreditch.

Bethnal Green – the Green and the Gardens
The Green.  This is the medieval Green or Poors' Lands which lies along Cambridge Heath Road. It was originally, part of the common land of Stepney.  When building increased in the area in the late 17th land was purchased by a group of people anxious to preserve open land in the area and set up as a trust in 1696. This included a charge for the support of the poor of Bethnal Green and money to lay the land out as a public garden.  Maintained by London County Council part was preserved as Bethnal Green Gardens and recreation ground by the LCC in 1895. The green is triangular and stretches from Old Ford Road, tapering to a point at the railway line.   In 1825 some of the land was purchased for St John’s Church which divided the Green into two. In 1868 more and was sold for the Bethnal Green Museum. In 1888 following attempts by the trustees to allow land to be sold for development the land was passed to the London County Council on condition it remained as a ‘recreation-ground’. It was remodelled as a public park under Lt. Col Sexby with an ornamental wrought-iron enclosing fence; walks and shrubberies; a sunk garden with a central fountain, a rockery; a gymnasium for children. The park opened in 1895.
Museum of Childhood. In 1851 William Gladstone, suggested a museum be built in Bethnal Green while leading locals bought the common land and lobbied for a museum. In 1851 the Great Exhibition was held in Hyde Park and a museum was conceived as a result. This was housed in a temporary iron structure in Brompton - nicknamed the Brompton Boilers. It was then decided to add similar Museums elsewhere in London but only Bethnal Green was e interested and in 1868, construction began under architect, J.W.Wild. The work was carried out by S Perry & Co., led by Col Henry Scott, of the Royal Engineers. The Prince of Wales opened the Museum in 1872. The final structure was much less grand than Wild’s original plans. Female inmates of Woking Gaol laid the fish scale pattern marble floor and F W Moody designed murals – agriculture on the south wall and art and industry on the north - with female students of the South Kensington Museum Mosaic Class. The exhibits were made up of Food and Animal Products Great Exhibition, bits of various the South Kensington collections plus 18th French art from the Wallace Collection. The Royal family began to pass stuff they had been given to the museum. In 1922 Arthur Sabin became curator and decided to make it more child-friendly. He began to put together child-related objects helped by Queen Mary and a donation of a collection of toys. In the Second World War the building became a British Canteen. In 1974 Roy Strong, director of the V&A, reopened it as the Museum of Childhood transferring relevant collections there.  In 2005 the Museum was closed for refurbishment and new extensions and facilities were added,
Bethnal Green Museum Gardens. The section of open ground round the museum was initially maintained by the Government but in 1887 it passed to the Metropolitan Board of Works, subsequently the LCC, then the GLC and now London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is required under the Act for the purchase of the land that it is 'laid out and for ever maintained ... as an ornamental garden'. The original layout was designed by A. McImyre, the superintendent of Victoria Park. The gardens are separated from the museum by Museum Passage and until recent refurbishment works the gardens consisted of lawns, with rose beds, plane trees on the perimeter, with picnic tables on each side. The semi-circular area at the front has now been changed as ramped access to the building and there is increased planting.
The Eagle Slayer. The sculpture by John Bellshows a shepherd, who, upon discovering one of his sheep has been killed by an eagle, fires an arrow and kills the eagle. This may be the version cast in iron by the Coalbrookdale Company in 1851 and shown at the Great Exhibition at the centre of a fantastic cast-iron structure, referred to as a 'rustic summerhouse'; It was placed in the garden in 1927 and was much damaged. It has now been restored and taken inside the museum, although the plinth remains in the gardens
St. George’s Fountain.  The fountain which was the largest piece of majolica work ever made, stood at the centre of the International Exhibition in South Kensington in 1862. It was by by the sculptor J. Thomas for Minton made up of 369 parts and was 10 metres tall. It was displayed outside the Bethnal Green Museum until 1926 when St.George fell off and it had deteriorated beyond repair. The statue of Sr. George is now held at the Potteries Museum in Stoke-on-Trent and much of it is said to be crushed in the museum pathways.
Memorial fountain in Museum Gardens. This is dedicated to the memory of Alice Maud Denman and Peter Regelous, who lost their lives while attempting to save others in a fire at 423 Hackney Road on 20 April 1902.
St John’s Church.  This was originally a Chapel of ease to St. Matthew in 1828The church itself was built in 1826-8 by John Soane, as his third church for the Commissioners.  It is in brick with a tower made up of detached pillars and a circular cupola. An intermediate storey was omitted on cost grounds. There were later alterations by Teulon and it was badly damaged in the blitz so in 2004 there has been a larger renovation programme. The interior was remodelled in 1871 by William Mundy after a fire. Paintings of the Stations of the Cross, by Chris Gollon, were commissioned 2002.  There are bronze tablets members of the East London Regiment of Royal Engineers as from the Boer War till 1945; St John’s was the regimental church for the Regiment. From 1844 the Patron was Brasenose College Oxford and incumbents came from there. In the 19th however the church supported a staff of three assistant curates, a scripture reader and 24 women visitors 1858.  The church now supports a programme of contemporary arts and multiculturalism.
Vicarage built on former Poor's Land east f the church in.1852. It was enlarged by G.M. Hills in 1879 and destroyed by bombing in 1941 and replaced in Victoria Park Square.
Churchyard. This includes a Great War Memorial. This is a granite cross bearing a figure of Christ. On the base is inscribed the single word: ‘REMEMBER’.
Bethnal Green Library. This is in a wing of what was latterly a private Lunatic Asylum. The library opened in 1922 partly funded by the Carnegie Trust The brick building of 1896, was converted as into Bethnal Green Public Library and incorporates a cottage and a wing of the had been Bednal House. The Library had been the male ward block of Bethnal House Asylum of l896 probably built by James Tolley jun. and converted in 1922 by A.E. Darby, Borough Surveyor and Engineer. The entrance was remodelled in the 1920s, with an inscription above and there is also a 1920s service wing. The lending library was added in 1922 and is top-lit with decorative glass lights. On the wall are oval plaster reliefs of Darwin, Marx, Morris and Wagner, by a local artist, Karl Roberts.
War Memorial, on first floor of the library which was unveiled in 1923. There is a stained glass of 'Peace', flanked by ‘Manhood’ and 'Motherhood'. Bethnal Green's War Memorial Committee had hoped to pay for a Children's lending library and Reading Room but only raised enough for the window.
Bethnal or Bednal House also called Kirby's Castle stood facing on the green. It had been built for Kirby in 1570 and became known as the Blind Beggar's House. In 1727 it was leased by Matthew Wright, who opened a private asylum here incorporating adjacent the Red House and White House. In 1843 Kirby House itself was pulled down and rebuilt with a new block for male patients. The asylum eventually moved to Salisbury and the site was purchased by Bethnal Green Council
Shadwell War Memorial in Bethnal Green Gardens. This is a tall crucifix on a Portland stone base. The base is inscribed as follows: “A.M.D.G. / IN LOVING AND HONOURED MEMORY OF/ THE MEN OF SHADWELL WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES/ FOR KING AND COUNTRY IN THE WAR 1914-1918/ R.I.P.” The plaque was replaced in November 2013 by the Council.
Public Shelter, which disguises vents to the underground built in the 1940s in the manner of Holden's stations with rounded ends and a thin, projecting concrete roof
Kiosk, erected in the late 1940s. In modernist style.
Stairway to Heaven. By Harry Paticas as a memorial to the 170 people who lost their lives on the stairway of the tube station in 1943. It is a white concrete plinth with Bronze plaques to those who died. Opened in 2013.

Braintree Street
123 The Fountain Pub. Demolished in 2013
49 Baitul Aman Mosque and Cultural Centre. This was set up in a disused garage in 1998 and it is hoped to build a permanent mosque.


Burnham Street
Drill Hall. Army Cadet Centre in what was Tower Hamlets Engineers Volunteers Centre
Museum House. Built by the East End Dwellings Co., was founded in 1884 to house the very poor while realizing some profit. Following clearances by the Metropolitan Board of Works the Metropolitan Street Improvements Act of 1883, the company was leased a plot where it built four-storeyed Museum House in 1888.


