Sunday, 28 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Chingford. London Fields

Great Eastern Railway Line to Chingford
The Line running from Cambridge Heath Station goes northwards

Post to the south South Hackney
Post to the north Hackney Central


This posting covers only the south east corner of this square

Bayford Mews
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association and a blue plaque which says they were founded here in 1959.

Bayford Street
Bayford Street Industrial Centre
Site of Pembroke House which has been built in the 17th by William Parker.  In 1799 it became a school for the deaf and dumb founded by Thomas Braidwood who had moved here from Edinburgh in 1783. It continued here by his family until 1810. In 1818 the house was used by an institution to house East India Company employees who had become insane in India. It remained here until 1880 when the area was acquired by the Great Eastern Railway.  Warburton was involved and managed this as he did with other insane asylums in east London and it was later known as Dr. Warburton's House.


Exmouth Place
On the site of what was Flying Horse Yard.

Gransden Avenue
5a Seasonal Disorder. Art Gallery

Helmsley Place
Helmsley Piano Works. This works was owned by Broadwood, White & Co.  in the 1920s. They made quality upright pianos.  It was later an office equipment store,

Lamb Lane
This was once Tower Street, after a house at the east end which had a tower like structure.
St.Michael and All Angels. Built in 1864 on the site of a brickfield. It was destroyed in Second World War bombing and rebuilt on a different site.
Vicarage. House of ragstone, built in 1873 as the vicarage for St Michael and All Angels which stood opposite. Probably designed by Hakewell
School. This was a National School opened in 1873 on part of the site of Pembroke House which had been purchased in 1871 from the Great Eastern Railway.  It was attached to the church, despite the board school being adjacent.  It was also the church hall. It closed after 1939.
Lamb Lane Board School. This was opened in 1873 but later became a school for special instruction
Pembroke Hall. Headquarters of the Rifle Volunteers of Tower Hamlets. East of the church.  The Tower Hamlets Rifle Volunteers dated from 1864 and there were 12 corps.  This was the 2nd corps and was here from 1860 having previously been in Richmond Road. Joseph Samuda, the shipbuilder, was one of the officers. By 1868 they had amalgamated with another corps and moved.
Charismatic for Christ Ministries, Hackney Branch

London Fields
In 1275 the area of London Fields was common pastureland but the name of London Field is not found until the 1540s.  It was one of several areas in Hackney with Lammas Rights. It is thought to have been called London Field because the paths with the most direct rotes to the City ran alongside it.   Some surrounding roads have names connected with sheep and this might indicated sheep grazing or being driven across here. By the mid 19th the area was being dug for brick earth and developers were eying it up and local people began to object. Under the Metropolitan Commons Act, 1866, the Hackney District Board petitioned for the inclosure of a group of local commons of which London Fields was one. The manorial rights were purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1881. Once it had become a park lines of plane trees were planted. A bandstand built which was later demolished and replaced by one to the southeast, which itself was removed after the Second World War – three oaks remain of the eight which originally surrounded it.  The area was heavily bombed in 1940 and as a result the park was increased to cover the areas of demolished buildings. The lines of London plane trees surrounding the cricket pitch to the north and east mark the old park boundary. The war left many people without homes and 18 prefabs were built in 2 rows on the west side o the field. Another 21 were built on what had been the south end of Eleanor Road. These were removed by 1951 but the west side ones lasted into the 1960’s.  After the war the netball pitches were removed and the hard tennis courts were moved the site of demolished houses in Richmond Road. The grass tennis courts were removed in the 1970’s.
Facilities include The park keepers’ service yard, with manager’s office, storage and rest room which have been next to the Lido since the 1960s.
Lido. The outdoor pool was built in 1930 by agreement between the London County Council and the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney, The original pool was different from what had gone before. It was the earliest to have an   advanced filtration plant, a tiered fountain, a large sunbathing area, a refreshment kiosk and a first aid room. It was designed in house by the London County Council probably by Rowbotham & Smithson. The Lido opened in 1932 and remained open until 1939 to reopen 1951 and then close in 1988 following cut backs in council funding and the abolition of the Greater London Council. After many years of local campaigning by local people it re-opened in 2006 and is now managed by Greenwich Leisure Ld..


London Fields East Side
Part of this was once London Place. The road consists of a row of early 19th houses overlooking the park

London Lane
The Lady Eve Community Garden. This is a guerrilla garden on the corner with Mentmore Terrace. It is currently maintained by Carlsson & Co. with a community group. It has herbs, vegetables and flowers and some attractive graffiti.


Mare Street
146 St. Mungo’s Hostel for the Homeless in a converted police section house. This was originally designed by McMorran and Whitby in 1950-51
149 Flying Horse.  This pub was long-established and may have been present as early as 1593.  It was closed in 1914 and demolished in the 1930s. 
150 ABC Cinema. This was The Regal Cinema built for Associated British Cinemas and designed by their in-house architect William R. Glen on a difficult triangular site. It opened in 1936. It was re-named ABC in82 and closed in 1975. In 1977 an Independent operator re-opened it as the Mayfair Cinema and this closed in 1981. The stalls area was converted into a snooker club which closed in 1994. It was 1998 and there is now housing on the site.
155 originally a National Provincial Bank. This is now a betting shop
165 The Dolphin.  Pub. Built around 1850 but might have an earlier core. There may be an earlier pot house at the back. Inside the back bar has a dolphin decorated on the end. There is an old dining room with a screen decorated with dolphins in coloured glass. There are tiled walls with patterns of birds and foliage in blue and white. On either side of the entrances are painted panels over coloured tiled dados. A picture in the saloon shows Airon with his lyre summoning a dolphin to his rescue painted by W B Simpson and Son of St Martin’s Lane.
St Thomas's Square. This was a development built by Robert Collins in 1771/2 on land leased from St Thomas's Hospital.  By the late 19th ‘the centre was a field with an irregular fence around it’, but a little interest attaches itself to some of the inhabitants of the Square.' In 1892 Hackney District Board leased the laid it out as public gardens through grants from the Metropolitan Board of Works, Metropolitan Public Gardens Association and the London County Council.. Hackney Borough Council purchased it in 1915 for £50, by 1928 it was 'laid out as an attractive ornamental garden”. Housing around it was bombed in the Second World War and then compulsorily purchased by the London County Council and flats as the Frampton Park estate. The garden now has lawns with flower beds, shrub planting and mature trees along perimeter beds.
Drinking fountain. This is in pink and grey granite and dates from 1912. Taps are screened by columns with capitals carrying a circular cup. The inscription reads: 'presented to the Hackney Borough Council by Morris Nelson Esq in memory of his wife Esther. Unveiled by Councillor William Hammer Mayor of Hackney 31st October 1912'.
St Thomas's Chapel on the south west corner of St Thomas Square built in 1771. This related to a group of Presbyterians established before 1636. Following a dispute a faction formed the Old Gravel Pit Chapel; the other faction moved across the street and built this chapel, naming after the landowner, St.Thomas's Hospital and enlarging it in 1824.
184 Essoldo Cinema. This was an adaption of the Chapel. In 1912 it was converted into the Empress Electric Theatre.  A ‘straight’ organ was installed, and it has been conjectured that this was a new installation or the original Chapel organ. In early-1933 it was closed and George Coles re-designed it as an Art Deco styled cinema, A Compton 3Manual/5Ranks organ was installed. It re-opened as Empress Electric Theatre. It remained independently operated until 1955 when it was purchased by the Essoldo Circuit and re-named. It closed in 1967. It was converted into a Bingo Hall Latterly as a Top Rank Bingo Club which closed in 1993. The building was demolished in 1995.
Gateway to St Thomas Chapel burial ground.
182 This was built in 1877 as Lady Eleanor Holles School, an independent school founded in 1710. It is in red brick with Portland stone dressings.  With a relief of a castle and scrolls as well as ‘Founded AD 1710’ and ‘Erected AD 1877’. The centre was added, with the rear wing, in 1905 by F. S. Hammond. The school had moved here in 1878 but in 1935 it moved to Hampton. In 1946 Cordwainers' Technical College moved to the site from Bethnal Green. The college had begun as the Leather Trades School, established in 1887 helped by the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers and they took responsibility for this trade school from 1913. It became known as the Cordwainers' Technical College but in 1989 it changed its name to Cordwainers' College; and in 2000 became part of the London College of Fashion, part of the University of the Arts, London and runs specialist courses in shoes and footwear. There is also anew student residence block for Cordwainers' College.
184 St.John the Theologian.  This is now a Greek Orthodox Church but it was built in 1873 for the Catholic Apostolic Church By John Drake of Rochester. This church was formerly known as the Catholic Apostolic Church. It is a Gothic church built in polychrome brick and stone.
195 18th house and the second oldest house in Hackney.  Originally a family home. From 1860 - 1913 it housed the Elizabeth Fry Institute for Reformation of Women Prisoners to which there is a commemorative plaque on the gatepost. Thos was set up after her death in 1845 and continued until 1913 when it moved to Limington.   It then became a working men’s club, the Lansdowne Liberal and Radical Club, then the New Lansdowne Social Club, which closed in 2003. It then became derelict and squatted.  It is set back from the street in Brown brick.
201 Cyntra Place. Site of the Tre-Wint Industrial Home for Girls in the 1870s moving to Hampstead by 1902.  A large laundry was attached where girls could be trained to work.  By the 1920s Turney Turbines, turbine manufactures
206 this corner building was a Liberal club by 1880 and later became Hackney Conservative club. However it appears to have been use by many local organisations including freemasons and photographic societies. It is now a take away restaurant.
208 site of Madras House, 19th school. It was named for Madras system whereby monitors took responsibility for younger boys. It was claimed that the school dated from 1796 but Allen first took pupils in Mare Street in 1817, moving to larger premises in 1821. The school produced a number of distinguished alumni - the lexicographer Sir William Smith, John Curwen , writer on music, and Sir Charles Reed chairman of the London school board. Madras House passed to Thomas Garland, who ran it in 1861, and to Messrs. W. Paine and Wilson, who described it as a grammar school in 1869 and also took boarders until 1879. From 1892 the buildings were used by the Essex Volunteer Regiment in 1892.
215 Nam. This is a Vietnamese fashion company and community hub.  Before the Great War this address was that of the London Aircraft Co. taken over by Jackson Aircraft in 1917. Then it became a furniture manufacturers
219 Methodist Church. The church was built in 2000 in a development with Islington and Shoreditch Housing Association. Inside it was influenced by Le Corbusier's 1955 church in Ronchamp. The windows have colours and shapes similar to the shapes of recesses at the front of the church.  They reflect the style of buildings in middle eastern countries and the catacombs of the early church. The outside) was designed by FreeForm, a community arts project and children’s pictures are etched into the windows
229 Nags Head. This pub may have been present as early as 1593. It was rebuilt in 1875, but is now demolished. The site was on the south side of the London Lane junction.  It was a traditional meeting place for cricketers from London fields
255 This was the Horse & Groom pub which closed in 2013 after a stabbing. It was then known as Maddigan's, also the V Bar and/or The Heart of Hackney.
257 Richmond Court. Flats over shops built 1937 in art deco style. It was offices and workshops for the Berkeley Piano Co, in the 1920s.
Victor House is accessed through a passage under Richmond Court and is made up of trading units and studios.

