Friday, 30 November 2018

Effingham Junction

Banks Lane
Bridle path leading through woodland to a railway crossing and farm

Effingham Common
This is an area of wide open space and low sporadic woodland. This is a registered Common with four named properties retaining historic Commoners ‘rights to graze animals and collect wood across the Common. The largest area is open space which has wetland grazing and unimproved grassland. Other sections have scrub woodland, and ornamental planting along Effingham Common Road.  The majority of the Common is owned by Guildford Borough Council but some is owned by Effingham Parish Council, private individuals, or groups of residents. There are two ponds and there was once a tea hut

Effingham Common road
Lower Farm. 17th farmhouse
Norwood Farm. 16th hall house and 17th tithe barn

Howard Road
Effingham Junction Station. Opened in 1888 by the London and South Western Railway it lies between Bookham and also Cobham and Stoke D’Abernon on South Western Rail. It is actually at the junction of the New Guildford Line, from Waterloo to Guildford, and the line from Leatherhead, which runs to Waterloo via Epsom. for many years it was the terminus for trains from Epsom direction and had a seven-road carriage shed south of the station to allow empty trains to be reversed and stabled, This is now used by Colas Rail as a maintenance base for Network Rail track machines

Sources
British Listed Buildings
Guildford  Council. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Wikipedia. Effingham Junction Station.

Eastcote


Post to the south Eastcote
Post to the east Rayners Lane
Post to thee north South Ruislip


Aragon Drive
Entrance road to an estate where the road names are all ‘Tudor”.

Beaulieu Drive
Avanti House. Avanti Schools Trust owns a series of Hindu schools.  This is one of their Secondary schools, with an address in Stanmore.
Pinner High School. This was originally Pinner County School. Thus was built in 1937 on the site of Downs Farm, The building was typical of the reduced art deco style of the time. A new gym block was built in 1968. Until 1982 the school was successively Pinner County School, Pinner County Grammar School and Pinner Sixth Form College. Many ex pupils have become famous in the world of music, theatre and sport. In 1982 it was sold to Heathfield School. This was a Girls' Day School Trust private school; they too undertook major building works. Heathfield closed in 2014 and merged with Northwood College. The site is now Pinner High School, sponsored by high schools in Harrow in response to the need for more high school places. This restores state funded education to the site

Boundary Road
The boundary after which this is named is either that of Ruislip-Northwood Urban District Council or the boundary of the Rotherham Estates development.

Chandos Road
This is possibly named after the Chandos family who lived locally at Haydon Hall.

Field End Road
This is described in the 1804 Enclosure Act as a public carriage way. It is named after an arable field.
184 Champers. Established 1979.
218 Ruislip Windows and Doors.  This is in a little hut perched on the railway bridge. Such huts were often used by estate agents, as coal offices or taxi firms.
Eastcote Station.  This was opened in 1906 as ‘Eastcote Halte’ and lies between Rayners Lane and Ruislip Manor Stations, now on both the Metropolitan and Piccadilly Lines. It lies between Harrow on the Hill and Uxbridge was built by The Metropolitan Railway in the guise of the Harrow and Uxbridge Railway in 1904. The line was electrified in 1905. Eastcote opened in 1906 as a halt and initially intended for use by children’s treats and summer excursions, it was very popular for walkers and picnic groups. When it was first built, it had two simple wooden platforms with shelters, and cost £325. New waiting facilities were provided some years later. By 1939 the area had developed enough for a Holden style rebuilding. This rebuilding was an evolution of the stations at Sudbury Town and Sudbury Hill. Essentially a red-brick box with a concrete lid for a roof, the main entrance is at street level with single-storey shops with large, curved glass windows. Above each shop is a large, pole-mounted 'Underground' roundel. The ticket hall is a double height box, above the entrance, with a large window with alternating vertical bands of wide and narrow glass panes. There is a flat, concrete roof above the ticket hall, forming a lip. The ticket hall is above the tracks with the platforms below both accessed by stepped stairwells,
Land was bought by the Metropolitan Railway next to the station and developed in 1923 by Metropolitan Railway Country Estates Ltd.
Coal yard to the east of the road and south of the station.  Thus is now used as a car park,
Eastcote Industrial Area. This is built on the area of a sports ground there until the Second World War.
269-285 Television House.  In the 1960s this was the head office of Ultra Television and Radio Co. Now a business centre.
Cavendish Recreation Ground. In 1914, the Cavendish Pavilion was built as a private sports ground in what was then open countryside. It is now Cavendish Recreation Ground with formal rose gardens to the south of the building.
The Pavilion. This was Cavendish Pavilion, for Debenham's staff provided as a recreation centre by the firm. It now appears to be a ‘Country House venue’ and to be used by a number of clubs and commercial organisations.