Cambridge Heath Road
Bethnal Green tube station is on the Central line and lies between Liverpool Street and Mile End stations. It was opened as part of the delayed Central Line eastern extension in 1946 as part of the New Works programme.  It is finished with pale yellow tiling, originally made by Poole Pottery and some original panels remain on the platforms. Some tiles showing symbols of London designed by Harold Stabler. The station, and some above ground ancillary buildings, show the design influence of Charles Holden. In the Second World War the unfinished satin was used as an air raid shelter under the administration of the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green – who had warned that crash barriers were needed - and became an overnight shelter.  The stairs into the station were the site of a crush during an air raid when 170 people died.
memorial bronze plaque above the stairs to the station. This has an inscription below an enamelled coat of arms: “Site of the worst civilian disaster of the Second World War. In memory of 173 men, women and children who lost their lives on the evening of Wednesday 3rd March 1943 descending these steps to Bethnal Green Underground Air Raid Shelter, Not forgotten.
Gate Piers, The station was built beneath Bethnal Green gardens and at the entrance are classical gate piers designed to disguise vents.

Cornwall Gardens
Sutton Dwellings. Three blocks built in 1909 by the ‘charitable trusts' of William Richard Sutton, carrier of Golden Lane. Painted crests on the walls.


Digby Street
In the 1840s the road had included a dump for night soil taken from houses by refuse collectors.
Digby Estate - pre-war art deco council blocks of the Digby Estate, 1935-6 by E.C.P Monson, Bethnal Green Met. Borough Architect.  This includes Butler House by Monson from 1934, with the same stripy brick
Digby Greenways Community centre. Regeneration of the estate in 1998 by Levin Bernstein included the conversion of what is said to be a depot for London Council Trams. Said to be of 1900, into a community centre.  My guess is it’s a transformer substation built by Bethnal Green in 1916
Digby Street depot. Local authority engineering department and depot which included a disinfecting station and stables. Now housing and community space. An electrical substation was opened here by the Mayor of Bethnal Green in 1916. Although Bethnal Green had applied for an order giving them powers for electrical generation plus a dust destructor in 1899 they continued to receive power from the Stepney generator until 1916. Transformers were built at New Tyssen Street and here at Digby Street depot in 1916 with Westinghouse equipment. This was later taken over by the London Electricity Board following nationalisation.
Godley VC House memorial plaque.  In 1992 the Council renamed a housing block to commemorate Sidney Frank Godley who was awarded the Victoria Cross in management of machine guns under heavy fire after he had been wounded in August 1914. He subsequently worked as a caretaker at Cranbrook School in Tower Hamlets


Gawber Street
Globe Primary School. The school opened in 1874 as a Board School called Globe Terrace School. It was remodelled in 1900 and renamed Globe Road School.  Following evacuation in the Second World War the empty school building was used by local fire-fighters to store the fire engines and trucks needed to fight fires during the blitz.  The school was also used as a base by the ARP wardens and the ground floor was filled with families after their own houses were destroyed by the bombs and fires of the blitz. The school re opened in 1944 for both Junior and Infants and was renamed Globe Primary School. For a while in the 1950s it was also known as Pilgrim School,


Globe Road
Globe Town. This was Globe Lane in the 18th 1708 probably because it was a track from Bethnal Green to the Globe pub at Mile End. Before that it was called Theeving Lane. The northern part of Globe Road was once known as Back Lane and the southern part as Globe Piece - Cattle were pastured at Globe Fields on route to Mile End cattle market. Globe Town devolved after land on the Eastfields estate was developed in the late 18th by a consortium of builders and aimed at a middle-class market. The name was revived in the 1980s when the borough was divided into small neighbourhoods for governance
264 Sweet Tea House. Tibetan Art Gallery
Housing by Samuel Barnett’s East End Dwellings Company. A group of cottages in a terrace designed by Henry Davis in red brick with rendered arched panels over doors – one of which shows the company name. They replaced weavers' cottages of the 1850s removed in slum clearances between 1900 and 1906.
Merceron House. Red and yellow-brick with terracotta decorations designed by Ernest Emmanuel for the East End Dwellings Company in 1901
Montfort House. Red and yellow-brick with terracotta decorations designed by Ernest Emmanuel for the East End Dwellings Company in 1901
Globe Primary school. Mosaics along the wall facing Globe road. The theme is s animals from around the globe and everything in the design was drawn by children in Artyface workshops.
Gretton Houses. Five-storeyed parallel blocks with terracotta decoration for the East End Dwellings Company.  Originally built as two blocks with a wide carriage arch between them. The rear blocks were rebuilt after bomb damage by Henry C. Smart & Partners in 1947. .
156 Sigsworth Hall. Victory Baptist Church. This is on the site of what was the Weslyan Methodist Chapel. It was previously a base for the Salvation Army who bought what was then Gordon Hall, from the Methodist Church in 1959. They rebuilt it and renamed it Sigsworth Hall after one of their staff Alice Sigsworth in 1960
Globe Road Wesleyan Chapel, now demolished, was opened in 1819 and later taken over by Dr. T.B. Stephenson of Children's Home as a mission hall named after General Gordon. It was sold to the Salvation Army in 1959. Its burial ground was once known as Mile End Cemetery’
Craft School Memorial Garden.  The garden was created on the old Wesleyan burial ground to ‘perpetuate the memory of its work, and of the ideals of beauty and hand craftsmanship for which it stood’. The design was carried out by F W Troup, adviser and governor of the Craft School. The entrance gate and Art Nouveau boundary railings were by a former blacksmith who had taught at the School with the Rose and Ring emblem recalling the ‘Rose and Ring Club, from which the Craft School grew’. The bronze plaque on the gate of 1925 shows The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green and inside is an inscribed plaque by two craftswomen. A copper weather vane with a globe on a flagpole showed East India Company 17th ship, The Globe. A copper flower bowl was placed on the central mausoleum and an oak-framed map showed East London in 1703. Flagstones were donated by Bank of England. The garden was opened in 1926.
The Crafts School was established in 1890 and closed in 1915 because of financial problems during the Great War. They had moved to this site from Whitechapel where they had grown from ‘The Rose and Ring Club’ and later in 1907 moved to Stepney Green.
Saint Anthony’s church This church was funded by the sale of the building and site of All Hallows Staining in the City of London. It was designed by Ewan Christian and consecrated in 1879. The parish was united with that of Saint Simon Zelotes in 1936 and it was demolished in 1937
Flats - blocks of London County Council flats between this road and Sceptre Road.
277 Camel pub. Faced in vaguely Art Nouveau tiles in plain brown exterior tiles. Inside is an etched Camel mirror.
Globe Road and Devonshire Street Station opened in 1884 Built by the Great Eastern Railway to the west of the site of Devonshire Street. The station was at the junction with Globe Road.  There were two entrances - on the east side of Globe Road and facing onto the rod. The entrance remained into the 1950s with an elaborate arch and gates with the station name above in the ironwork. The other entrance serving Devonshire Street, now Bancroft Road,  but also Morpeth Street via a subway under the viaduct. The station only had two platforms which were served by new local lines on the then quadrupled railway. These platforms were on the viaduct and the booking office was at street level at the London end in Globe Road with another in Devonshire Street. The Devonshire street booking office and arch was still identifiable in the 1970s with ‘Great Eastern Railway’ in stonework on the bridge over.  It was closed in 1916. In 1938 it was demolished but the entrance gates survived
Globe Street Junction Signal Box. Closed 1894
Devonshire Street Signal Box. This was above the tracks at the London end. It closed in 1916.
Devonshire Street West signal box. This was at the country end of the station. Built in 1884 to replace an earlier box.
Acton Engineering. On the station site in the 1950s.
184 Muaythai. Thai boxing club. This appears to be in premises adjacent to and under the railway arches, previously used as a snooker club.
131 The Railway Tavern
Buddhist Centre entrance.  This is behind the centre which is in Roman Road. There is a large mural of flowers on the party wall with 343 Globe Road. There is also a sculpture over the gateway which shows the Nalanda crest with other symbols. This includes a lotus flower, a pair of deer and the wheel with eight spokes symbolic of the path to enlightenment. Nalanda was the name of a university which flourished in India from the 5th century BCE to about 100 CE. The design of the crest is at least a thousand years old.


Knottisford Street
Tuscan House. A twelve-storey system-built tower by Tower Hamlets Council. 1965.


Museum Passage
Four ornate cast iron lamp posts of 1897. This is an old path across Bethnal Green which in 1872 was planted with plane trees as a division between the Green and the Museum.


