Friday, 1 July 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Star and Garter

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Star and Garter

Post to the north Richmond Hill
Post to the west Ham House and Marble Hill


Buccleugh Gardens
Buccleugh Gardens . This was once part of Hill Common, common land in the Royal Manor where in the mid 17th tile kilns stood, which was closed down in 1767.  Land was bought here for George Brudenell, Earl of Cardigan and Duke of Montagu to the gardens of his riverside house and the house was rebuilt in the mid 18th. The estate passed to the Duke’s daughter who was married to the Duke of Buccleugh and then their children. The 5th Duke bought Lansdowne House which he demolished added the gardens to his own. The 6th Duke sold the gardens to the Vestry of Richmond and they opened Terrace Gardens.  Buccleuch Gardens was the site of the Duke's House which Richmond Vestry had sold. This was bought back by Richmond Council in 1937 following concerns about drainage on the hill above the gardens and the likelihood of land slips. The park is a narrow riverside strip with some plane trees and shrubs and a lawmen bordered by the Thames Path. The change of slope running north-south along the riverbank marks the flood line of the Thames. There is a 1930s brick shelter on the site of Buccleuch House and arcades from the house are used for storage.  At the entrance is a 20th drinking fountain.
Tunnel. A private tunnel under the road goes to Langham Lodge.
Tunnel. In the 18th the Duke of Montagu linked the two parts of his grounds by a subterranean grotto/tunnel under the Petersham Road. This remains and in Buccleuch Gardens the entrance is a grotto with three bays. In Terrace Gardens are two sets of curving steps.
Buccleuch House.  There appears to have been an 18th cottage on the site of the house which was enlarged for Earl Ferrars in 1725. In the 1709s the site was inherited by the wife of the Duke of Buccleugh and by then a house had been built by the Duke of Cardigan and his family.

Bute Avenue
Bute House was the home of The Earl of Bute when he was Prime Minister. It was demolished in 1908. Bute Avenue used to run northwards to the house but has been cut off by modern development.

Church Lane
St.Peter's Church. This lies on a path leading from the main road, the Domesday Book records that there was then a church in the village.  In 1266 another was built of which some of the chancel remains. This was rebuilt in 1505 and added to in 1600. There were later 17th and 19th additions. The church was originally a chaplaincy of Kingston.
Churchyard.  The walled churchyard has some fine trees. Tombs include the simple grave of George Vancouver of the Royal Navy, who discovered the island off the west coast of Canada that is named after him. This is halfway along the south wall. Other tombs include that of Albert Henry Scott designed by his father George Gilbert Scott. The entrance to the churchyard has a metal arch with lamp erected in 1997.
Petersham Nurseries. This local garden centre was opened in part of the Petersham House grounds in the 1970's.  It was taken over by the Boglione family in the late 1990s who reopened it with a wider offer in 2004. It now includes a Michelin starred restaurant.

Drift Way
This path within Richmond Park runs east-west through Sidmouth Wood.

Hobart
A small playground is built into the communal space at the rear of Hobart Place where the ground opens out, giving space for gardens and added parking. This was part of the Richmond Parish Lands housing scheme off Queens Road

Nightingale Lane
This was originally a straight path down the hillside. In 1810 Richmond Vestry leased part of Hill Common to the then owner of Nightingale Cottage. This area is now the hotel car park and cannot be built on.
Petersham Hotel. The Hotel stands between the remains of Richmond Hill’s Common and Petersham Common. In 1639 was leased and by 1650 a cottage was built in the central section. It was rebuilt in the 1770’s and called Nightingale Cottage and later Ashburnham Lodge. In 1863 the Richmond Hill Hotel Company bought it and built a hotel here designed by John Giles with a tower, high pitched roofs and many balconies. The Portland stone staircase is said to be the tallest unsupported stone staircase in the country with ceiling paintings by Ferdinando Galli. In 1877 the name was changed to ‘The Mansion’ and in 1889 ‘The Mansion Hotel’. In 1922 it became the ‘New Star and Garter Hotel’.  In 1945 the Bank of England bought for a staff hostel calling it ‘Nightingale Hall’. In 1951 it reopened as ‘The Star and Garter Hotel’. In 1978 it was purchased by the Dare family and renamed ‘The Petersham Hotel’. An extension for a restaurant was built in 1957 and there have been further extensions since.