Kildare Close
Short cul de sac road consisting of small workshop and other units. These include Basepoint Business Centre.

Newnham Avenue
Newnham Junior School

North view
This was built originally by the Metropolitan Railway Estates in the 1920s who built the first houses on the south side from Field End Road.  These are angled and look directly to the north.

Pavilion Way
This road was developed by Davis Estates Ltd on the site of 'The Pavilion'.  This had been built by Albert Baily, catering manager at the Regent Street Polytechnic. It was an amusement centre in the 1920s and early 1930s for children who came in organised parties from the inner city.  As a Salvationist he encouraged church groups and charities. There were helter-skelters, donkey rides, races, etc. and no alcohol.  In the winter there was clay pigeon shooting. Baily died in 1930 and in 1935 the land was sold to Davis Estates

Pine Gardens
This is a small local park. It was purchased by Ruislip Urban District Council in 1950 after a proposal to build more houses failed and a wide concrete roadway which runs west of the stream was built in the expectation of housing. It is one of the very few survivors of an original early suburban road surface. The bridge over the stream that divides it with Cavendish Park was part of a scheme designed to link Bayley’s Pavilion to a now vanished sports ground long-vanished football ground.

Roxbourne Park
Large park, part of which is covered by this square.
Roxbourne Rough. This is a large grassy meadow. Immediately south of the Uxbridge branch of the Metropolitan Line and is part of Roxbourne Park. Early in the 20th it was in agricultural use but was later owned by British Gas, who used it to store gas mains on railway sleepers.  In 1992, agreement was reached between British Gas and Harrow Borough Council to a land swap which transferred ownership of to the council.  It is now managed as a nature reserve

The Close
Site of Devonshire Lodge nurseries


Sources
Avanti Trust Web site
Edwards. Eastcote from Village to Suburb
Field.  London Place Names
History of Middlesex
London Borough of Harrow. Web site
London Borough of Hillingdon, Web site
London Railway Record
Pevsner and Cherry.  North West London
Pinner High School. Web site
Walford.  Village London

Thursday, 29 November 2018

Clapham South and Balham Hill


Balham Hill
Buildings began to be constructed here following on from the development of Clapham in the late 18th.
14 Gateway Hotel 
16 The Avalon. This was previously The George described as ‘spectacularly grotty’. It has since had a makeover. Once a coaching inn it is probably the oldest pub in the area
12 Majestic Wine Warehouse. This is on the site of Balham Odeon which was opened 1938. It was built for and operated by the Oscar Deutsch chain of Odeon Theatres Ltd. and designed by George Coles with a symmetrical streamlined exterior in cream faience and it stood out with a red neon Odeon sign illuminated on both sides and the building outlined in green neon. Inside there was a lavish foyer, 'welcoming' stairs to the circle and cafe with daylight let in to the circle foyer. It closed in 1972 but reopened as the Liberty Cinema in 1974 showing Asian films, and closed again in 1979. The auditorium was demolished but the frontage, rebuilt after a bomb in 1941 has become a shop.
Foyer apartments. Flats were built on the cinema auditorium site, and in the upstairs circle foyer.
Clapham South Station.  Opened in 1926 the station lies Clapham Common and Balham Stations on the Northern Line. It was built by the City and South London Railway. Charles Holden built this series of stations as a unified network and it was designed by S A. Heaps, who was probably responsible for much of the interior detail. Holden designed the chaste stone-faced, stripped classical exteriors with inventive detail and the London Transport signs for capitals. Proposed names for the station were "Balham North" and "Nightingale Lane". In the 1930s flats were added above the station and the parade of shops along Balham Hill was extended as part of the same development using the same style as the original three closest to the station.
Deep Shelter. In 1940s a deep shelter was built by London Transport as agents for Minister of Home Parallel consisting of parallel tunnels on two floors with iron bunks.  There were right angle extensions for first aid, wardens and ventilation and lavatories below street level so sanitation was in hoppers under the works with sleeping accommodation for 1,200 people.  Post-war it was used as temporary hostels - military transit barracks and a Youth hostel for the Festival of Britain.  Intended to be linked after war to a high-speed tube, which was never built.