Old Ford Road
5 Netteswell House 17th brick house with later alterations and the oldest surviving house in Bethnal Green. Above the entrance which now leads to garden is inscription "Netteswell House - AD1553 - Remodelled 1705 and 1862". The entrance is from Old Ford Road and the house overlooks the grounds of Bethnal Green Museum. It was originally attached to the chapel of ease built in.1512.  This house was built in 1553 by Sir Ralph Warren, Lord Mayor of London, and Oliver Cromwell's great-grandfather. But this was been replaced by two houses in 1720; and themselves replaced in 1787-91 by Ruby for Anthony Natt Rector of Netteswell in, Essex. It was for a while the museum curator's official residence, but is now in private ownership.
Community food garden. This was established in April 2012 and is managed by the Globe Community Food Garden Committee who allocate plots to residents.


Peary Place
This was once called North Passage – which presumably is why the name was changed to that of the Polar explorer, Robert Peary.


Roman Road
This was once called Green Street and at the Cambridge Heath end it divides the closes of the Green. It is shown on Gascoyne's map of 1703 as a drift way but it was called Green Street by 1883.  It was renamed because of Roman finds in the 19th
11 Bethnal Green Fire Station. Built 1969 by the GLC Architect's Department. in dark brick and concrete
19-35 Museum House. Built in 1888 this is the the earliest surviving tenement by Davis & Emmanuel for the East End Dwellings Co. It has three storeys above shops on and had flats with shared WCs.
50 Bacton Tower. This was built in 1965 by Yorke Rosenberg & Mardell. It was the first fully. System built tower in what was then the new Borough of Tower Hamlets, It is in pre-cast reinforced concrete clad with YRM's trademark white tiles. Since 1990 it has had a pitched roof and flimsy porch
51 the old Bethnal Green Fire Station which has since become the Western Order of Buddhists. London Buddhist Centre.  The fire station was built in 1888-9 by Robert Pearsall for the Metropolitan Board of Works, in a free Arts and Crafts Gothic in red brick and -terracotta decoration. It has a symmetrical front, with entrances through brick arches. The hose tower was once topped by a, turret. A new entrance has been made, through a gateway with a wrought-iron design depicting the crest of Nalanda, by Arya Daka. The interior was remodelled by M.E Wharton with Windhorse Design and includes murals of natural landscapes by Chintamani. There are two shrine rooms with figures of Buddha, also by Chintamani.  There is a courtyard with flowers and a water sculpture. The main entrance to the building is a glass-walled conservatory with a gilded Buddha surrounded by plants
37 The Atlas Pub. This pub was here before 1869 and closed towards the end of the Second World War. It has since been in use as a shop.
62 Albert Jacobs house. Council offices
62-66 Empire Picturedrome. This opened in 1913 with independent operators throughout its existence. In 1946 it was renamed Empire Cinema and in 1955, Premier Cinema. It was closed in 1959. The building was demolished and the site is now under Alfred Jacob House
63 The Devon Arms. This pub was here before 1852, and then called Lord John Russell. It closed in 1924.
67 Black Horse Pub – which is written in cement lettering on the gable. This pub was there before 1869 and in 1883 rebuilt by Hammack & Lambert.  It was a Truman’s Brewery house but bought by Bellhaven Brewery in 1985. It closed in 1995 and was used as an art gallery.
85 Baitful Murmur academy. This mosque and cultural centre moved to 100 Roman Road. However following a dispute some members moved back here.
100 site of The Weavers Arms. This was a Taylor Walker Brewery pub, which was here before 1850. It was rebuilt after the Second World War as the ground floor of a block of flats. It closed in 1994 and was used as council offices. It later became a mosque and an Islamic cultural centre.
100 Globe Town Mosque and Cultural Centre. The Group moved from 85 Roman Road to these former council offices.
109 The Ship pub was there before 1860 and closed during the Great War. It remained a beer house throughout its existence/
123 The Star & Garter Pub, This was open from before 1869 to 1914.
129 The Old Friends Pub, This was Watney’s House there before 1869. It closed in 2009 and is now a Chinese takeaway.
Brick arch surmounted by a globe and a small public garden on the corner with Globe Road as some sort of entrance to Globe Town


Sceptre Road
London County Council flats with sun balconies and courtyards. Five stories high

Stainsbury Street
Bonner School, Bethnal Green is a two form entry school. This was originally Bonner Street Board School built on the site of Twig Folly British School in   1875 in Queen Anne style buildings by Edward Robson and John Stevenson.  It was reorganised in 1930 and again, following evacuation in 1945 and then renamed Bonner Primary in 1949. The previous school on the site had been Twig Folly British School which had opened on 1830 as a Lancastrian School in Sidney Street. It had been built here with money from both Parliament and the British and Foreign Schools. Society and conveyed to trustees in 1837. It was eventually replaced by Bonner Street School. The Board School buildings were demolished in 2005 and replaced.
Memorial on the school wall on the corner of Hartley and Bonner Street. This is a stone tablet beneath a Della Robbia style roundel of infant in swaddling bands. Erected in 1936, in place of a temporary wooden shrine of 1916, to commemorate the dead of Mace Street, "Love shall tread out the baleful fires of anger & in its ashes plant the tree of peace"

Sugar Loaf Walk
The name is thought to come from a public house.  There was a clothing factory here, making uniforms during World War One.

Victoria Park Square
Flats rugged Brutalist for the fire station round the corner in Roman Road.
12 Police Station built in 1997
16 This was the clubhouse and chapel of the Bethnal Green University Settlement,. Built in 1888 it is a 2-storey clubhouse and a chapel both in red: The University Settlement was established here by three Oxford theology graduates to provide 'entertainment, rational amusement, and social intercourse' for the people of the East End. In 1887 they were based in No.17 and built this at No.16 plus a hall to the rear which is now demolished They Shared the premises with the Repton Club, which included one of the largest boxing clubs in the country. The building is now offices and flats.
Victoria Park Square Hall operated as a cinema during 1912 and 1913.
17 Temple House. Workers Educational; Association. Offices. The staircase incorporates a dog-gate. Its gateway was brought from Hythe Church, Kent, by Sir Wyndham Deedes, principal of the University House Settlement, who lived here. from 1923 to 1939. He retired to Bethnal Green from the army and served on the council and the L.C.C.  The house was built as a pair with 18 in the late 17th.
18 The house is said to have a Tudor Well in the cellar. It houses the Young Foundation and was the Institute of Community Studies. The Young Foundation is in the same buildings where Michael Young and Peter Willmott researched and wrote Family and Kinship in East London in the 1950s.  The Institute for Community Studies had been set up in 1954 as an urban studies think tank, bringing academic research and practical social innovation together. It helped create over 60 organisations, including the Open University and the Consumers’ Association.  Michael Young has been described as “the world’s most successful entrepreneur of social enterprises” As the author of Labour’s manifesto in 1945 he played a key role in shaping the post-war welfare state. In the early 1950s he set up the Institute of Community Studies. He was involved in the creation of NHS Direct, the spread of after-school clubs and neighbourhood councils and in his later life was instrumental in creating the University of the Third Age and Grandparents Plus.
21 In 1853 Henry Merceron leased this to the Queen's Own Light Infantry Regiment of the Tower Hamlets militia. by the 1860s this included a barracks and the Territorial Army site in Globe Road still used by army cadets.
26 Montfort House.  Flats built for the East End Dwellings Company by its architects Davis & Emmanuel in 1901 as part of their scheme between here and Globe Road.   Inside are enclosed stairs and self-contained flats rather than single rooms. The name reflects the legend of the blind beggar, who was supposedly Simon de Montfort in disguise.
Mulberry House. This was one of the last schemes for the East End Dwellings Co. Built by Arthur Kenyan in 1934-6. It is on the ground of what was Aldgate House in 1643,
Our Lady of the Assumption. The Church and Priory of the Assumptionists is on the site of Aldgate House,  and later Park Congregational Chapel.  It is Roman Catholic built 1911-12 by Edward Goldie. The site was given by Florence Cottrell-Dormer.
Priory of the Assumptionist Fathers. .
Aldgate House. This had been built in 1643 and the site of the house and its gardens are now covered by Mulberry House and the Church and Priory of the Assumption. In 1760 Ebenezer Mussell had bought part of the City gate of Aldgate when it was demolished, and used the bricks and stones to build an annexe to this house – hence the name.. It was demolished in 1806 and replaced by houses, and in 1816 by the Park Chapel
Park or Ebenezer Chapel was  built on site of Aldgate House in 1811 and originated in Independent Calvinists under minister .Robert. Langford . It closed in 1876.
Swinburne House stands on the site of the Red House.
Red House. This was one of the buildings of the Bethnal Green Asylum. Built before 1831.