Martello Street
Was previously Tower Street.  
19 Pub on the Park. This used to be called The Queen Eleanor

Mentmore Terrace
London Fields Station. Built in 1872 this now lies between Hackney Downs and Cambridge Heath. It was opened by the Great Eastern Railway to serve south Hackney. In the Great War it was closed from 1916 to 1919.  Electrification was instituted in 1960. It was burnt down in 1981 and subsequently closed. It reopened in 1986 with all old structures removed and replaced by something minimalist but new upside buildings had been put in place. The Chingford trains used to serve the station as well as the current Lea Valley Line but they now pass through on the eastern pair of tracks and stop at Hackney Downs instead.
Signal Box.  This was north of the station and closed in 1935.
5 City Co.Seals.  Makers of company and other official seals.


Sources
British History online. Hackney. Web site
CAMRA . Real Beer in London
Carlsson and Co. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Liverpool Street to Chingford
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Hackney Methodist Church. Web site
London Borough of Hackney. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Fields User Group. Web site
London Gardens On line. Web site
London Railway Record
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Robinson.  Lost Hackney
Robins. North London Railway
St. Michael and All Angels. Web site
Watson. Gentlemen in the Building Line
Watson. Hackney and Stoke Newington Past

Thursday, 25 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Chingford. South Hackney

Great Eastern Railway to Chingford
The railway line to Chingford continues north running from Cambridge Heath Station

Post to the south Cambridge Heath
Post to the north London Fields

This post covers only the north east corner of this square

Andrews Road
Before the Second World War the area to the north of the curve in Andrews Road was houses in residential streets.
43 London Borough of Hackney. Car pound.


Ash Grove
Before 1900 Ash Grove was a residential street and there appear to have been a number of charitable religious institutions in them.
St Mary.  Franciscan convent also described as Franciscan Nunnery. Present in the 1870s
Orphanage. This was for boys orphaned by cholera and opened in 1866 by the Revd. R. Tuke of St. Anne's, Soho. He set up the order of St. Joseph, which adopted the Franciscan habit but which was disbanded on his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1867. It appears that some of the sisters working at the orphanage also converted with him.
Orphanage and guild for working girls opened by the Sisters of St. Margaret, East Grinstead as a centre for their work in South Hackney, Haggerston, and Shoreditch.
St Augustine’s Convent, with chapel by Harold Gibbons, noted by Pevsner as existing in 1925. Demolished
British Penitent Female Refuge.  This large institution moved here in 1842 having originated in Hackney. It is also said to have originated in Welclose Square at the Maritime Penitent Female Refuge.  The frontage on St. Andrews Road survives in the Firmback Works.
King Edward Industrial School for Girls. This had begun in Mile End in 1872 and seems to have moved, or set up a branch, here in 1875 using the Female Refuge premises. .
Firmback Works. This was the works of Messrs. Cinnamon. Makers of Cintique furniture. They were established in 1908 to produce high grade chairs and settees when Jack Cinnamon started the firm in a former House of Correction for women alongside the Regents Canal as frame-makers to the furniture trade. By the 1920s Cintique were making complete chairs.
Bush chemical works. William Bush had set up a chemical works in Bishopsgate in 1851, making tinctures, extracts, flavours and essential oils. W.J. Bush & Co. is credited with being England's first maker of flavourings and essences. He later moved to Liverpool Street and then here, to Ash Grove. The firm expanded enormously to become an international concern and eventually in the 1960s merged with Stafford Allen and are now part of International Flavours and Fragrances
Bus Garage. The garage was built on the site of the Bush chemical works. It was opened in 1981 by London Buses. It had space for 140 buses undercover and 30 in the yard. The roof is carried by ten 35-ton triangular trusses, said to be the largest in the UK. When London Buses was split into separate companies Ash Grove became part of London Forest but closed in 1991 when they were wound up. The garage re-opened in 1994 for Kentish Bus and renamed it Cambridge Heath garage. It re-opened again in 2000 for East Thames Buses but they then moved to other new premises.amd it is used as a depot by Arriva.
Bridge over the Bethnal Green and Hackney Downs railway. Built in 1885 on brick arches to minimise expense because of property prices.

Beck Road
The street was due for demolition and many properties were squatted by artists, musicians – many subsequently famous – and so on.  The Council handed to Acme Properties who let houses to artists and others. At one time forty-two artists lived in the street.

Bocking Street
This was previously Essex Street
46 Westgate Centre, small business and trading area.
48 Bocking Street Warehouse, centre for events, gallery, etc. -
Broadway Market
This lies between Mare Street and Kingsland Road and survivals of the 1840s are interspersed with 20th buildings.  The road is said to be part of a route called the ‘Market Porters’ or Porters’ Route, a way to London markets for produce and livestock from Essex. From 1811 the road was called Duncan Place, and a market was held here by 1835. It was called the Broadway in 1881 and was Broadway Market from 1937.
2 La Vie en Rose restaurant. This was the Sir Walter Scott pub and the name is still on the frontage. It was open by 1851 and rebuilt in its present form in 1909. It closed as a pub in 1999.
24 Dove free house.  Pub
30-32 The Market House. Old pub now used as a restaurant. This was there by 1871 and was a Watney’s House. In 1990 it was sold to Belhaven and was closed in 1999. 
75-77 retains a shop front of 1830 but may be older behind.  . It is now an art gallery.
76 Cat and Mutton.  Very old pub on the site and a wide range of theories about how it got its name – was it about barges called cats, or is it about cattle passing with drovers. Nearby are fields called Shoulder of Mutton from the shape. There are also stories of a poltergeist in the cellar.  Dates back to 1731, and it is shown on Roque’s Map of 1769. By 1790, the Public House was at the end of a row of buildings in what was then Mutton Lane with Shoulder of Mutton Field to the west. The area attracted City people and apparently once a week a pig’s tail was greased and the clientele attempted to it round their heads.
79-81 early 19th terraced houses with shops on the ground floor.
Hackney Bun House., This is said to have stood on the east side of the road at the canal end of the market and sold spicy buns.