Broomwood Road
Ash Court. This is on the site of an earlier Methodist Church demolished in 1986. It is a Methodist Housing scheme.
Broomfield Lodge, later called Broomwood House, was designed by J.T.Groves and was the home of William Wilberforce. A plaque commemorating Wilberforce is said to be on 111.

Clapham Common
The Common was once known as East Heath and West Heath but was called Clapham Common in the early 18th and is shown as such on the earliest Ordnance Survey maps.  The first coach services in to London in the late 17th crossed the Common and it then became notorious for its highwaymen.
Bandstand. This is thought to be largest bandstand of its type in Britain, It was erected here in 1890, and had been thought to been one of two built in 1861 for the Royal Horticultural Society's South Kensington Gardens. It is however a replica, designed by Thomas Blashill, Architect to the London County Council. Band music was popular in the late 19th and after a residents' petition, in 1889 the London County Council approved a budget for a new bandstand for the here.
Spurgeon's Tree. A poplar on the South Side was so named since a man was killed by lightning sheltering under it in 1859. The next Sunday Spurgeon preached a sermon referring to the incident
Eagle Pond. Named from a nearby house - Eagle House which had stone eagles on gate piers. The pond is used for angling.
Mount Pond. This may be a gravel extraction site. In 1748 Mr Henton Brown of Cavendish House tried to get permission to enclose it, and dig a pond around 1747. The pond is now used for fishing.
The Mount. There is a possibility that this is the site of a windmill. It may also be formed of spoil from the digging of Mount pond. Such viewing mounds were fashionable in the late 18th.#