Petersham Common
Petersham Common.  This is land between Petersham Road and Star and Garter Lane. Originally part of the Ham House estate Lord Dysart tried to enclose it. This was opposed by the Commons Preservation, now Open Spaces, Society.the Earl of Davenport transferred the freehold of Petersham Common to Richmond Town Council in 1902 and specified that it be managed by Petersham Common Conservators, and this continues to be the case.

Petersham Meadows
The Meadows were part of the Ham House estate between the 17th and 19th. The land is let to a grazier who maintains a herd on the land which is now owned by the National Trust. At one time there were water meadows. Despite the concrete flood wall, the Thames is regularly allowed to flood these water meadows in the traditional way
Richmond Water Works. Petersham Well No.1 was situated in the north west corner of the meadows, near the river. It is said to have had a chlorination plant attached and pumping equipment.

Petersham Park
Petersham Park. This is a landscaped park on the western edge of Richmond Park. It was a private park from 1686 with a lodge built in 1692 along with formal gardens. In 1734 part of the park was merged in with Richmond Park and avenues of trees were planted. The rest became part of Richmond Park in 1834-35.
Petersham Lodge. In the 1630s when Richmond Park was created a manor house existed on the site which later became known as Petersham Lodge. It was used as a house for the park’s Deputy Keeper, Ludovic Carlell. The Countess of Dysart and her husband took it over when they became the joint Keepers.  In 1686 it was leased the Earl of Rochester. He demolished the lodge and built a new mansion called New Park.  This was burnt down in 1721, and replaced by a new Petersham Lodge for William, Earl of Harrington, later called Viscount Petersham in 1733. It was demolished in the 1830s, when the grounds became part of Richmond Park.
Petersham Gate Playground. This has a sandpit area, a bark pit with a climbing frame and jumping lily pads, an elephant piano, a see-saw, a water play feature and a timber pergola with seats.

Petersham Road
194 Fox and Duck. This was previously The Horse and Groom. The old wooden pub thought to date from the early 18th was demolished in 1940. It had been a staging post on the London to Guildford
road.  It was rebuilt on a slightly different site. There is a small Truman lantern featuring the brewery's 'eagle' trademark.
Petersham lockup. This is said to be the white-boarded, slate roofed building in the Fox and Duck car park. It dates from 1787.
The Russell School.  The school was founded in 1851 as a new village school by Prime Minister John Russell who lived in Pembroke Lodge. The Richmond Park site was given under a Royal Warrant for the education of the poor. In 1891 Russell's interest in the school site handed over to the British and Foreign School Society. In 1943 Petersham Russell Infant School was bombed and a new school needed to be built by Surrey County Council. The Russell School, which opened in 1980, therefore is now housed in the buildings of the Orchard Junior School which opened in 1952 and the new Petersham Russell Infant School built in 1954.
190 Avenue Lodge. One of the original lodges to Petersham Park. It dates from the 17th in plum brick.
188 Farm Lodge. One of the original lodges to Petersham Park. It is 17th but has been refaced in the 18th or 19th in yellow brick.  It had also has been extended at the back
186 Montrose House.  Early 18th brick house. It was built for Thomas Jenner, a Catholic judge. It is named for the Dowager Duchess of Montrose who lived there in the 19th.
184 Reston Lodge.  An early 19th front and cast-iron gates with thick ornament.
182 Lodge at what was the entrance to Bute House. All Saints Church was originally intended to be approached from here, via a driveway through the former grounds of Bute House
145 Rutland Lodge. Thus was built in 1666 for a Lord Mayor of London who was subsequently disgraced for misappropriating funds intended for the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. The name relates to the Duchess of Rutland who lived here in the 1740s.  It was converted into flats after fire damage in 1967
135 Dysart. This was The Dysart Arms but it is now a very very posh restaurant. The building dates from 1904 in brewers’ Tudor. The oak bar said to have been installed in the 1850s from an 18th war ship. The name is that of the Dysart’s who owned Ham House. The original pub was in an old farmhouse dating from the late 17th. It was then called the Plough and Harrow which was demolished in 1902. Although this is now a posh restaurant the pole which the inn sign hung from is still standing in the street outside. There is also a cast iron 'No public right of way' sign with Hodgsons' Kingston Brewery Co.,Ltd.
Club house for the Ranelagh Harriers running club to the rear of the Dysart Arms.
Petersham Road Lodge. Grand entrance gate to the drive to Ham House with the Dysart Arms. This dates from 1900 and was designed by R D Oliver for the Dysart Family in red brick.  There is a stretch of stock brick walling attaching the gate piers to the gatehouse. The gate piers themselves are partly hidden in ivy.
Ham Polo Club. This is the last polo club in London
Petersham Farm Stables. Livery and riding about. The tenancy of Petersham Farm passed through many hands until 1880 when Mr Hornby and Mr Clarke founded the Hornby and Clarke dairy with milk from the Petersham herd. The lease later passed to Express Dairies and since. Then a series of private firms and individuals have tried to run a dairy herd here.
Petersham Common Woods. A broad leaved woodland, designated as a Site of Metropolitan importance for Nature Conservation. The site links Richmond Park and the Thames. It is owned by Richmond Council and managed by the Petersham Common Conservators
Rose of York. This pub and hotel is in what were the stables of the Petersham Hotel. It was previously called Tudor Close.
146  Langham Lodge