Canal
Gerver’s Basin or North Street or Northiam Basin. This was on the north bank east of Mare Street Bridge, dating from 1827 it was privately owned and square.  Gerver was a timber merchant based in Mare Street.  The tiny Basin was used to unload timber and stone from barges.  Once disused the iron basin entrance was blocked with sheets of corrugated iron. It was infilled in 1976 and the bridge over entrance removed but the corner coping stones of the basin are still visible on the towpath.  In the 1970s and early 1980s housing was built on the site.
Cunningham Timber Wharf.  The north bank of the canal here between Victoria Park and Mare Street was largely taken up by Cunningham’s Timber Wharf
Stone wharf. This lay to the west of Northiam Basin.
Horse ramp. These installations occur at intervals along the canal and were to help horses which had fallen into the canal to be got out.

Croston Street
In the early 19th this was George Street, and later Hamburg Street –changed again during the Great War. The houses date from the 1830s.
5 This was the offices for the City of Dublin Bottling Co. – a sign for which ran across the fascia – with a manager’s flat above.   In the 1890s the owner, a Mr. Quin, retained one room where he slept once a week.  A corner entrance is now a window.  It appears to date from 1909 but the company was on this site in the 1890s. It is now housing and the rear yard appears to be in separate use.

Dericote Street
In the early 19th this was John Street, and later Bremen Street – which changed again in the Great War. A development of 1830-40.

Jackman Street
This was previously Goring Street
Broadway Market Green. This is a small park on a site which was once housing

King Edward Road
3 St. John the Baptist. Roman Catholic church.   Services are said to have begun in an old brewery in Elsdale Street. A church was built here in ragstone by W. W. Wardell in 1847. It was damaged in the Second World War and services were held elsewhere until the current church was built in 1956: by Peter Lamprell-Jarrett and consecrated in 1972 
St. Johns the Baptist Church School. This opened in 1849 as Triangle or Hackney Triangle Roman Catholic School in a rented building. A new school was built adjoining the presbytery in 1851. It occupied part of London Fields School from 1951 to 1968, when it moved to Bonner Road.
4 Ayahs home. In 1900 the London City Mission took over the organization of the Home and it moved from Aldgate to 26 King Edward's Road. In 1921, it moved to no 4 The Home dealt with about ninety ayahs a year and also nurse-maids from other countries who were brought over by families and required assistance in returning.
45-65 Durigo house. This was Horne Brothers factory from 1922 until  1987. Menswear manufacturers who began in 1886 and dissolved in 1993.

Lansdowne Drive
This is ex Mutton Lane

London Fields
This square covers only a small section on the park at the southern end.  London Field was common land in Hackney with Lammas Rights. By the mid 19th the area was under development pressure and rights were passed to the Metropolitan Board of Works.
Pebble sculpture of flower sellers and sheep by Freeform Artworks (1988-9) at the southeast corner of the Fields.

London Fields East
This was once called London Place
Darcy House - originally Darcy Buildings which were built on the site of Pacifico’s almshouses by the London County Council as their first housing in Hackney
Pacifico's Almshouses.  These were for Sephardic Jews with funds given in 1851 by Emanuel Pacifico. They were supported after 1880 by the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' congregation of London, but were demolished by 1900. The congregation offered accommodation at new almshouses which it had built for Barrow's charity in Mile End
Jubilee Chapel. This was a Primitive Methodists' chapel built in from 1863. By 1873 it was called the Jubilee chapel. It closed before 1938.

Mare Street
12-20 This is an early 19th terraceat the southern end of the street. It was originally called Clifton Place and  built on the site of some brick kilns. They may predate the canal.
13-15 The Rose and Crown. The pub may date from as early as the 17th and it was said to be the first building over the canal bridge in Hackney in the 19th. The plaque above the door shows a previous name of the pub as The Cambridge. By 1905 it was a Whitbread house, and some Whitbread signage remains of the building. In 1977 it passed to Young’s Brewery and then returned to Whitbread.
51 Home for deaf and dumb children opened here in 1900 by Barnardo.  Originally it was for girls but later took boys and blind children,
70 Salvation Army. London Central Division
125-127 Morley Hall.  This is now part of Hackney Community College. The hall was a cinema 1910-1919.  It had begun as a 'masonic' hall and was completed by Cambridge Heath Congregational church, with help from Samuel Morley. It had three storeys and it was used for recreation in 1920 and by clothiers Gerrish, Ames & Simpkins. It was damaged by Second World War bombing . It is now part of the City Edge, Business Training & Conference Centre, with a modern building in front.  At the back ‘Morley Hall’ is visible in the stonework, when viewed from the railway line.
129-131 Space. Charitable organisation finding cheap studio spaces for artists. This is in Triangle House which was for Hackney Technical College’s Building Department.
137 The London Fields. Pub. This was originally called the Warburton Arms and dates from the mid 19th.
St Joseph's Hospice. This was set up in 1905 on the estate of Cambridge Lodge, - a house, garden, and 6 houses by Marmaduke Matthews from 1856. They had been the homes of the Booth family, co-founders of the Salvation Army in 1865-7.  The Hospice was set up by Father Peter Gallwey, Rector of Farm Street Jesuit Mission who asked the Irish Sisters of Charity to come to work in the East End with funding in 1899 from a Grace Goldsmith. When Cambridge Lodge was sold the anonymous buyer gave it to the Sisters of Charity as a hospice for the dying. The hospice expanded and in 1936 the area of Cambridge Heath Congregational Church was added. In The Second World War it was requisitioned for war and badly bombed. The chapel built in 1932, is now the oldest part remaining. In the 1950s Dr Cicely Saunders developed pioneering methods here and in 1958, the first purpose-built hospice unit in the UK was built here. Modern buildings have since replaced this and also the 19th hospice buildings. Special care is taken of the garden and a garden room looks onto the main garden. A Centenary Garden which won a medal at Chelsea Flower Show in 2005 is now part of a Garden Restaurant and a water sculpture has been installed in the front courtyard. A new convent for the Sisters has also been built.
Cambridge Heath Congregational Chapel. This was an Iron chapel from 1861. It was replaced by a church in ragstone designed by Joseph James in 1865. It closed in the 1930s.

Mowlem Street
47 The Wayward Gallery

Sheep Lane
A renamed section of Mutton Lane

Triangle Road
Ann Taylor Childrens' Centre

Tudor Road
8-10 City and Hackney Mind. Mental Health Charity in old factory building, 8 was previously the site of Melbourne House, home of Thomas Bearman, local baker and confectioner and noted numismatist.

Vyner Street
This was previously called. It was renamed after the Vyner family in 1902
1 Ombra restaurant. This has mushrooms on the roof by Christian Naagel
3-7 Gallery – this has had various names
Lime Wharf. Cultural innovation hub and artistic laboratory.
Victoria wharf. This was to the west of Lime Wharf and was at one time used as a saw mill. Clearly saw mills would have been necessary for timber importers serving the large east end furniture manufacturing industry – before the artists moved in!
27 The Victory.  Pub which dates from before 1860
30 All Saints Mission. This is now the Empire Gallery with “Trapped in Freedom” as the logo on the outside.  All Saints Mission dates from 1896 with a clubroom and gymnasium.  It later became as shoe factory owned by M.Rubin and employing 300 people
63 Anchor of Hope. Christian fellowship. This was previously a warehouse

Warburton Road
The road replaced the gardens of Dr. Warburton's house - aka Pembroke House
365-366 London Fields Brewery. This opened in 2011.

Warburton Square

Westgate Street
1 Hackney Council Departments and Hackney Community College. Keltan House. This was an old commercial building which was taken over by the college in 1970. It had previously been Netil House and owned by North Eastern Timber Ltd. as the head office of a group of related companies. It has now been renamed Netil House and is let as studio space.
London Fields Primary School. The school was originally opened in 1874.


Sources
British History Online. Bethnal Green. Web site
Bush, Boake and Allen. Wikipedia. Web site
CAMRA. City and East London Beer Guide,
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Essex Lopresti. The Regents Canal
Glazier. London Transport Garages
London Borough of Hackney. Web site
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Fields Brewery. We site
London Fields User Group. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Lost Pubs. Web site
Morris. Archives of the Chemical Industry
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Sinclair. Hackney. That Rose Red Empire
St. Joseph’s Hospice. Web site
Watson. Gentlemen in the Building Line.
Watson. Hackney and Stoke Newington Past

Saturday, 20 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Chingford Cambridge Heath

Great Eastern Railway to Chingford
The Great Eastern Railway continues northwards from Bethnal Green Station and East Junction.
TQ 34847 83496

Bethnal Green and south Hackney around the Regents Canal. This includes the old Bethnal Green civic centre around Patriot Square, many pubs, hospitals, gas works and churches. There were also many industrial sites of all sorts - in this area of course the furniture trade, but much else.


Post to the south Bethnal Green
Post to the north South Hackney

This post covers only the south east corner of this square

Andrews Road
48-50 Beehive Works, James Hoyles and Son. This is a working iron foundry on the site of an old timber yard. They claim to have been founded in 1880
50-53 warehouses are the former Ashmore’s Furniture Works


Bishops Way
15 George and Dragon Pub. Open by the 1860s and closed after the Second World War
Printing works north side behind houses


Cambridge Crescent
Some addresses in this street were once in Felix Street.
Peabody flats built in 1910
25 Duke of Cambridge. Pub now closed but latterly a Belhaven Brewery house.