Welwyn Street
Mendip House. Built by the East End Dwellings Company in 1900, with a plaque on the wall facing Globe Road.


Wessex Street
28 Bangabandhu Primary School. The school dates from1989 and has been in these premises since 1991. The name of the school means 'Friend of Bengal'. It is the honorary title given to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who helped found Bangladesh in 1971
National School. The John Scurr Primary School was previously on this site and it was later an annexe for Morpeth School.


Sources
Aldous. London Villages 
Bethnal Green Free Art and History. Web site
Bethnal Green tube Station. Wikipedia, Web site.
British History Online. Bethnal Green 
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
City and East London Beer Guide
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Liverpool Street to Ilford
Devonshire Street Station. Wikipedia. Web site
East London History Society Review
GLIAS Newsletter
Globe Primary School. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site.
Lost Pubs Project. Web site
Lucas, London
Robinson and Chesshyre. The Green, 
St.John on Bethnal Green. Web site
V&A Museum of Childhood. Web site.
Young Foundation. Web site

Tuesday, 15 July 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Ilford Bethnal Green

Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Ilford
The Line runs north eastwards from Bethnal Green Station

Post to the west Three Colt Lane
Post to the north Bethnal Green

Bellevue Place
Cottages 18th-19th brick terrace with garden paved walk from Cleveland Way., with ‘true cottage gardens’.

Cambridge Heath Road
This was at one time called Cambridge Road and also partly Dog Lane.  The heath is an area now built over at the northern end.
223 Morain House. This was a sheet metal works for Sol Schaverien and Sons, Ltd built on the site of a mission hall. Schaverien eventually concentrated on their umbrella manufacturing business here moving to a site at Mile End in the 1980s. The building has since been used by an electrical equipment business with a series of art galleries in the office accommodation.
231 The East London Electric Theatre opened in 1911 operated by Frank Stebbing. By 1918 it was called the East London Picture Palace and closed in 1919.
205 1940s office block on a site which before the Second World War was the Three Colts Pub. The pub was there before 1820 and may have closed before the Great War.
93 Sovereign House. Site of the Foresters Cinema which was opened as a hall attached to the Artichoke Public House from 1825, and converted into the Foresters Music Hall in 1889 by Edward Clark. Known as the Royal Foresters Music Hall from 1901-1904 it reverted back to Foresters Music Hall from 1904, when it was operated by the MacNaghten Vaudeville Circuit. In 1916 was re-named the New Lyric Music Hall and was also known as the Lyric Theatre. It closed in 1917 re-opened in 1926 when it opened as the Foresters Super Cinema with alterations by George Coles.  In 1937 it was taken over by Oscar Deutsch’s Odeon Theatres Ltd. It suffered from damage in the Second World War, and was closed in 1947 and re-opened in 1949.  It was eventually closed in 1960 and demolished in 1964
Bethnal Green Gardens.  This quarter square covers only a tiny portion of the southernmost end.  The gardens cover an area safeguarded by trustees as ‘Poors Land’ since the 1690s in order to stop development.  The section covered here consists of ornamental gardens and some tennis courts.
The bridge taking the Great Eastern Railway over Cambridge Heath Road is a replacement of 1893
Mile End Station. This was built in 1841 on the Eastern Counties Railway and from map evidence it may have been on the south east side of the road.  In 1872 it closed having been replaced by replaced by Bethnal Green Junction
135 The Carpenters Arms. This was present in what was then Dog Row in 1849 and at 34 Cambridge Road in 1861. It was rebuilt after the Second World War on a different site as part of Donegal House on the Collingwood Estate
Brick arch surmounted by a globe and a small public garden on the corner with Cephas Street as some sort of entrance to Globe Town.
Rope walk. Before the 1890s a rope walk ran from Three Colt Lane between this road and Buckhurst Street


Cephas Avenue
This was originally St. Peter Street and was laid out in a straight line, running north from Mile End Road and centred on the church. The housing was built up from the 1830s to the 1890s.
50 ½ Katherine Wheel pub. Closed and now housing


Cephas Street
In the 19th the east end of the road, near the church, was called St. Peter’s Street and the end near Cambridge Heath Road was Devonshire Street
Frank Dobson Square.  Named after the artist of with Woman with a Fish which had been acquired by the London County Council in the 1960s as a feature for the Cleveland Estate. . The 1950s statue was used as a drinking fountain until vandalised and then removed. There is a replica in Millwall Park.
John Scurr Primary School.   John Scurr was born in 1876 and grew up in Poplar. He was secretary of the Poplar Labour League and District Chairman of the Dockers’ Union.  He was elected to Poplar Borough Council in 1919 and in 1921 he was sent to Prison for refusing to levy Poplar’s share London County Council rates. He was later an Alderman of the LCC. And MP for Mile End Ward in 1923 and played a leading role in 1930 Education Bill. The school is housed in a 1920's three-decker building which appears to be part of what was Cephas Street School. John Scurr School appears to previously have been in Wessex Road in the site now used by the Bangabandhu Primary School.
Cephas Street School. This was a School Board for London school built as an elementary school in 1928. It was badly bombed in the Second World War.  It is assumed that ‘School house’ in Cephas Street is one of the original school buildings.
Smith, Druce & Co.  Phoenix Gin Distillery. This had an artesian well
St. Peters Court. Housing in what was St Peter’s Church. This was built in 1838 for the Metropolis Churches Fund. It was designed by Edward Blore, but bombed in the Second World War. The Vicarage was to the west of the church and the Sunday school to the east


Cleveland Way
Cleveland Estate. Designed and built by the London County Council Architects Department in 1962
64 Crown Pickle Works. Barons Crown Pickles & Binnella Ltd. This was on the site of what is now Lamplighter Close.
56 Golden Eagle pub demolished in 2000.  There are now flats on the site.

Colebert Avenue
Previously Devonshire Street
Moses and Solomon Almshouses. Thus charity was set up to to relieve the poverty and to ameliorate the condition of the Jewish poor of the Metropolis. It consst of Twelve tenements Founded in 1838 by Lyon Moses and the late Henry Solomon, and administered by the Jewish Board of Guardians. The almshouses appear to have remained there until the early 1950s. There now appears to be ball courts on the site.
Barrows Charity Almshouses. Barrow’s Almshouses were founded by Joseph Barrow. The Almshouses of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation, founded in 1703 were amalgamated with the Montefiore Almshouses, founded by Sir Moses Montefiore, and the Pacifico Almshouses, founded by Dr. Emanuel Pacifico, and they were all removed to a new set of buildings in Devonshire-street on the site of Barrow's Almshouses, and opened in 1894. They appear to have gone by the Second World War. The site is now flats.
Cigar Box Factory

Hadleigh Close
Railway Viaduct. The skew bridge was replaced in 1880 with a substantial iron bridge carried on cast iron Tuscan columns. The bridge is said to be of interest for its five slanting rows of columns.
Blind arch to the east, with a pylon-formed buttress to its left and beyond a further row of five arches.


Hayfield Passage
Recalls the time when hay carts would travel down to the hay market in Whitechapel High Street.


Malcolm Place
Railway Viaduct – a Section of the north side of the Eastern Counties Railway Viaduct built 1838-40, for which John Braithwaite was engineer. It is in brick, and includes a number of arches and buttresses. A skew bridge spans Malcolm Street to Braintree Street. This viaduct carried the first railway to connect London with East Anglia. The arcade along Malcolm Street was originally called Railway Place. The viaduct is from the first generation of railway building.