Queen's Road
Wesleyan College. Methodist College to train missionaries. This opened in 1843. It replaced Hoxton Theological College.  Thomas Jackson was the first theological tutor and one of Methodism's greatest scholars. Dr. W.F. Moulton served here for fifteen years. Institute for Foreign study.  It was the Wesleyan Theological Institute 1841-3 and throughout its history it had a special link with overseas missions, and its students include Josiah Hudson, William Goudie and William H. Findlay of India and David Hill of China. Dr.J. Parkes Cadman crossed the Atlantic to become a well-known figure in American Methodism.   Later known as the Richmond College, it became part of London University, whose degrees it awarded until 1971. In 1972, it became Richmond College, an independent, international, non-for-profit, liberal arts college. Now it is Richmond University, The American International University in London.  The original building was by Andrew Trimmer in Bath stone. It is said to be surrounded by rare trees planted by the previous owner of the site. The library was added by Maufe in 1931.  From 1868 the Missionary Society owned the college but from 1885 it trained young men to serve the Methodist Church at home or abroad. In 1902 it was recognised by London University. During the Second World War, it was an administrative centre for the University and it suffered bomb damage in 1940.  It closed for lack of students in 1970. It is an American international university and the original chapel is now used as a theatre. The original entrance was in Friars Style Road but it was moved to Queens Road when the Vineyard School was built.
Lass of Richmond Hill. Young’s pub dating from at least the 1860s. Named for the 18th popular song, which is supposed to be about the Yorkshire Richmond.