Cambridge Heath Road
172 Odeon Cinema, This was close to the Bethnal Green Museum and opened as the Museum Cinema in 1912. It was closed in 1931 for internal re-construction by Leslie H. Kemp. It was taken over by the independent Eastern Cinemas Ltd in 1936 and in 1943 taken over by Oscar Deutsch’s Odeon Theatres Ltd. Chain and renamed in 1950. It closed in 1956. It was demolished and Mayfield House was built on the site
210-214 Allinson Ltd. Ever since the industrial revolution most flour was produced using roller mills which meant that many nutrients and fibre were lost. Dr. Thomas Allinson purchased his own stone-grinding flour mill in Bethnal Green, to produce whole meal flour. He set up The Natural Food Company under the slogan ‘Health without medicine’, and began baking bread. Because of his theories he was struck off the medical register, but Allinson Flour became successful and famous.
Cambridge Heath Road Infirmary. In 1882, the Local Government Board imposed restrictions of the
numbers of patients in Bethnal Green’s workhouse sick wards and thus created a need for a separate infirmary. A site was selected on Cambridge Heath Road and purchased from the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, in 1896 the infirmary was commissioned from Giles, Gough and Trollope and built in brick Thomas Rowbotham of Birmingham and opened in 1900. It was intended mainly for the chronically ill. In 1915 the military authorities took over the building for wounded soldiers and it became the Bethnal Green Military Hospital under the London District Command.  Patients and staff returned in 1920 and a wider range of services were added, including an Orthopaedic Clinic for ex-servicemen with damaged joints. There was also a VD clinic. The LCC took control in 1930 and in 1948 it joined the NHS as the Bethnal Green Hospital   From 1977 it changed from acute to geriatric care.  In 1990 the Hospital closed following protests and demonstrations from staff. All buildings have been demolished except for the administration block. The Victoria Park Housing Association redeveloped the site with houses and flats by Baily Garner, 1990-3.
Administration block. This is the only remaining building of Bethnal Green Hospital. The clock from
the demolished Chapel belonging to the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews was installed on the tower. This block once contained the medical officer's residence and office, the dispensary, the chaplain's office, matron's sitting room and bedroom, accommodation for 80 nurses and 12-14 female servants, along with the kitchen, staff dining room and storerooms.  The basement was used for storage of coal, firewood and heavy goods.
220 Cambridge Court. Cambridge Heath Estate. Housing on the corner of Parminter Street designed by E.C.P. Monson in 1926-7 for Bethnal Green Council.  The estate was originally called the Lenin Estate but the incoming liberal–progressive admin¬is-tration changed the name to the Cambridge Heath estate in 1928.
Cambridge Heath Station. This lies between London Fields and Bethnal Green stations on the Greater Anglia Railway. It was opened in 1870 south of the bridge over the Regent’s Canal with two platforms and has since been much remodelled. The original part, on the side of the line facing Clare Street, had blind windows and curved gables.  Two more tracks were added on the viaduct in 1894 but there were no extra platforms here. A new street level building was added. It was closed as a wartime economy between 1916 and 1919.  The downside platforms were removed in the 1960s.  It was burnt down in 1984 and closed for two months and then closed again while it was rebuilt and reopened in 1986.  Everything was then removed and replaced by small modern shelters.  Currently Chingford bound trains do not stop here/
Signal Box. This was at the north end of the station platforms and closed in 1935.
222-226 Warehouse and factory building. The upper three storeys have big windows. This belonged
to L. Silberston & Sons, long established in Cambridge Heath Road, specialized in uniforms for a many military units including the Royal Horse Guards and the Air Ministry. They also supplied civilian uniforms including for the post office.   Were there until early 1960s
234 Metropolis. This was The Arabian Arms pub established by 1869 and rebuilt in 1902.  It was a Watney’s house.  It was renamed Beachcomber by 1983, then called Martin’s and by 1993 was Metropolis, a ‘gentlemen’s club’.
236 this was the White Horse pub. It was a Whitbread pub, present by 1872 and rebuilt in 1888.  It closed in 2005.  .
244-254 Cambridge House.  London Essex International College. Also snooker hall in what appears to be an old industrial building.
260 Bestway.  This is a large site comprising frontages and addresses in surrounding road.  In the 19th and early 20th this was a saw mill but was later a haulage depot and a printer.
349 Tower Hamlets Labour Party
393 This was the Red Deer Pub opened before 1817.  This was a Watney’s house but is now Homefinders Estate Agents since closure in 2006
505 The Hare. This pub is said to have been present by 1800
Obelisk - there was once an obelisk at the junction with the end of Hackney Road. This had been erected to mark the site of Cambridge Heath tollgate.

Canal
This is the Regent's Canal which runs just north of central London to provide a link from the Paddington arm of the Grand Union Cana to Limehouse Basin and the Thames.
Gas Holders for The Imperial Gas Company together with a wharf. The holders are in Marion Street. An inlet ran into the site from the canal.
National Grid Pumping Station.  In 1979 the Central Electricity Generating Board installed underground 400 kV cables in a trough below the towpath and they now form part of the National Grid. Pumped canal water is circulated as a coolant for the high-voltage cables and there is a pumping station on the towpath here.
Railway Bridge on the line leaving Cambridge Heath station over the canal
Oblique brick arch on the south side of the canal between the two bridges was the entrance to a basin which served a timber yard running south west from the canal.
Mare Street Bridge.  Road bridge over the canal


Claredale Street
Keeling House.  Rising assertively, belongs to the post-war age. It was built in 1955-9 by Denys Lasdun of Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun, and is a sixteen-storey 'cluster' block. Two-storey maisonettes are in four stacks linked at angles by bridges to a service core. By 1993 Tower Hamlets had evacuated the block, for structural reasons ad it was refurbished for private owners in 1999-2001 by Munkenbeck & Marshall, with Lasdun as consultant; they added a penthouse and a glass entrance with a bridge over a pond and stream.
Bradley House. This was a slab block by Denys Lasdun & Partners, with purple tile facings. It has been replaced by a mix of new housing by Designed by Karakusevic Carson Architects,
Claredale House. Council housing, by E.C.P Monson, 1931-2.  This is now student accommodation.


Corbridge Crescent
5-10 Containerville. Upcycled shipping containers to turn into offices
3 Empress Coach Hire.  Founded in 1922 and here with ‘extravagantly derelict premises’. Edward Thomas Stanton was a bus driver who bought his bus in 1923 and created a fleet operating from a yard in London Fields. In 1927, he bought the property in Corbridge Crescent but when the buses were nationalised in 1933, he made £35,000 from the sale and changed the business from buses to coaches. At first, the bodies of the vehicles were removed in the winter to convert to flat trucks out of season. They were requisitioned in the Second World War to drive personnel around airfields in Norfolk. There were six beanos every Saturday in the summer but there are very few now.
Corbridge Works. Socialist Worker Printers and Publishers

Emma Street
Royal Mail. Bethnal Green delivery office.
Lewis Milk Supplies. Dairy and delivery service


Hackney Road
Appears at least in part to have been pre-Roman,
501/505 Chandler's Wiltshire Brewery. Charles Porter and William Henry Dieseldorff, trading as Chandler & Co, operated the brewery in Hackney. A 120 foot chimney was added in 1895. Closed in 1911 with 35 tied houses and a half share went to Charringtons.  The buildings are still standing, in other use, and front onto Grove Passage.
408 Durham Arms. Pub dating from at least 1814. Closed 2007. This was a Trueman’s house and features some Trueman’s signage.
460 Norfolk Arms. This pub closed 2007 and is now a restaurant.


Marion Place
Pritchards Road Day Centre.  Local authority centre for those with mental health issues.
Imperial Gas Light and Coke Co.  Gas holders here are on a site used as a holder station for the Imperial Gas Company’s Haggerston works. It is still in British Gas use but the holders have been decommissioned. The site here was purchased in 1853 and originally contained a large pond, and an inlet with a lime wharf alongside. There were originally four holders here but the oldest now was built in 1865-6 by Joseph Dark, the company's engineer. The ironwork was cast by the Staveley Co. of Derbyshire. It has Two tiers of girders and 16 cast-iron columns It’s much taller neighbour was built in 1888-9 by after the Imperial had been taken over by the Gas Light and Coke Co., by their engineer, George Trewby in lattice steelwork.


Minerva Street
Peabody Estate. This estate is crammed into a wedge of land of which Minerva Street is one of the constituent streets. The estate has eight blocks, inward facing to a courtyard later used as a playground. It dates from 1910 and said to be the first by Peabody Estate with large 'numbers of self-contained flats. It continues the radiation of the simple elevations developed by Darbishire in the Trust's buildings of the 1860s, albeit in a red brick. The stair towers go above the roofline with ironwork surrounds.  An extension is in the next generation of Peabody Trust's design, by Victor Wilkins, 1915-16.
Estate office added in matching style, in 1998.