Clapham Common South Side
103 South London Hospital for Women and Children. This was founded as a general hospital for women staffed totally by women by Eleanor Davies-Colley and Maud Chadburn, both surgeons. It was also founded to train women doctors to become specialists.  In 1911 they bought Holland House and Kingston House here and the hospital opened in 1912. Demolition and building work followed and the hospital was officially opened by Queen Mary in 1916 with 80 beds and as a state of the art building. All staff were women. In 1920 Preston House adjacent was purchased for 40 more surgical beds and in 1926 an Out-Patients Department on the site of Kingston House. The hospital continued to expand through the 1930s including a nurses’ home, which was later bombed. The Second World War intervened in the expansion and the Hospital joined the Emergency Medical Service and, following a Special Act of Parliament treated male war casualties.  Buildings in various parts of the country were occupied by the organisation. In 1948 the Hospital joined the NHS and in 1982 The Wandsworth District Health Authority decided it was 'uneconomic' and, despite strong opposition including a petition and occupation of the building by protesters, the Hospital closed in 1984. The site was bought by Tesco with plans to demolish. The original facade of the Hospital was kept which the rest of the building was demolished in 2004. It has been replaced by a supermarket and flats,
Spurgeon's Tree. A poplar which stood here had once been- struck by lightning, and Spurgeon preached the sermon.  The tree was then named after him,
Site of Cavendish House.  The home of the noted scientist Henry Cavendish who lived here between 1782 - 1810. He used it as workshops – the dining room was filled with instruments and there was a large library with strict rules. There was an observatory, a forge and wooden staging on the trees.  The builder, Thomas Cubitt and his family lived here 1827 - 1832.  It was demolished in 1905
44 This site is between the Notre Dame Estate and Lambeth College and backs on to Abbeville Road. Originally part of the large gardens of the houses fronting South Side. It was developed during the 1930s by Cleeves, a confectionery manufacturer. After the war Batgers made sweets there and since the 1990s it has provided commercial, warehousing and waste transfer facilities.
Milestone.  This is at the junction of South Side with The Avenue & Cavendish Road. It is probably 18th and gives mileages to Whitehall & Royal Exchange.
Entrance building to deep tube and shelter system. Built as an extension to Clapham South Underground Station in 1940-2 by D C Burn for the Home office. Two main shafts descend from these surface buildings. Some 1940s iron bunks and painted signage remain, along with graffiti from the 1940s and 1950s. They were designed so that they could be used by London Transport after the war as by-pass tunnels, creating a fast non-stop service but this never happened.
45 Lambeth College,   It was formed in 1992 from three former institutions – one of which was the South London College.   A Sixth Form Centre was opened here in 2000 by the College and new buildings erected.
46 Stowey House. Open Air School. Stowey House was a 19th house and the birthplace of Lytton Strachey. In 1920 the London County Council set up an open air school in the grounds. It had 8 classroom pavilions and a structure for folk dancing and corrective exercise.  Children had built much of this themselves and worked in the gardens.  The School featured sun therapy and stripped to shorts or loincloths children sat on an open wooden platform. The School closed in the mid 1960s. Stowey House was demolished in 1967 and the site, along with adjacent South Lodge, was redeveloped for Henry Thornton School, now Lambeth College.
Henry Thornton School. The school was founded in 1894 as "Battersea Polytechnic Secondary School", in Battersea and from 1905 it was a boys' only school. In 1918 it became a London County Council school called "The County Secondary School, Battersea" and 1926 was moved here to South Lodge and named after the leader of the Clapham Sect.  A new school was built, designed by LCC architect George Topham Forrest. In the Second World War pupils were evacuated and the buildings became "South-West London Emergency Secondary School for Boys".  The school became comprehensive in 1968 and was merged with other schools.  South Lodge itself was demolished in the late 1960s and replaced by the comprehensive school buildings fronting South Side In 1986 the school itself moved to Balham and the buildings became the Henry Thornton Centre of Clapham and Balham Adult Education Institute. The 1929 building was demolished in 2003 and the site is now Lambeth College.

Clapham Common West Side
85 Western Lodge. This dates from around 1784 and includes an old coach house. It was home to a series of distinguished residents. Between 1925 and 2012 it was used by the Society for the Relief of the Homeless Poor, since called ‘Western Lodge’ and housing homeless men. The Society moved here from Highbury in 1925 and in 2012 moved to Tooting.
Prefabs. In the Second World War 27 prefabs were built on the Common parallel with Leathwaite Road. The site was returned to grass later

Denning Mews
This is a gated road running parallel between ordinary public roads and is apparently a new development. It is built on the site of a large factory complex facing on to Nightingale Lane

Hazelbourne Road
Anchor Mews. New Era Studios on the site of  Anchor  Works,  lithographic printers,

Kyrle Road
Broomwood Methodist Church . Built 1899 in Arts and Crafts style by Rea Macdonald

Malwood Road
23 Church of the Ascension.  Built by Arthur Cawston 1883 – 1890. In 1993 it merged with St. Mark’s Battersea Rise. Inside is a narrow aisle with a tile mosaic and some interesting stained glass.
10 St. Francis Xaviour. Roman Catholic Sixth Forum College. It is on the site of Clapham College which fronted onto Nightingale Lane and opened here in 1985. It takes pupils who are over 16 from local Roman Catholic Secondary Schools.