Richmond Hill
132 Terrace Cottage. This was once the cottage for the pub, and was probably altered around 1840.
138 Richmond Hill. This house, on the site of an earlier home of William Hickey was rebuilt in 1769 for Christopher Blanchard, Master of the Company of Playing Card Manufacturers and King George III’s card-maker. It is believed the architect may have been Robert Taylor,
142 Doughty House. 18th house. In 1769, the Cook family added an art gallery behind the house. It is named now for Elizabeth Doughty who funded St.Elizabeth's church
The Wick.  This is in the corner of Nightingale Lane. Late 18th house on the site of the Bull's Head Inn designed by architect Robert Mylne for Lady St. Aubyn. The there is an iron lamp-holder at the front.  It has a basement in which there reputedly is a recording studio - it has been the home of musician, currently Pete Townsend.  Past occupants have included the actor John Mills.
Wick House. Designed by Sir William Chambers and Built in 1772 as a weekend home for Joshua Reynolds. It became a hotel in 1916 and later used as an annex to the Richmond Hill Hotel. It was occupied by the army in the Second World War and then bought as a nurses' home for the Star and Garter home.   It is now a private house
144-150 The Richmond Hill Hotel.  This is made up of a number of properties, first built in 1726.  In 1875 it was the Queen's Hotel and later the Richmond Hill Hotel in 1913, which took over Mansfield Place.
Metcalfe’s Hydro. Hotel present in 1910 which used water therapy.
152-158 Richmond Gate Hotel.  This was previously the Morshead Hotel.  The site also includes, Crawford Cottage and Syon House. In the 1960s the hotel was extended to occupy all these properties, with new building and a conference centre.
Star and Garter Home. The modern equivalent of the hospitals at Greenwich and Chelsea for invalid and incurable servicemen. It was named after its predecessor on the site, the Star and Garter Hotel.  The current building is 1921-4 by Sir Edwin Cooper which he designed free of charge with money from Women of the Empire.  It was built by Mowlem’s. There is a marble Memorial Hall. It was opened in 1924.  In 2008 the governors thought that it no longer suited their needs/
Star and Garter Hotel had begun as a small tavern in 1738 and was enlarged until it was a substantial hotel in the early 19th.  The site was originally leased from the Earl of Dysart and named for his membership of the order of the Star and Garter.  It became one of the most famous luxury hotels in the country. Charles Dickens held an annual private dinner here to celebrate his wedding anniversary. It closed in 1906. In 1915 the Auctioneers and Estate Agents Institute of the UK raised the money to buy it and give it to Queen Mary. She gave it to the Red Cross to open a permanent hospital for seriously disabled young men returning from the Great War.  It was unsuitable for wards, and thus rebuilt.
Ancaster House. This is by the park gate. Built in 1772, the house has been attributed to Adam. Latterly it has been the home of the Commandant of the Star and Garter Homes.