Mowlem Street
Industrial premises many of which are now in use as art galleries of various sorts.
Mowlem Street School. Originally the school fronted onto Mowlem Street. It opened in 1887 as Mowlem Street Board School and has been extended and altered since. After the Second World War it was reorganised for juniors and with nursery s class by. A new single-storeyed building was opened in 1971.


Old Bethnal Green Road
Minerva Estate. This was the London County Council’s first large deelopment in 1946- after the Second World War.  It had 253 dwellings in long, three- and four-storey blocks, named after Greek heroes. It was built by the London County Council Valuer's Department under Cyril H. Walker, based on plans by J.H, Forshaw. It used a rapid construction technique of concrete slabs laid on load-bearing concrete walls. The blocks were refurbished in 2003 with pitched roofs and lift towers.


Palestine Place
The Bethnal Green hospital was built on land purchased from the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews.   The site had previously contained a chapel - the Episcopal Jews' Chapel - and had been known as Palestine Place.


Parmiter Street
This was once called Gloucester Street
Almshouses. In his will of 1682, Thomas Parmiter left money for six almshouses in Bethnal Green and for the building a school. The first Parmiter's Almshouses were off Brick Lane in 1722 but in 1839, the Almshouses moved here. They were destroyed by a V2 rocket in 1945. The almshouses were rebuilt in Clacton.


Patriot Square
Town Hall Hotel. This was as Bethnal Green Town Hall and is in two sections. The old Town Hall was opened in 1910 for the new borough of Bethnal Green the wing fronting Patriot Square was opened in 1939. It remained the Town Hall when London Borough of Tower Hamlets was set up but moved to Mulberry Place in 1993. The original building was designed by Percy Robinson and W Alban Jones offices, council chamber, mayor's parlour and committee rooms. The 1939 extension it was to the designs of E C P Monson and was never completed. There is a seated female figure and cherubs by Henry Poole to represent the Council protecting the industries of the Borough and there is also is a figure of Justice with sword and scales. The 1930s extension has a relief of the Blind Beggar over the entrance. Inside the hall and staircase is in green, grey and white marble. The council chamber has heraldic glass including the arms of Middlesex, Gresham, the City of London and De Bathonia and rhere are Pillars with motifs of Truth and Happiness, Industry and Temperance, also by Poole.  It is now a hotel.


Poyser Street
Road running alongside railway arches which house small businesses, workshops and the ubiquitous art galleries


St.Jude’s Road
Beatrice Tate School. This began as a voluntary enterprise in Bethnal Green Godsends. A new building for handicapped children here was authorized in 1967 and designed by John D. Hume, Tower Hamlets Borough Architect. It opened in 1970 as Junior Training Centre by Tower Hamlets Social Services and later transferred to the Inner London Education Authority. It is single storey with timber shell-dome over the hall and there is also, coloured tile work on the theme of 'the Silk Road' by Freeform Arts Trust 1997. The school has moved in 2013 to Southern Grove and to a new building

Teesdale Close
Four-storey dwellings of the type erected by philanthropic companies with open stair- cases, cast-iron balustrades and two self-contained dwellings per unit,


The Oval
Lithuanian Church St Casimir's Roman Catholic.  This was first established in 1899 in Cable Street and moved here in 1912. It has a: four-storey presbytery above it. The front has large circular windows over the entrances. There are capitals painted in pale green and cream with Lithuanian folk patterns and the fittings reflect the Lithuanian tradition, of Catholic Baroque art. There is a painted altarpiece given to the church in 1912 and said to be Tyrolean. There are many other statues and wooden Lithuanian candelabra
7-8 Place of Victory. The Redeemed Christian Church of God was founded in 1952 in Nigeria. Previously H.F. Greenfield, Leather goods
29-32 Oval Space. Office, art gallery and what have you.  The building also includes some furriers, and was used by A.J.Cope for the storage of scientific instruments. Cope however made wooden furniture here before 1981.
13-14 Pickle Factory. For arts professionals, pop up school, films, etc. It was Baron’s Crown Pickle Works.
R.H,Barratt. Bottle works. This was close to the canal on the west side.


Treadway Street
Reliance Safes.  There is a large concrete sign on the wall advertising these. Edward Tann was a smith of Old Street in 1790. In 1814, with his son Edward they occupied a factory in what is now Treadway Street. The advertisement incised in the gable dates from around 1890. In 1843 Edward's company designed and patented their "Reliance" lock, which was to become the company's trademark. In 1845 Edward transferred the business to his son becoming John Tann Ltd. An example of their 'fire-proof ' safe was shown at the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in 1851 and by 1900 the factory had moved to Old Ford.


Winkley Street
Housing. An example of speculative development of 1899-1904 by Charles Winkley, a Hackney builder. He replaced four existing streets with a planned area which included shops, houses, warehouses and workshops. The homes were Four-storey flats similar to those built by philanthropic companies.


Sources
Brewery History Society. Web site
British History Online. Bethnal Green. Web site
CAMRA. City and East London Beer Guide,
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London 
Empress Coaches. Web site
Essex Lopresti. The Regents Canal
Friends of the Earth.  Gas works sites in London
Grace’s Guide. Web site.
Lost Hospitals of London.  Web site
Lost Pubs. Web site
Morris. Archives of the Chemical Industry
Municipal Dreams. Web site
Parmiters Charity. Wikipedia. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Spitalfields Life. Web site
Stewart. Gas Works in the North Thames Area
TourEast, Leaflet

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Chingford. Bethnal Green

Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Chingford
The Great Eastern Railway turns north from East Junction and Bethnal Green Station
TQ 34773 82649

This posting covers only the north east section of the square

This is the inner city and adjacent to the old East End. There are the remains of much philanthropic housing and social support - some of the university settlements. There are also numerous pubs and remains of pubs. There are several schools. In these back streets there were once many small industrial units - and larger once, silk, lead and pharmaceuticals.


Post to the south Three Colt Lane
Post to the west Bethnal Green
Post to the north Cambridge Heath
Post to the east Bethnal Green

Ainsley Street
Flats.  The area was cleared of its 18th housing in 1868-1880 for blocks of Sydney Waterlow's Improved Industrial Dwellings Co. This was his company's first attempt on this scale with five-storey blocks on both sides of the street. They were selectively demolished in 1985.

Bethnal Green Road The road linked the Green with the edge of the City as housing spread from Spitalfields and Shoreditch in the late 17th.
379 The Old George. This is stucco-trimmed and balustraded one of the oldest surviving pubs in Bethnal Green originating probably in 1703.  It has modern board fascias: 'TRUMAN FINE ALES ... LONDON BREWERS SINCE 1666', plus eagle illustrations. It was the first pub to be owned by Balls Brothers in the 1860s
423 Bar Valente. This was Bohola House, a pub which with a stone plaque at first floor level with a winged tankard over the date 1767 - an old Charrington's logo. It seems originally to have been called The Albion. Bohola is a town in Ireland.
441 The Sun. This pub dates from before 1870 but closed in 2013. Reopened as a cocktail bar,
449 Quicksilver. Amusement ‘park’. The Yoga place is on the upper floors.  It was previously Wolchovers hardware manufacturers who owned the site from the mid 19th
456 Misty Moon. This was the Camden’s Head, when it was a Wetherspoon's pub, and before that the Lord Camden, when it was Charrington’s. It was established in 1766 but rebuilt, probably in 1864 by Edward Brown.
458 Former police station of 1917. The building by John Dixon Butler is an enlarging and re-fronting an earlier station of 1892 by his father, John Butler. It now belongs to the Providence Row Housing Association. This is a is a small, specialist housing association focused on the East End of London Providence Row Housing Association former Police Station.  Now with a rather severe domestic iron and two bow windows, stone faced on the ground floor. In the back yard are two-storey married quarters and a section house in yellow brick with three short pointed gables. Now flats
460 The Shakespeare. This pub has a 1890s glazed green faience front on an older pub. It has signage on the gable with lettering on cream tiles 'THE SHAKESPEARE ... TRUMAN HANBURY, BUXTON & COY LTD'. There is 'STOUT MILD ALE PORTER' written on a frieze above the door.  It is now a Greene King house.
462-464 La Forchetta in what was Lupin House. This includes a 19th clothing warehouse with an arcaded front and terracotta tiles beneath the top floor windows.
463 City View House.  Flats in what was a red brick bakery for Kearley & Tonge converted in the late 1980s. As International Stores, Kearley and Tonge opened their bakery here in 1906.
465 HSBC. This was built as the London City & Midland Bank by T.B. Whinney in 1905. It is on a corner site to be conspicuous
464a English and Son. Funeral directors. The building appears to be a hall, and connected with the Congregational Church behind
473 The Ship. This closed in 2000 and has been used as a shop, but the pub sign remains
488 the corner with Gale's Gardens has a shop front with pilasters. It was built for the Sun Life Insurance Company in 1882 by A. & C. Harston who also carried out slum clearance here for the Bethnal Green House Property Association
Great Eastern Railway bridge. This dates from 1893 and built by the Horseley & Co., Staffordshire.
502 Salmon and Ball.. The pub dates from at least 1733 and two weavers were hung in public outside in 1769 as a result of the Cutters Riot. The current listed building is late 19th.
Street Market. Some stalls remain on the south side of the road