Mile End Road
A wide thoroughfare with broad pavements with gardens and shrubberies. The open land attracted large institutions in the 19th including workhouses. It was here that Jewish tailors came here to hear their leaders like Lewis Lyons. In 1898 Theodore Hertzl proclaimed Zionism here and in 1917 the Jewish Legion was formed here to liberate Palestine from the Turks.
31 Tower Hamlet Mission. Charis provides therapeutic residential care for addicts.  The was established in 1870 by Frederick Charrington, heir to a brewery fortune and set up as a charity by the Charity Commission in 1938, following his death. Charis opened in 1988.  There are three staff houses and an administration block. The central feature is a light well and a courtyard with a small fountain and pool give light and a feeling of peace and there is a Chapel for prayer and meditation.
Statue of William Booth. This is a copy of the statue by G.E Wade which is outside the Salvation Army Headquarters at Denmark Hill. It is painted grey and in fibreglass to defeat vandalism – the bottom s also filled with concrete. However the book which he once held is gone. It was put up in 1979 to mark the 150th anniversary of his birth.
39 Statue of Edward VII.  Life-sized bronze bust of unveiled on 12 October 1911. Erected by the Freemasons of the Eastern District of which he was Grand Master.
69-90 Wickham & Sons.  Department store with an extensive frontage along the road. The Wickham family were originally drapers, trading from 69, 71 and 73 Mile End Road.  Built by Thomas Jay Evans
81 occupied by the Spiegelhalter family business of clockmakers and jewellers. The Wickham family acquired the entire block except the Spiegelhalter's shop at 81 and planned a major rebuilding of their shop. This time the Spiegelhalter family refused to part with their premises at any price. Their refusal to move led to the odd situation in which the new store was built around the family shop which continued to trade when Wickham’s opened on both its sides.
91 Al-Huda Mosque. Built in 1928 by Whinney, Son and Austen Hall as a bank and closed in 1987 after repeated bank robberies. In 2000 it became a Mosque, which serves the Somali Muslim community.
93-95 The Genesis Cinema. This opened in 1848 as the Eagle pub and music hall. This was later Lusby's Summer and Winter Garden and later Lusby's Music Hall which was burnt down in 1884. The owners, Crowder & Payne, hired Frank Matcham to design the Paragon Theatre of Varieties which opened in 1885. This had a revolutionary air extraction system which helped Matcham become the most successful theatre architect of his day. The drop-curtain was painted by. Charles Brooke and interior decoration was by the Framemaker's Gilders' and Decorators' Association. Charlie Chaplin made his first stage appearance here. In 1912 it was renamed the Mile End Empire and used as a cinema and was bought in 1928 by the United Picture Theatre circuit and then in 1934 ABC. ABC replaced the old theatre with a modern building designed by their chief architect, W.R. Glen. In 1963 it housed the Royal World Premiere of Sparrows Can't Sing hosted by Ronnie and Reggie Kray attended by the Earl of Snowdon because Princess Margaret was ill - the auditorium had been specially redecorated and a new wide screen had been fitted. As well as Barbara Windsor and half show biz of the day, there were trumpeters of the Household Cavalry and music from the Metropolitan Police Band. It was called the Cannon cinema when it closed in the 1980s. It opened as Genesis Cinema was opened in 1999, with Barbara Windsor as the guest of honour.
129 Adams House. This is remaining building of the Anchor Brewery. It is offices and flats called Charrington House. The name of Adams House comes from Adams Solicitors who own it.
133-135 house built in the 18th which  incomplete and reduced to first floor level. In the 1960s, it was used as a garage, and used for the storage of car tyres. In 1994, an arson attack almost led to the loss of the panelled interior.
137-139 Malplaquet House. Built as one of three in 1742 by Thomas Andrews and named after the Battle of Malplaquet. Brewer Harry Charrington lived 1794 -1833 and following his occupancy the house was subdivided, and shops built on the front garden. A number of small businesses were there in the 19th - a bookmaker, a printer and 1910-1975 by the Union of Stepney Ratepayers. Architect Richard Seifert provided new shop fronts following repairs to Second World War bomb damage. In the 1990s, Spitalfields Trust helped save it from demolition. In 1998, Tim Knox and Todd Longstaffe-Gowan bought it from the Spitalfields Trust. In 2010, it was described as "possibly the most superbly restored, privately owned Georgian house in the country
156 Hayfield Tavern. This pub dates from the 18th, it was the brewery tap for Charrington’s Brewery and the rooms upstairs were where Brewery directors met for private dining and meetings. It was called the Pearly Queen from 1970 and is now the Hayfield Masala,
166 Early 19th house. Painted brick with parapet. Modern shop on ground floor.
168 This was the Black Horse. It was originally a Charrington Brewery house.  It has its original pub façade and inside is has a tiled mural of a black horse.  It later became a gay bar and is now closed.
182 site of Augustus Attwell's butcher's shop. Mabel Lucy Attwell was born here in 1879 and became a popular illustrator of children's books.
Anchor Brewery – This was Charrington's Brewery. It had been built in 1757 by Westfield and Moss, replacing their Bethnal Green brewery. In 1766, John Charrington, and After Moss retired in 1783 John and Henry Charrington were in full control of the business.  By 1783 John Charrington and his brother Harry were the proprietors. In 1785 they installed a steam engine and by 1808 they were second in the list of the leading 12 London brewers. After Charrington's death in 1815, the business was continued by his son, Nicholas. In 1833 Charrington's began brewing stout and porter as well as ale. At its peak it produced 20,000 barrels of beer a week. In 1872 they bought a brewery in Burton on Trent and thenceforth operated the two breweries. They also bought up 40 other brewers between 1833 and 1930. Frederick Charrington, heir to the Charrington Brewery, began his Temperance movement in Whitechapel, and he relentlessly pursued brothel keepers, hounding them out by noting their activities in his black book. . In 1967, Charrington formed Bass Charrington Limited. The Anchor Brewery ceased production in 1975, but remained the company's head office. Most of the brewery buildings had been demolished and has been redeveloped as housing, offices and a shopping centre as the Anchor Retail Park.


Wylen Close
Gouldman House. Tower block of reinforced concrete frame on stilts part of Cleveland estate


Sources
Aldous. London Villages 
British History Online. Bethnal Green
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Cinema treasures. Web site
City and East London Beer Guide
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
East London History Society Review
Genesis Cinema. Web site
GLIAS Newsletter
John Scurr School. Web site
London Encyclopaedia,
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
Lucas, London
Malplaquet House. Wikipedia. Web site
Meulenkamp and Wheatley. Follies.
Panoramaeast. Web site
The Green, 
TourEast. Leaflet

Friday, 11 July 2014

Great Eastern Raillway Liverpool Street to Ilford. Three Colt Lane

Great Eastern railway from Liverpool Street to Ilford
The Great Eastern Railway runs north eastwards from Bishopsgate


Post to the west Mile End New Town
Post to the east Bethnal Green


Brady Street

Brady Street was originally Ducking Pond Lane.
37 Jews' Cemetery. This was a brickfield leased for burials by the New Synagogue in 1761 for 12 guineas a year, but subsequently used by the Great Synagogue too. It is a large walled enclosure, founded by the Ashkenazi community and crowded with 19th monuments, Buried there are several members of the Rothschild family, including Nathan Meyer Rothschild in 1836. Also buried is Miriam Levey, who opened the first soup kitchen in Whitechapel and Solomon Hirschel, Chief Rabbi 1802-1842. Changes in ground level reflect the requirements of rabbinical law. When the cemetery was full in the 1790's a four-foot thick layer of earth was put over part of the site to use it for further burials, leaving a flat-topped mound. Because of the two layers, headstones are placed back to back.   A hummocky area was used for those who did not belong to a particular congregation and was known as the Strangers Ground.  Although it was closed as a cemetery in 1858, the gardens are well maintained
Mocatta House. Tenement block by Joseph & Smithem for the Four Per Cent Industrial Dwellings Co., built in 1905. The entrance has tapered-stone buttresses with a motif, and Art Nouveau ironwork. It was built on the site of a Jewish almshouses;
180 Yorkshire Grey later called JJs Free House. Said to be on the site of 18th coaching inn.  Wooden beamed house.  Closed 1998, became flats, now demolished.
Buckhurst Street
Vicarage. The site was acquired by the church in 1841 and is now flats.
Collingwood Sure Start Centre. Built 2006
St Bartholomew’s Gardens. This was converted to a public garden by the Metropolitan Parks and Gardens Association and opened in 1885 by Princess Louise. It was laid out to the designs of Fanny Wilkinson, landscape gardener to the MPGA. Within two years later the paths needed to be asphalted because of the heavy use. The Gardens were maintained by the London County Council, and extended to the south in 1973. There is an obelisk to Tanner Lucas, 1840, but otherwise no gravestones remain. The garden is largely grass with perimeter planting and there is a children’s playground.  St Bartholomew's Path divides the ex church and the gardens, and some original 19th railings remain.


Collingwood Estate
Estate built from 1923 in an early interwar slum clearances programme by the London County Council under its Chief Architect, G. Topham Forrest, whose designs continues until 1939. The first block opened in 1923 and the estate was complete by 1930.