Richmond Park
In the 14th was part of the Manor of Sheen and a royal palace was built here. Kings and Queens hunted in the area and under Charles I this was created as a new park – but the public could access it via ladder stiles. Under the Commonwealth the park was given to the City of London. Under George II aristocrats were appointed as Ranger of the Park. It was cleared and drained but a long dispute began about the ladderstiles. Lodges and gates were rejected and eventually public access was easier. In the late 18th three were new plantations and it ceased to be designed for hunting. In 1851 Parliament secured full public access and after the Great War the deer returned and sports facilities set up. It is now managed by the Royal Parks Agency and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a National Nature Reserve in 2000.
Richmond Gate. The main entrance to Richmond Park from Richmond Hill. This was set up in 1798 and widened in 1896. There are wrought iron gates with the two central gate piers showing the initials GR and CR (for George and Charlotte) painted in gold. The two piers to either side have the date the gates were erected, 1798, in Roman numerals (MDCC and XCVIII).
Richmond Gate Lodge. Built in 1798. Attributed to John Soane, King's Deputy Surveyor of Woods and Forests.
Holly Lodge. Cooper's Lodge was built in 1735 on the site of Hill Farm. It was later known as Lucas's Lodge and as Bog Lodge.  It was renamed Holly Lodge in 1993 and became a base for the Metropolitan Police's Royal Parks Operational Command Unit. There is a game larder in its courtyard, built in 1735.   It is now the Holly Lodge Centre which was founded in 1994 as part of the Royal Parks education programme.  The Centre officially opened on 23 February 1994, but has since become an independent charity. There is also a livery in six old police horse stables there. At the rear is a line of trees said to be 700 years old.
Pembroke Lodge.  This is an 18trh mansion with eleven acres of beautifully landscaped grounds. It was the home of Prime Minister John Russell and the childhood home of Bertrand Russell. It was the regimental headquarters of the Phantom Squad in the Second World War - this was the GHQ Liaison Regiment. It had previously been used by ATS as barracks. It is part of the Crown Estate used as a catering, conference and wedding venue as well as tea rooms
Henry VIII mound.  This is now in the grounds of Pembroke House. Henry VII is said to have wanted it built so he could watch the game being driven past and it is the highest point in the park. It is said that Henry VIII stood here in 1536 waiting to see a rocket fired from the Tower of London to announce that his second wife, Ann Boleyn, had been successfully beheaded. – But this is not true because he was in Wiltshire. On the Kingtston Zodiac it is on Sagittarius.  It is thought it may date from the Bronze Age and was afterwards used a as viewpoint for hunting and falconry.
Memorial to Ian Dury. This is a memorial bench sponsored by Warner Chappell Music in Poet’s Corner, Pembroke Lodge. It was designed by Mil Stricevic to enable people to listen to the music of Ian whilst enjoying park views. The back of the bench is inscribed with: Reasons to be cheerful, - he title of one of Dury's songs
Memorial to the poet James Thomson. This is a board with a poem about Thomson by the writer and historian John Heneage Jesse.
Petersham Gate - the entry to the park from Petersham Road
Sidmouth Woods. A path runs through the woods which are protected by a deer proof fence.
'The Way' - St Paul's Cathedral Tercentenary Gates. New gates, which can be viewed through the King Henry's Mound telescope, have been installed on the edge of Sidmouth Woods to mark the tercentenary of St Paul's Cathedral. They are by Joshua De Lisle
Bishops Pond. Which has a resident heron
Conduit Wood. Site of White Conduit. Earliest of the conduit houses built to serve Richmond Palace after the fire of 1499. The Red Conduit and the Petersham Conduit are now gone.
Kidney Wood so called from its shape.
South African War Hospital. In the Great War this was built between Bishops’ Lodge and Conduit Wood.  In 1914, a group of South Africans living in London formed a Committee to und hospital which was eventually built here.  They also supported the hospital with comforts and eventually extensions. There were also occupational and vocational work projects. By 1917 there were 620 beds and in 1918 it amalgamated with the Richmond Military Hospital. The Hospital closed in 1921 and was demolished in 1925. 

Terrace Field
From the early 17th there were brickworks in this area. When they closed in 1767 some acres of grazed meadow were given as royal bounty, and were called Terrace Field.  The park consists of a steep meadow, cut for hay in the late summer to allow the Six Spot Burnet Moth to complete its breeding cycle.  Some sections of the 19th brick walls which divided the former private estates remain: one on the east part of the boundary with Terrace Gardens. There are sets if unusual acorn head bollards here.

Terrace Gardens
This square covers only a brief southern strip of these gardens, built on 17th brickworks.
Three Pigeons Gate – gate into the park from Petersham Road. Late 18th or early 19th brick gate piers with ball finials. It is opposite the former Three Pigeons Inn.
Conservatory with a small service yard behind. This replaces a series of earlier conservatries. In the present buildings back wall is a carved stone relief of Adam and Eve, plus apple tree and snake. This is said to be have come from the Landsdowne estate.
Field Gate. This leads into Terrace Field. Ire is a 19th iron gate within an arch in the brick wall,
Wilderness Garden. This is in the west corner of the park and it is a series of paths and steps, lined in brick and stone, with some possible fabricated stone running through a densely shrubbed and wooded area down the slope from the southernmost end of the Terrace Gardens. These date from at least before the 1860s



Sources
Bollards of London. Web site
Brewery History Society. Web site.
Clunn. The Face of London
English Heritage Web site
Hearsum collection. Web site
Kingston Zodiac,
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Transport. Country walks
Panorama of the Thames. Web site
Parker. North Surrey Parker, 
Pastscape. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Petersham Hotel. Web site
Petersham Nurseries. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,
Pevsner. Surrey 
Port of London Magazine
St. Peter’s Church. Web site
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Wikipedia. As appropriate

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