Birkbeck Street
Sunlight Square. Flats on the site of part of the Allen and Hanbury's, later Glaxo, factory.
Site of Meeting House on the north corner with Cambridge Heath Road. This was founded in 1662. In 1771 John Kello was pastor and it became known as Kello's Meeting House. Then In 1819 he opened a Congregational chapel on the corner of Birkbeck Street. In then sold to a William Ellis as the Birkbeck school, Which George Lansbury attended.  In 1882 it became the church hall for St. Andrews and in 1928 rebuilt as the church of St Francis. The site is now the electricity transformer station.
Transformer Station. This was built by the LEB in the 1950s. In 1997 it was used as a committee room and offices for London Borough of Tower Hamlets.


Cambridge Heath Road
The name of Cambridge Heath is first recorded in 1275. This end of the road was known as ‘Dog Row’ and was first built up from about 1700.
255 This was the East End District Office for the London Electricity Board built in 1959 by Watson and Coates. It consisted of showrooms, offices, workshops and canteens.  It passed into the ownership of London Borough of Tower Hamlets, post privatisation and now they want to pull it down. In the meantime it is used as offices and for voluntary sector projects.
287 City View Hotel. This was the Green Man Pub which was present by 1750. It was rebuilt in 1885 and closed in 2002.Its green tiled frontage and Truemans signage was removed and covered in cream render. It was a fish and chip shop by 2004 and now a hotel.
289 New Life Bible Church. This began in the home of Pastor Joshua Jama and his wife Toyin in 1989. The church started in Hackney, in 1991 along with a counselling centre for the homeless, unemployed and needy people of that area which was called Sanctuary Church. In 1996, a building was acquired in Bethnal Green and in 1988 the name changed to Good News Assembly and in in 2006, the name was changed to New Life Bible Church.
305 Bethnal Green Mission Church. This is The Annie Macpherson Home of Industry. Annie was a friend of Dr Barnardo. She opened a ‘home of industry’ in 1866 to help people to read and write and to get medical attention. Initially this was work with workers in the match industry and the project also arranged for children to be sent to Canada.  They concentrated on medical work from 1925.  The present building dates from 1952 as a medical practice under the National Health Service and a church was also established here.
313 Flats in what was a three storey warehouse and office building formerly used by Balls Brothers Wine Merchants and built in brown brick in 1973.
339 Dundee Arms. Pub. A sunken hook on the right hand side of the entrance is for handling barrels in and out of the cellar.


Canrobert Road
40 General Canrobert Pub. This dated from around 1870 and closed after the Second World War.  Canrobert was a 19th French military gentleman.


Clarkson Street
Middleton Green. Open space which includes what was Canrobert Street Open Space. There is a ball games area, pathways and play facilities.


Derbyshire Street?
Oxford House Settlement. This was opened by Oxford undergraduates and The building is from 1890-2 by Sir Arthur Blomfield and Refurbished 1999-2002 by All Clear Designs Limited It  was commissioned by Rev. Winnington-Ingram, later Bishop of London, as 'a house to hold twenty residents . . . along with a lecture room, classrooms and club premises'. Oxford House began in 1884 set up by staff and students of Keble College and New College as a rival to the Universities Settlement at Toynbee Hall. In 1886 they founded the Federation of Working Men's Clubs and helped various recreational and educational clubs in the East End.  It now functions as an arts and community centre.


Ellsworth Street
Flats by Howes & Jackman for the London County Council from 1948-9 and extended 1957-62 around a square.
64 Duke of York. This pub was closed in 2006 and has since been demolished. It had 'WINES ... TRUMANS ALES & STOUT ... SPIRITS' painted out on the ground floor fascia; and a small Truman's lantern.


Hollybush Gardens
Joshua Galvin Academy. Hairdressing training school.
BJ house. Building containing offices and other units including an art gallery
Lead Works. This stood on the east side of the road at the north end. Henry Grace was making white lead here by 1828 and in 1901 Henry traded there as colour manufacturers and makers of white lead. They had closed by 1921.
Iron foundry, this lay behind the houses on the east side in the late 19th
Timber yard. Thos lay on the east side at the south end in the late 19th.
East London Silk Mills. This was owned in 1851 by John Warner. Warner and Sons was founded in 1870 as Warner, Sillet & Ramm by Benjamin Warner although The Warner family had been involved in the silk industry since the 17th, manufacturing traditional patterns. Benjamin Warner was interested in contemporary design and the firm supplied Liberty & Co, Collinson & Lock and Debenham & Freebody. By 1872 by Warner & Ramm employed in- and out-workers who produced furniture silk. In 1893, the Duchess of Teck visited the factory and commissioned them to make the finest white silk for the forthcoming royal wedding. The company moved to Braintree in 1895and specialised in high-quality textiles. The company ceased weaving in Braintree in 1971, but examples of fabrics produced there are held at the Warner Textile Archive.
Hollybush Urban Growers. This is an offshoot of the Rocky Park Community Garden and is managed by tenants of the Hollybush Estate. Tower Hamlets Homes planted an orchard consisting of about 30 young fruit trees, including apple, plum, peach and greengage.


Mansford Street
Chalice Foundation. Garratt Centre. This was a Unitarian church but originally it was Congregational. It was built in 1871 and designed by R. Church in brick. Inside is a tile mosaic which is an example of opus sectile work. It was unveiled in 1903 to commemorate Miss Elizabeth Jaqueline Garrett and is called "Emblemic of Charity". It scene shows two women helping the poor and destitute. It is attributed to Henry Holiday. The chapel began in a group around the London City Missioner James T. Bennett. They leased the Mansford Road site and built the chapel but divisions led to its sale. The chapel was bought by the London District Unitarian Society as a mission in 1889. It was reconstructed as Chalice foundation 1985 and in 1989 became a community centre and with activities for. Church Action with Unemployment and the Rathbone Society. It was converted to the Garrett centre acting for the community
Manse. This is attached to the chapel and now part of the Garrett Centre
Community House. This is part of Lawdale School
Lawrence Primary School.  This opened in 1883 as Mansford Street Board School but was renamed Lawrence by 1905. It was designed by E.R. Robson, with a straight, sheer facade with tall windows. After the Second World War it was reorganised for juniors with a nursery class by 1964.  In 1975 it was amalgamated with Teesdale Primary to form Lawdale Primary School
Lawdale School. This was formed in 1975 by amalgamating Lawrence and Teesdale Primary Schools in the old Lawrence buildings.  There is one new building.
Charles Dickens House.22 storey tower block built in 1969.
Excelsior Swimming Baths and Hall. This was on the corner with Florida Street. It was built in 1889 as the Excelsior Hall & Swimming Baths by A. Wooster Reeves and from 1898 was owned by Oxford House Settlement. It was later converted into a cinema.
Excelsior Kinema. This was the Excelsior Hall & Swimming Baths which in 1921 was converted into the Excelsior Kinema, by Emden & Egan with later work in 1926 by Frank Matcham and Co. The floor of the pool became the stalls, making use of the slope from shallow to deep end, with access by the original stone steps leading to the floor of the pool. The walkway round the pool was an intermediate balcony the old cast iron observation balcony above. The programmes were films plus variety. In 1939 it was remodeled again in Art Deco style by Maple & Co. It screened Bollywood films until its demolition in 1969. There is now housing estate on the site.

Middleton Street
Bethnal Green Nature Reserve. Phytology medicinal field is in the North West corner. St Jude’s was built in 1842 but destroyed in Second World War bombing. The ruins remained untouched becoming wilder and wilder. Eventually local people Helped by the Environment Trust started to clear the land. In the late 1990s Teesdale and Hollybush Tenants and Residents Association took responsibility for the site. Since they changed its name to Bethnal Green Nature Reserve.