Coventry Road
This was Suffolk Street until at least 1877
St Bartholomew‘s Church. Built 1843-4 by William Railton. Gutted in the Second World War bombing but restored and reopened in 1955. In 1971 the parish united with St. John and St. Simon Zelotes. In 1983 the church was closed and under the Church Commission Scheme became residential. It was converted to flats in the 1993, as Steeple Court.
83 Vicar of Wakefield Pub. This was here in the 1870s and remained until the Second World War. Since demolished.
St. Bartholomew's Church of England Schools.  These were founded as a Sunday and day school   in 1841. The school was built in 1842 with Parliamentary and National Society grants.  They were passed to the National Society in 1844. In 1852 they were attended by children of artisans who paid 2d.–4d. A week to be taught book keeping, history, geography, and English and 'crammed to suffocation', children of lower classes paid 1d.–2d.  There was a teachers' house with a single-storey Board school and another building for girls and infants. A new elementary school was built to the north in 1853 and enlarged in 1858. It was offered to the School Board for London in 1874 but continued as a voluntary school. Both schools were bombed in the Second World War and not reopened


Cudworth Street
Businesses in railway arches along the north side of the street. Many of them connected to the London taxi trade.

Darling Row
Follows the line of a track to one of the farms that occupied the land in the 18th
Grindall House. Built 1949 and utilitarian but angled slightly to follow the line of the street. A post Second World War addition to the core of the estate
Collingwood House like Grindall

Granary Road
The road is built between the Jewish Burial Ground and the rail line which once went to the Spitalfields coal drops at Whitechapel.

Selby Street
This was the approach road to the Spitalfields Coal Drop area from Vallance Road

Somerford Street
Stewart Headlam Primary School. The building was designed by E. R. Robson and opened in 1881 as Somerford Street Board School. The First London County Council day nursery was opened here in 1917.  It was renamed Stewart Headlam School in 1925. After the Second World War it was reorganised as a junior and infant school and also absorbed Wilmot Primary School in 1955/8. The building it makes maximum use of the tight site with a roof playground with characterful iron railings. Stewart Headlam, Christian Socialist and Radical Anglican, was curate at local St. Matthews Church in the 19th.
Ashington House. Built by Noel Moffett Associates in 1970-4 for the Greater London Council. They tried to meet the need for high-density housing and at the same time provide some character. There is an unusually high degree of privacy plus roof gardens.
46-48 were intended as flat-roofed houses for disabled tenants, with hexagonal units with wide angles for increased mobility.
Orion House. By the Greater London Council’s Architect Department 1964-70 with a ten-storey slab on piloti.


Tapp Street
Lion Pub. The Lion was a Truman's house dating from the 1870s closed and converted into housing in 2002. There is still a Truman's sign notice board on the north side of the building. In the 1960s it was known as the Widow's as it was run by the widow of the previous licensee and it had connections to the Kray family. It is said that the pub was a ‘no-go’ area for the police and in 1966 it was thought there was a weapons store there. The Krays raided Mr Smith’s club in Catford because they thought the Richardson gang were coming to the Lion, and a Kray gang member was killed as a result. Ronnie Kray was at the Lion when he heard that Richardson member George Cornell was in the Blind Beggar - and he left to get revenge.
Bethnal Green Station. The now demolished station entrance was at the corner with Three Colts Lane.
East Junction – this is the point at which the line to Hackney Downs diverges from the main Great Eastern Line

Three Colts Lane
Bethnal Green Station.  Opened in 1872 it now lies between Cambridge Heath and Liverpool Street Stations. It was built by the Great Eastern Railway and was the first station out of Liverpool Street. It is there because a junction was being built for a line to Hackney Downs and this was to be the junction station with two side platforms and a central island.  A complex of sidings on the south west of the lines was part of the lines which served the Spitalfields depot. A station was planned at Bethnal Green on the Central Line under the New Works programme of the 1930s and this was implemented in 1946. Thus from 1946 Stratford line services stopped calling here and the up suburban platform was closed.  A stone drinking fountain in the middle of the platform was there until the 1960s. The station was rebuilt in 1985 with two platforms and all old buildings removed. There is a small waiting room on the down side.
Bethnal Green West Signal box dates from 1891 and was taken out of use in 1947 and removed.
Bethnal Green signal box. This was a box put in 1949 at the time of the electrification to Shenfield. It closed in 1989 and was demolished in 1997.
Waterlow Buildings. There is a plaque on the buildings on the Three Colt Lane frontage. The Improved Industrial Dwellings Company Ltd. was set up by Sir Sydney Waterlow in 1863.  Bethnal Green's Waterlow Estate was built between 1869  1890 and flats are along Ainsley, Wilmot and Corfield Streets. This block includes ground-floor shops: an uncommon feature only repeated again once in the Company's estates. The estate was sold off and partly demolished in the 1980s.
The Good Shepherd Mission.  In 1856, A Sunday School resulting from a closure in another church became known as ‘The Good Shepherd School’. New school was built in Mape Street in 1866, and a day school was opened. The Mape Street School was compulsorily purchased by The Great Eastern Railway and a new school built in Three Colts Lane in 1872. In 1873 the day school was transferred to the School Board for London. The building was later extended and amalgamated with King Edward Institution, George Yard Mission, and Darby Street Mission. In the Second World War the Mission provided temporary shelter and supervised large air raid shelters in the area. In 1980 a team of volunteers, opened a youth club, which was followed soon after by a girls club and a junior club. A new registered charity was set up ’The Good Shepherd Mission’, in 1995 and a Church Leadership Team was formed in 1997. The Mission runs a programme of early years activities, a children’s club, youth clubs for boys and girls as well as with vulnerable adults, and this includes a winter night shelter
Greenheath Business area. This was the site of the Allen and Hanbury Works while retaining their office at Plough Court in the City. This dated to 1878 when part of what was then Letchford’s Buildings was leased and used for purifying cod liver oil. Adjacent buildings were also leased so More and more departments moved to this site, printing, publicity and surgical instrument manufacture – up to and including operating tables... A research department produced their later very successful milk foods – but these were eventually made in Ware, as too were lozenges from the 1920s.  Manufacture of Battleys Solution of Opium was moved here and in the early 1920s a large new factory was built to replace buildings lost in Great War air raids. Here specialist laboratories made insulin and similar products in sterile conditions - The factory produced a vast selection of drugs and pharmaceuticals – syrups, lozenges, specialist foods, pastilles, and tinctures, pills, tablets, in 1958 the firm was taken over by Glaxo and the whole operation moved to Ware and newer plant. Where they still and as SmithKlineGlaxo a major world pharmaceutical company.
29 Duke of Wellington. This pub dates from the early 19th and until at least 1851 was called the Lord Wellington. It closed before 1983 and was demolished in 2010.
Letchford’s Buildings.  This had been built as a match factory in Camden’s Gardens. R.Letchford made ‘wax vestas’ matches and paraffin matches in the 1860s.A major explosion in the early 1860s killed several workers and damaged the factory.  Despite this Letchfords said that their matches ignited only on the box, and never failed
Sanitas factory in the 1890s. One of the building taken over by Allan and Hanburys and used as their surgical instrument factory.
Rucker bicycle factory. In 6 Letchford's Buildings. 1881 – 1885. 1884 The Company introduced what may have been the first tandem cycle that bears resemblance to today’s tandem bicycles, be that the two wheels were much larger, being 56” in diameter. Although they sold ordinaries and tricycles as well.


Wilmott Street
Sydney Waterlow's Improved Industrial Dwellings Co.  Built in 1870.  Some are grander than others and possibly designed for better-off artisans.
Hague Primary School. The school here was opened in 1873 as Wilmot Street Board School in a building designed by Giles & Gough on a site bought from the Industrial Dwellings Co. It was damaged by rioting in 1877. It was reorganised in 1930 and became a secondary school. After the Second World War it was reorganised again as primary and secondary girls’ school. In 1955 the primary school amalgamated with Stewart Headlam School and the school was closed in 1965. The building was then used by Hague Primary School which had originally opened in 1883 in the building now used by the Drapers’ City Foyer.