Nightingale Lane
This was once known as Balham Wood Lane or Balham Lane
3-5 Police Section House, now demolished and replaced by flats
7-11 Oliver House School. Oliver House ‘Preparatory’ School opened in 2004  in two buildings, known as Hollywood and Broadoak. Hollywood was built in 1782 probably by Moses Lopes and was the home of the Harrison family members of the Clapham Sect and later to botanist and pharmacologist, Daniel Hanbury. A mouding of Neptune lies above the Coade stone doorway , Broadoak was in 1875, for the widow of Titus Salt. In 1896 the Xaverian Brothers opened Clapham College here. Broadoak has a porch with an Oliver Plunkett mosaic and the school is now named after him. It is a private fee paying school for boys and girls aged 3-11
7 Clapham College. This opened in 1897 founded by the Xaverian Brothers  a religious order founded in Belgium in 1839 dedicated to the Roman Catholic education of boys.  It was part of a wave of Catholic school building in the late 19th , In 1896 the Brothers bought Broadoak and opned what was partly a boarding school until 1932. It expanded rapidly with the addition of playing fields at Norbury acquired. In 1924 a preparatory department was opened in Hollywood, the adjacent house.  . In the Second World the school was evacuated to East Grinstead and then to Taunton.  On its return to Clapham in 1945 it became a secondary modern School funded by the local authority. Many pupils were from Irish, Italian and Polish families. In the 1950s it became a grammar school but in 1975 it amalgamated with St. Gerard's School to become Clapham College Roman Catholic Comprehensive.  New buildings were added but in 1985 the school moved out and the site became the new Saint Francis Xavier 6th Form College.
45 Audiology House. villa by George Jennings. Used by P.C.Werth for hearing aids and other audio equipment. The company had had a number of names but appear to have sold this premises following the death of Laurence Werth in 2014.
Mullard. In the Great War Captain Stanley R. Mullard worked for the Admiralty on high vacuum development and supervision of the production of transmitting and receiving valves, In 1920 he established the Mullard Radio Valve Co. Ltd. and moved to Nightingale Lane 1922.  They made transmitting valves and some receiving valves.  Mullard was one of the founders of the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. and there was a much increased demand for valves and in 1924 in order to finance expanded production half the shares in Mullard Radio Valve Co. Ltd were sold to N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabriken of Eindhoven, Holland.  Mullard was a founder member of the British Radio Valve Association cartel in 1926.  Over the years valve type and design was changed and evolved.  They were to expand greatly from this site includingh major works in the Midlands. By the Second World War this was  Radio Transmission Equipment Ltd. who had also made radio receivers for aircraft. Just inside the factory gates, a large underground room was constructed where vital 'frequency standards' equipment could be kept safe from the Luftwaffe. The site of the factory stretched from Nightingale Lane to Temperley Road.  It has now been redeveloped as a gated housing development.

Ramsden Road
194 St.Luke’s Church,   This was built on the site of Old Psrk House. In 1874, Canon Clarke boufht the site from the Simpson family. Initially an iron chuch was installed here, having been moved from St.Mark’s Battersea.  F. W. Hunt of Upper Baker Street, was appointed as architect, and by 1883 the first section of the Chancel was built and the nave completed by 1888. The church has a red brick Lombard Romanesque exterior while money and gifts were presented for the interior. In 1891 the Parish Hall was enlarged and in 1892 the tower with an open bell-chamber was built and electric Light was also installed. There is a war memorial for victims of the Great War.
St. Luke's Vicarage, built 1902.


The Avenue
This is the South Circular Road running along the western edges of Clapham Common

Windmill Drive
Windmill Pub, Youngs’ pub with some ‘boutique’rooms. Probably dates from the 1820s but Youngs have had it since 1848.  It is thought there was a real windmill here in the late 17th

Sources
Barton. Lost Rivers of London
Behind Blue Plaques
Blue Plaque Guide
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Church of the Ascension. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clapham Society. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Day. London Underground.
Field. London Place Names
GLIAS Newsletter
Hillman and Trench. London Under London
Lambeth College. Web site
Lambeth Landmark. Web site
London Borough of Lambeth. Web site
London Borough of Wandsworth. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Mullard History. Web site
Nairn. Modern Buildings
Old Thorntonians. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry South London
Shady Old Lady. Blog
Smith. Clapham
Smythe. Citywildspace,
St.Luke’s. Web site
Wandsworth History Journal
Western Lodge. Web site