Old Bethnal Green Road 
The road was once called the Driftway and it has been speculated that it was the Roman Road to the Lea. In 1747 it is shown on the Roque map as Coats's Lane, a track skirting the boundary of Coats' Farm.
Mansford Secondary School. This was opened in 1896 and built by T.J. Bailey as a senior section Mansford Street Board School. In 1906 it was reorganised as a Higher Elementary school and as a Central School in 1911 in an attempt to provide technical training in an industrial district. After the Second World War it became Mansford Secondary Commercial and Technical School until it was amalgamated with Daniel Secondary to form Daneford School in 1959
Daneford Comprehensive School was formed in 1959 by the amalgamation of Daniel and Mansford Secondary schools.  The upper school was in the Mansford buildings but the school eventually moved to new buildings
St. Bernard's Roman Catholic Secondary Comprehensive school was formed 1965 by amalgamating three schools. The middle school moved to the former Daneford premises in Mansford Street. In 1991 the school moved elsewhere and the site was used for Oaklands School.
Oaklands School. This opened as secondary school on the site of St. Bernard's School in 1991. It has a central block with a single-storey hall and classroom with wings for workshops. It is linked by a bridge across Bethnal Green Road to an Arts Building which was designed by Edwin Brear Associates in 1994
43 The Flower Pot Pub.  This was a Charrington’s house established by 1872 and rebuilt in 1908.  The building is now converted for use as offices.
67 The Kings Arms pub was there in 1856 and closed in 2001.  It was a Watney’s house and is now flats.
Saint Jude's Church. This was built 1846 by Henry Clutton, It church supported a young men's association, provident society and library and much else. Mission services and open air services were also held. The church was destroyed in Second World War bombing and demolished.
St. Jude's Church of England Secondary school was opened by 1846 as a Sunday school in the old chapel. A day school was built plus a teachers' house east of the church in 1846 with a parliamentary grant and was passed to the National Society in. 1848. After many uncertain years a new bldg. opened in 1895. Under the London Plan of 1947, it was reorganised in a new building on the same site as a voluntary assisted Church of England school. It was amalgamated with the Raine's Foundation in 1977 and used for the lower school.
Raines Foundation School. This is the latest school of that originally founded in 1719 by Henry Raine. It is a Church of England voluntary aided school. Henry Raine lived in Wapping, and created a school where poor children could get an education for free. In 1719 the school was opened but it has moved many tines. In 1977, Raine's merged with St Jude's Secondary School and became a comprehensive school and in 1985, the lower school for years 7 and 8 moved to Old Bethnal Green Road.
118 Dover Castle Pub. This was a Truman’s house pub and was present by 1866.  It closed in 2005 and later used as a snooker club.  It has since been demolished.

Paradise Row
Part of Cambridge Heath Road. But stands slightly back from the road behind part of the original green. 
2-11 terrace built in 1800, although there have been some substantial alterations.
3 Blue plaque to Daniel Mendoza the prize-fighter who lived here. He was Champion of England and defended his title in 1790 in a fight lasting 72 rounds; he founded a Boxing Academy in the City of London and wrote ‘The Art of Boxing’ in 1789. 
5 home of Mary James from 1900 that came here to use her fortune to assist the needy. She was the first woman to preside over a Metropolitan Poor Law body and a borough councillor from 1919 to 1922, representing the Progressive Party, and then the Liberals 1928-31
Paradise Gardens. A small strip of land that once formed part of the Bethnal Green common land. This was the west paddock let to a gardener. Paradise Gardens today consists of a strip of grass with plane trees, seats and a curving path running through it and it is enclosed by railings.

Pott Street
Horwood Estate. This was cleared by the London County council in the 1930s and large blocks built, which remain
Pott Street Chapel. The Chapel and schools were built by John Tarring in, 1849, for Calvinistic Independents. The remains consist of a ragstone tower, a school below and meeting room. It was much damaged by Second World War bombing. The Ground floor was adapted for worship in 1985 for Praxis, a United Reformed church; with new flats and offices adjoining.
Bethnal Green Meeting House. United Reform Church
Praxis was founded in 1983, by the Robert Kemble Trust.  A legacy of the late Robert Kemble to help pursue social justice rooted in Christianity.

Punderson’s Gardens
Named for Capt. Jonathan Punderson who built this area up in 1783

Sources
Bethnal Green Mission Church. Web site
Brewery History Society. Web site
British History online. Bethnal Green. Web site
Business Cavalcade of London
CAMRA City and East London Beer Guide
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Closed Pubs. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Liverpool Street to Chingford.
East London History Society. Newsletter
GLIAS Newsletter
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Great Eastern Railway Journal
Kimber. William Nicholson
Lawdale School. Web site
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Nairn.  Nairn’s London
New Bible Church. Web site
Oaklands School Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. East London
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Pub History Web site
Raines Foundation School. Web site
Skyscraper News. Web site
TBIAGC A Survey of Industrial Monuments of Greater London
The Green
The Warner Silk Mill in Braintree. Web site
TourEast. Leaflet

Sunday, 14 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Shenfield. Shenfield


The Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Shenfield
The railway from Brentwood Station arrives at Shenfield

Post to the south Hutton Mount

Alexander Lane
Shenfield High School. The school dates from 1962 and is now an ‘academy’. It was built by Essex County Council in 1959 as Shenfield County Technical School.
Alexander Lane Recreation Ground, sports fields.
Alexanders Farm and pond. This stood on the north side of the bend at the eastern end of the lane.  There were farm cottages across the road from it.

Chelmsford Road
Wynbarns Farm. This includes a 16th Barn which is Timber-framed,
and weatherboarded. The roof was retiled following Second World War damage.
The Rose Pub. This was a terrace of 4 cottages dating from around 1700. It was converted to a beer-house in the early 19th. The building is timber-framed and plastered.

Hunter Avenue
Car park –another large car park on the site of railway sidings to the west of the main line. This is also a work site for Crossrail.

Hutton Road
Shenfield Station. A station first opened here in 1843 but was closed for lack of passengers by 1850. It reopened in 1887 as Shenfield and Hutton Junction. It had three platforms along with extensive goods sidings. A brick water tower stood south of the platforms. The platforms are on an embankment and the original ticket hall was at ground level below the embankment on Hutton Road. It dated from 1888, when the Great Eastern Railway added the loop line destined for Southend on the west side of the main line. In the 1930s two more platforms were added and a new signal box replaced a box which had stood on the platforms. The station front was rebuilt in a sort of modern style in the 1970s. But the late 19th platform buildings and canopies remain on the island platform and western platforms. Some carriage sidings remain to the north of the station
Railway Bridge
Possible Second World War Spigot Mortar Emplacement, on the east side of the railway, beside southern wall of the railway bridge

Long Ridings
Long Ridings Primary School.

Mount Avenue
Herrington House ‘Preparatory’ School. This private fee paying school was founded in 1936 as a private day school.
Masonic Hall. This now includes Mount Avenue Banqueting Suite. The Hall was built in 1925 and 15 different lodges hold their meetings there. The temple is laid out with a large black and white rug called the Square Pavement, with the black squares representing the lows in life and the white the highs. The master's chair stands as the focus of the room with candle holders either side.

Railway
The Southend loop line diverges from the main line and descends from embankment to ground level running to the west. In the next square it passes under the main line of the east

Rayleigh Road
Hutton Junction Hotel. This has been called just The Hutton, and now The Hutton Junction. Pub which probably dates from the 1880s.
Bishops Hill. Adult Community Learning College run by Essex County Council. This was the school hall of a residential home built in 1905 for destitute children from the London Borough of Poplar. It closed in 1982.


Sources
Brennand. Ilford to Shenfield
Brentwood Gazette. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Essex County Council. Web site
Crossrail Archaeological Impact Assessment. Web site
Long Ridings Primary School. Web site
Shenfield High School. Web site

Great Eastern Railway to Shenfield. Hutton Mount

Railway Line from Liverpool Street to Shenfield
The line running from Brentwood Station runs north eastwards

Post to the south Thrift Wood
Post to the north Shenfield

Abbots Close
On the site of Shenfield brickworks. The company took over the Cranham brick works in 1906 and became the Shenfield and Cranham Brick Co. and later Colliers. Bricks were hand made and sold as ‘Shenfield Reds’ and ‘Shenfield Brindles’.

Brockley Grove
Hutton and Shenfield UC Lawn Tennis Club. The Club was established in 1919 and has about 150 adult and 100 junior members using five astroturf courts, four with floodlights
Hutton and Shenfield Union Church. The church was founded in 1913, by the Baptist and Congregational Unions, to serve the growing community in and around Hutton Mount. Thus the ministry alternates between the Baptists and the United Reformed Church.
Brockley Wood

Herrington Grove
Built on the area of what was Herrington’s Farm

Hutton Road
63 Shenfield Library

Mount Area
This is one of the roads in the area known as Hutton Mount – quasi upmarket housing built in the 1930s.

Peahill Wood

Priests Lane
Brickfield Cottages. Built in 1898 these lie in a close which would have been adjacent to the brickfield.

Railway
A stream rises to the west of the railway, passes under it and flows north as a tributary to the river Wid.
Goods and other facilities stretched south on the eastern side of the railway parallel to what is now Herrington Road. This area is now covered by a large station car park, accessed by a path running from Mount Avenue.  Some railway infrastructure buildings remain there but it once contained goods facilities including cattle pens and a railway turntable.