Sources
British History online. Bethnal Green. Web site
CAMRA City and East London Beer Guide
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Liverpool Street to Ilford.
East London History Society. Newsletter
GLIAS Newsletter
Good Shepherd Mission. Web site
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Great Eastern Railway Journal special; summer 1989
International Jewish Cemetery Project. Web site.
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Enyclopdiea
Nairn.  Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Cherry. East London
Crips. Plough Court
Robins. North London Railway
TBIAGC A Survey of Industrial Monuments of Greater London
The Green

Thursday, 10 July 2014

Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Iford. Mile End New Town

Great Eastern Railway Liverpool Street to Ilford
The Great Eastern Railway runs due east from Bishopsgate

Post to the west Spitalfields
Post to the east Three Colt Lane


Buxton Street
The east end the road was Luke Street and the west end was Spicer Street
Mile End New Town Workhouse. This was set up in 1783 and consisted of two houses and one room was used as a meeting-place for the Vestry. It was closed after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 and the buildings were demolished and the site passed to the Church Building Commissioners in 1838
35 All Saints Vicarage is a plain brick house in the Gothic style. Now it provides a flat for the curate at Christ Church and 4 flats for other people.
All Saints’ Church. This was built in 1839 and the architect was Thomas Larkins Walker, a pupil of Pugin. In 1894 the spire was taken down. The church survived the Second World War of 1939–45 afterwards, the parish was joined to Christ Church, Spitalfields, and the building was demolished.
Hanbury Hall.   This was All Saints church hall which built later in the 19th and which is now used as a community hall by Christ Church.
St. Patrick's R.C. Primary School. This was on Land to the west of the Mile End Workhouse purchased by trustees of the ’Spitalfields Catholic Charity School’. In 1833 a building was erected which provided for the’ education of poor boys and girls ....in the practice of the Roman Catholic Church’. The girls moved to different premises in 1857. A building on the site now is described as Old St. Patrick’s School and is a woodcarver'
Spicer Street British School. The Soup Ladling Society was formed in 1797 and planned to open schools. In 1811 a site on the north side of Spicer Street was leased, and schoolroom built. This opened in 1812 as a boys' school under a former assistant of Joseph Lancaster. However the payment of a 1d was too much for many families and attendance was low and debt remained so the school closed in 1840. Its site was taken by the National Schools of All Saints' Church.
All Saints' National School was founded in1840 and the lease transferred to the incumbent of All Saints ‘Church, and Robert Hanbury, brewer. New buildings showing bearing the date 1840 were erected in the same style as All Saints' Church.
Spitalfields Farm. Spitalfields City Farm was originally set up by volunteers in 1978. It was built on the site of a goods shed, part of the Great Eastern’s Pedley Street goods yard.  The East London Railway Line from Whitechapel to Shoreditch ran underneath it. Rail line to the south of the site was built in 1876 and ran underground in a tunnel beneath the goods shed
Thomas Buxton Primary School
65 Prince of Wales Pub. Closed and demolished
37 Rose and Crown Pub. Closed and demolished


Cheshire Street
Known as Hare Street in the 18th when it ran alongside Harefields. The open ground was taken in 1839 for use by the Eastern Counties Railway.
St. Matthias Church. The church was set up in part of St.Matthew’s Parish and a Commissioners' church. The first incumbent refused to live in unhealthy district. Throughout the 1850s there was a close association with the London. City Mission, which supplied additional staff .The building, was in yellow brick by T.H. Wyatt and D.Brandon. In 1944 the parish was united with St.Matthew ad it was demolished in 1951.
City Pavilion. On the site of St.Matthais Church. Flats, workshops and offices built 1980 by Spiromega, behind gates on the street to its courtyard.
Great Eastern Goods Depot. Built by the Great Eastern Railway as a large 1860s goods depot, along the street. There is a single-storey gabled range of five units in bricks with a taller two-storey w range adjoining designed as multi-storey stables. This site is described as an engine shed in the 1870s and was a railway horse stable from the 1880s.  There was a ramp o the West Side for the horses to go up and down by which has now been truncated but a first floor door to the street remains. The current occupants, Beyond Retro, claim the building was a ‘dairy factory’ because of the sloping floors inside.
Reflection House.  Engelfields. The Great Eastern Horse Stable building was used in the 1980s for the manufacture of high quality pewter ware by Engelfields. This was the only firm of its kind in Europe producing pewter ware by traditional methods and said to have originated from the pewter casting business of Thomas Scattergood founded in 1700. . Since then the Company has had many names and in 1885, when U.J. Englefield took over, he was soon the only pewterer in London. He became Master of the worshipful Company of Pewterers in 1909.  The Crown & Rose mark was put on all Englefield's products - syringes, ice cream moulds, World War II aeroplane models, candlesticks, handbells, facsimiles of historic items, ornaments and tankards.  Engelfields were eventually taken over by Malaysian pewter specialists Royal Selangor who operate from a unit in Beckton.
73 Carpenters Arms Pub. Somewhere else that the Kray twins are said to have frequented.
88 Duke of Uke. Said to be London’s only banjo and ukulele shop.
89 The King & Queen Pub. This was a Truman’s house present here by 1771.  It closed in 1996 and is now flats.
118-122. Coppermill Ltd. have been in the textile recycling business for over 100 years. They make industrial cleaning wipers and have a Royal Warrant for it
Repton Boys Club and Repton Boxing Club. Repton Boys Club, which was established in 1884 by Repton Public School as a way of giving support and encouragement to the young men in one of the country's poorest communities. It is now housed in the old Bethnal Green baths since 1978 having previously been in Bethnal Green Road.
Bethnal Green Baths. Former public baths and washhouse. Built 1898-1900 by R. Stephen Ayling and partly converted for flats 1999-2000 by Yeates Design Architecture. They were the first baths built in Bethnal Green under the 1897 Public Baths and Washhouses Act and it is a Two-storey red brick block with carvings of cherubs over the male and female entrances. The iron and glass bathhouse was demolished for a discreet, uninspired new wing but the utilitarian single-storey former washhouse survives, with its iron and glass lantern roof. Its provision of space for prams 'in which the washers usually bring their linen' was a noted improvement. It was built on the site of Hereford buildings tenements.
44 this was The White Horse Pub. It was there in 1818 and was rebuilt in its present form in 1860.  It closed in 1917 and is now a shop. In 1821 it was selling beers from what is described as the Hanbury Brewery, one of the partners in what became Truman, Hanbury, and Buxton. It has kept its arcaded and shuttered front.
46 18th building with a later, glazed and shuttered shopfront. There are tripartite weaver's windows on the first and second floors


Dunbridge Street
Before the Second World War this was called London Street
89 Cavalier Pub. This was a Truman’s House previously called The Lord Hood. Demolished and replaced with flats.


Fakruddin Street
This was formerly Peace Street and renamed after a community activist and founder of Spitalfields Housing Association
The housing is the Shahjalal Estate, named after the Sufi Saint of Sylhet. It was built by the Spitalfields Housing Association.


Fleet Street Hill
This is/was a small street with granite setts leading from Pedley Street under one rail line and then to an enclosed bridge to Cheshire Street.  Above it was one of the wagon hoists on the goods yard.  It runs alongside a redundant railway embankment.  As a through way it was changed by the building of the new East London Line.

Hare Marsh
Hare Marsh was the name of the area before any building began and was used as the name for this small side street. It is now reduced to a few yards of road which finishes at an iron fence.

Hemming Street
The road is made up of trading and light industrial units several of them connected with the London taxi trade which has traditionally had a base in this area.
South of the tunnel under the rail line the road is crossed by the obvious sites of rail tracks which went from goods yards to the Spitalfields Coal Drop viaducts to the east. A hydraulic hoist transferred trucks to and from viaduct level, and gave access to a number of sidings via wagon turntables.
26 Royal Standard pub.  This dated from the early 19th and is now demolished.

Hereford Street
St. Matthews Rectory. Built 1905 in a 17th style
St. Matthews Parish Hall. Built 1904 on the garden area of the previous rectory

Kelsey Street
Weavers Fields Community NurseryDrapers' City Foyer. This was Hague Street Board School by E.R. Robson opened in 1883. It was reorganised 1930 and after the Second World War as a primary school. It moved from the site in 1965.  The building then became Weavers' Field School for maladjusted children. It is now Drapers' City Foyer formed in the 1990s with a partnership between the Drapers Company and   Providence Row a major housing and homelessness charity. It is now run by East Potential, an economic and social regeneration charity and  designed to provide temporary accommodation for young people who are homeless and in need of support.


Pedley Street
Pedley Street Goods Depot. This was here from 1875 until 1990. But By 1978 the railway lines to the site had been removed along with the sidings

Railway
Granary Signal Box. This box controlled traffic in and out of Bishopsgate Goods Yard and was situated on the railway near the end of a turning off Dunbridge Street called Carlosle Road.  This box had the very first power-operated installation in Great Britain, the frame being imported from the USA. It was installed in 1899. It is said that this was the only box to ever have this system. This the box finally closed in 1966

Ramsey Street
Abbey Street British Schools. The Spitalfields and Bethnal Green British School was here on a site purchased in 1838. A day school opened in 1839 and a Sunday school in 1840. The day school was transferred to the School Board for London in 1883 and part of the Sunday school united with Hope Street Ragged School in 1884 – the rest becoming the sole tenants of the premises. The site was sold to the School Board for London in 1894 and the proceeds invested and as the Abbey Street Educational .Foundation makes grants.  The buildings are now flats. They were probably built by William Wallen and faced a narrow alley. There was a central block for washrooms and rooms for master and visitors flanked by two large classrooms. The original cast-iron windows, iron truss roof and original joinery to the boys' classroom were removed on conversion. The infants' school, probably added in 1841, lies behind at right angles.

Selby Street
Coal drop viaducts.  In the 19th until at least the 1970s the entrance to the coal drops and works around the line to Whitechapel was at the east end of this road. There were three sidings of the East London Railway in a brick lined cutting tunneling under the coal-drops.

St.Matthew’s Row
St.Matthew’s Church built in 1743 By George Dance, senior, to serve the new parish and in a spacious churchyard. It was remodelled in 1859-61 by T.E. Knightly, after a fire. The interior was gutted by incendiary bombs in 1940 leaving only the outer walls and the clock tower. In 1952 a temporary church was opened within the wall and it was rest reconstructed 1958-61 by J. Anthony Lewis and using Dance’s drawings. It was one of the Commissioners churches on a site bought in 1725 chosen to be near the dense population of weavers. Ebenezer Mussell, a trustee and vestryman, laid the foundation stone He gave a silver chalice and there is also a Parish Beadle's mace from 1690, engraved with the figure of the blind beggar and the names of the parish officials. The interior follow the parish's Anglo-Catholic tradition from the 19th set up by radicals Septimus Hansard and curate Stewart Headlam. The gallery is however, a cantilevered steel structure, with concave front. Furnishings are by a variety of young artists. 
Churchyard. This was converted into a public garden by the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association in 1897.  Before that Dog-fighting and bullock hunting events were held on Sunday morning hundreds in a adjoining fields
Little watch house. This dates from 1754, for a watchman to guard against body-snatchers. It was extended in 1826 to house a fire engine.
Former St Matthew's National Schools. Built over vaults to ease pressure on the burial ground with aid from the Bishop of London and the Society for the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church and from tithe rate. The National Society built the school on the corner of churchyard with burial vaults underneath in 1819. They suffered the stench of corpses on one side and a slaughterhouse on other and in 1854   the Master absconded. In 1859 the buildings were conveyed to the rector and churchwardens and it was in disrepair by 1879. T was closed after the rector refused to let the School Board for London use it and it was later occupied by the Parochial Charity School.
Infants' schools. Added in 1862 by Caesar A. Long. Converted for flats 1998-9
The Parochial Charity (Greencoat) School was founded in 1763 by voluntary subscription and various bequests. In 1879 they moved to the empty National school buildings
Town Hall. This stood opposite the church gates. It was built of Caen stone in 1851 by G.H. Simmonds and demolished in the early 1970s for housing. It was built for the Commissioners for Improving the Parish and was recognized by The Builder as 'one of the first kind’.  It housed the clerk's office on the ground floor with a board room and committee room above
Granby Hall Day Centre



Underwood Road
St Anne’s Roman Catholic School. Girls from the Buxton Street School moved here in the 1850s and a site for a permanent school on the north side of what was Hunt Court was acquired and Marist Sisters came from France to take it over. In 1862–3 a convent and school were built in Hunton Court to the designs of Gilbert Blount. The school is a tall brick building on a semi-basement
St.Anne's Roman Catholic Church built 1855 with the presbytery to the east.
38 Infant Welfare Centre set up here, where free milk supplements were available to nursing mother, part of the Jewish Maternity Home...
24-26 Mother Levy’s Jewish Maternity Hospital.  In 1895 Mrs Alice Model founded the Sick Room Help Society, concerned with maternal welfare and linked to 'Helps' which provided maternity nurses.  The Sick Room Helps Society evolved into the Jewish Maternity Home opened by Mrs Bischoffstein in 1911 plus a Midwifery Training School. Old houses were demolished and a two-storey building erected with three maternity wards, an operating theatre and three annexes. It was extended between 1927 and 1928 and was renamed the Bearstead Memorial Hospital in memory of  Lord Bearsted but the need for larger premises meant a move to stoke Newington after the Second World War. Stepney Council bought the buildings and established the Mary Hughes Centre and Day Nursery. This included an antenatal clinic, a day nursery and a hostel for nursery nurses, and a school treatment centre.  This Centre closed in 1996, but the building continued in use.  The buildings were passed to Peabody, who demolished them to build housing on the site.
Osmani Centre

Vallance Road
Formerly Baker's Row, and named after a late c19 clerk of the Whitechapel Union, responsible for the Workhouse Infirmary which stood at the southern end of the road and destroyed in air raids in 1940. 
71 Earl Grey's Castle. This dated from around 1901 and was bought by Quaker philanthropist Mary Hughes in 1926 and renamed the Dew Drop Inn, converting it to ‘a place of rest and refreshment for the homeless’.  Trade Union meetings took place here, and Sunday services for the Christian Socialists.  It is now flats.
79 Rinkoffs, making beigels since 1911. Hyman Rinkoff’s handlebar moustache greets customers above the shop at first floor level.
110 Royal George. This was here in 1895 & earlier but rebuilt as part of the flats in the 1950s. It is now a café
114-118 Knowledge school. Potential black cab drivers need to have the knowledge
Hughes Mansions. Built 1952-4 by the Borough of Stepney. Red brick grouped on a staggered plan. They are on the site of the pre war group was built in 1928 by B.J. Belsher, Borough Architect. A plaque says the flats were named after social worker Mary Hughes the daughter of author Hughes of ‘Tom Brown’s Schooldays.’ They were destroyed in 1945 by a rocket bomb 131 killed and 40 severely injured.
Houses. Between Selby Street and the railway line filling the site of the Spitalfields  Coal Depot, in red and yellow brick, 1992 by Feilden
Spitalfields Coal Depot. In 1866 the Great Eastern Railway opened Whitechapel Goal Depot later renamed Spitalfields Coal Depot. It had six sidings on a spur viaduct south of the Eastern Counties Railway viaduct used to supply coal drops. Each arch was divided by a wall parallel to the railway tracks with a par of holes In the crown of the arch through which coal could be dropped. Each half-arch was let to a coal merchant. The whole viaduct of 50 arches, about a mile long and 70 ft broad, survived into the 1990s. In 1900 a second "loop" viaduct was built to serve the ‘ Spitalfields Hoist', a hydraulic wagon hoist which could transfer two trucks at a time. This worked until 1955. The coal depot closed in 1967.

Weaver’s Fields
Landscaped open land created in the 1970s by the removal of an area of early 19th two-storey weavers' cottages.
Weaving Identities by Pete Dunn, has steel figures on a mast carrying security cameras rising from a base of bricks laid in a warping woven pattern

Wood Close
Recorded in 1643 as a field 'new dug for brick' but built up with houses on both sides by the late 18th.
William Davis Primary School.  Board School of 1900-1 by T.J. Bailey, serving a largely Jewish population. A classic three-decker. The school was built following the compulsory purchase and demolition of houses surrounding the site with no alternative accommodation was offered to the displaced owners. At first it was named Wood Close School. From 1902 more Jewish children enrolled at the school, and the building was hired in the evenings and weekends to the Jewish Religious Education Board for Hebrew and Religious Education classes. Fromm 1903 the building also began to be used as an evening continuation school to allow adult workers to improve their trade skills. At the outbreak the Second World War it was evacuated to Egham to escape bombing.  In 1953 the school closed and re-opened in 1959, as St. Gregory the Great Secondary School. It then became St. Bernard’s Roman Catholic School and remained so until the 1980s. The building then became temporary accommodation for Swanlea School until 1993 and then a permanent site for William Davis Primary School which had begun, in the Osmani building,


Sources
British History online. Bethnal Green. Web site
Business Cavalcade of London
CAMRA City and East London Beer Guide
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Liverpool Street to Ilford.
East London History Society. Newsletter
GLIAS Newsletter
Great Eastern Railway Journal special; summer 1989
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Parks Leaflet
London Enyclopdiea
Lost Hospital of London. Web site
Nairn.  Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Cherry. East London
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Robins. North London Railway
TBIAGC A Survey of Industrial Monuments of Greater London
The Green
TourEast. Leaflet