Sources
Brennand. Ilford to Shenfield
Hutton and Shenfield UC Lawn Tennis Club. Web site
Hutton and Shenfield Union Church. Web site

Friday, 12 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Shenfield - Thrift Wood

The Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Shenfield
The line runs north eastwards from Brentwood Station

Post to the west Shenfield Common
Post to the north Hutton Mount

Hanging Hill Lane
5 Hare Hall. 16th house with alterations from 1965. It is timber-framed, and part plastered with exposed false framing and part weatherboarded,
Gypsy Corner

Hare Hall Shaw
This is a small area of woodland kept as a screen for various housing developments from the 1970s and 1980s and is the remnants of what was once a large expanse of woodland. Species include Hornbeam coppice with occasional pedunculate oak and ground flora including bluebells.  It is maintained by Brentwood Borough Council.  There is a pond at the south end.

Thrift Wood
This large ancient woodland is used as a Scout camp and consequently the woodland contains many buildings and areas for tents and activities. The woodland comprises hornbeam coppice with pedunculate and sessile oak. Other tree and shrub species include silver birch, sweet chestnut,Lime etc. There are a number of ponds in the wood including the northern fishing lake.


Sources
Brentwood Council. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Crossrail Report. Web site

Thursday, 11 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Shenfield. Shenfield Common

Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Shenfield
From Brentwood Station the line curves sharply north eastwards

Post to the west Brentwood
Post to the east Thrift Wood

Hogarth Avenue
Endeavour School. School for children with complex needs. It was opened in 1970


Ingrave Road
Four Oaks. This was Brentwood Cottage Hospital which opened around 1883 and was rebuilt in 1895, due to the efforts of Dr. J.C. Quennell. In 1921 it became part of a war memorial to men killed in the Great War and was renamed Brentwood District Hospital. In the 1930s there were plans to extend it but a 20 acre site in Crescent Drive was offered for a new Hospital which opened in 1934 as the Brentwood District Hospital. In 1947 the Ingrave Road site became a maternity hospital and joined the NHS in 1948 as the Brentwood Maternity Home. It closed in 1974.  The buildings are now a housing scheme. On the southern elevation is a plaque to Dr. John Cooper Quennell, who did much to enable rebuilding of the Hospital.
Billericay Rural District Council Sewage pumping station lay on the south east side of the railway bridge. Brentwood sewage had been dealt with by the Billericay Poor Law Union. 
Three Arch Bridge

Maple Crescent
Maple Community Hall

Middleton Hall Lane
Brentwood School Sports fields and ancillary buildings.

Orchard Avenue
Thriftwood International Scout Camp, with purpose built facilities.

Riseway
Hogarth County Junior and Infant Schools. The junior school was opened in 1954 and the infant school in 1955

Seven Arches Road
Seven Arches Bridge. This railway bridge was constructed in 1842 to 1843

Shenfield Common
In the Domesday Book the name is “Chenefield” meaning 'good lands'.
This is an area of common land which is managed by the Shenfield Common Conservators. In 1934 the government transferred the appointment of the Conservators of Shenfield Common to Brentwood Borough Council, however the Chair is nominated by the Lord of the Manor. The membership of the Conservators comprises of Borough Councillors and members of the local community. In the 19th some areas were sold off and cleared for pasture. Works for the railway in the 1840's meant a lot of change and the common was used to dump excavated soil. In 1881 commoner's rights were extinguished and it became a public park. Four oak trees were planted by four Parish Chairs in 1900 for the start of the 20th and an avenue of lime trees planted in 1895 to give work to the unemployed.  The trees along Seven Arches Road were planted for the coronation of King Edward VII.  A bandstand has been removed but was used by the military bands from Warley Barracks. It stood in a gravel pit near the pond. The common is now largely wooded.
Mill Pond.  Provides habitats for birds and ducks, invertebrates and dragonflies and is said to have been use for milling in the 19th. A windmill stood in The Chase nearby.
The road down the north east side of Shenfield Common follows the parish boundary


Sources
Brentwood Council. Web site
British History Online. Brentwood Web site.
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site

Monday, 8 September 2014

Great Eastern Railway to Shenfield. Brentwood


The Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Shenfield runs westward from Harold Wood Station, into Brentwood Station, and beyond
TQ 59807 93737

This is central Brentwood - as a substantial Essex Town, with a busy High Street with many old buildings. There is a Roman Catholic Cathedral, old established schools, ruins of an ancient chapel and some important industrial sites, notably the Thermos factory.

Post to the west Brentwood
Post to the east Shenfield Common

Alexandra Road
Engine Shed. This was in the space at the eastern end of the road used as the station car park. The shed closed in 1949. It had three roads and was opened in 1872.

Coptfold Road
This was once called Love Lane
Coptford House. Private flats in what were council offices. This was built in the 1970s and used by Essex County Council's social services.  This is on the site of what was a school.
The National Schools moved here in 1869 having originally been founded in the 1830s. They were set back from the road and intended for the children of the labouring poor.  Here, they received annual government grants from 1871 and had endowments from John Cotton and John Offin. It was soon very overcrowded. The schools were enlarged in 1883 and in 1893 by selling some of the assets of the charitable endowments. It was taken over by Essex County Council in 1902.In 1936 the schools were reorganized for juniors and infants. The school eventually moved to new buildings in Shenfield in 1968. Coptfold House was built on the site.
Church House. This was on the corner with New Road and was part of the site later taken over by Coptfold House.
Queens Inn. This stood on the west corner with New Road
Clever Clogs Nursery School. This was built as a Police Station in 1844 and closed in 1937. It was then used the Brentwood branch of Essex County Library. It is now a children’s nursery school.
Becket House. This tower block was built as offices but has been remodelled as flats

Cornsland
The Priory. House originating in a 16th hall with many alterations. This has a pegged timber frame with 19th extension. It survives mostly in its original condition
Crown Street
5 19th building white painted and rendered, with original slate roof, sashes and shop window. Once a motorbike dealership
Brentwood Gas Light Co. this was established at the south end of the road in 1836 but moved in 1858 nearer to the railway to allow for easier coal deliveries.
Breakthrough Church. Evangelical church.
Cottages. These are in a backland space, between this street and South Street. There is a plaque saying ‘Crown Street 1854’.

Eastfield Road
Brescia House. This is a building was part of the Ursuline Convent. It has more recently been used as offices but was originally constructed to provide additional bedroom accommodations for The Sisters.
St Thomas Church Hall. From the 1950s this was used by the Banyard School of Dancing but it was sold and demolished in 1986.  There are now flats on the site.

Fairfield Road
Job Centre and other offices in Fairfield House
Brentwood Boxing Academy. This is an old tyre depot now used as a gym for young boxers
Hart Street
Was originally known as Back Lane. The medieval town lay between this road and the High Street
Market – this was sited at the east end of the street at the junction with High Street and Crown Street.  It had been granted to the Abbott of St.Osyth in 1227 as the owner of Costed Manor. It was sited on the highest ground in the town and was a focus for the whole area. It was regulated by the manor court, which appointed aleconners, leathersealers, and inspectors of meat and fish. It was held weekly, plus an annual fair day until 1790.
Great Stompfords Farmhouse.  This is a 16th building which was divided into three cottages in the 1960s and then demolished for the Hart Street car park in 1970.
Fire Station. This opened as a fire station in 1903 and was there until 1948. Now a barber.  It was put into its present condition in 2004 and given a traditional style shop front. A new wrought iron arch at the side leads to a cobbled footpath where outbuildings have been turned into shops
27 Gardener’s Arms.  Probably the old building for the workhouse opened in 1745 and Extended in 1805 for 60 people, with a workroom.  In 1836 it was closed and the paupers were sent to the Union Workhouse at Billericay.  It has been a pub since at least the 1880s.
39 a timber-framed building from the early 16th was found before it was demolished. It was a long wall jetty house with a plan thought  to reflect cramped urban conditions
Malthouse. This was on the south side in the 18th.
The Square. Block of new flats on the corner with Kings Road. They are over an underground car park. At the corner is a five storey tower with a pyramidal roof

High Street
This is part of the Roman road from London to Colchester but there was no Roman settlement here.  
Horse trough and drinking fountain. It has the date of 1910 and names 'George & John Larkin' who were local philanthropists.
The local Cage and Pound were at the east end of the street in the 16th and 17th
Plane tree with seats beneath it
Public lavatories, partially underground and enclosed by a brick wall with low railings designed to make them unobtrusive and screened by shrub planting.
10 Kentucky Fried Chicken. The former White Horse public house which was licensed from the 1820s. This has a brick ground floor with two doors and suspended lanterns above.
12 now the Halifax Building Society, the 18th building was called The Mansion House and in the 20th the home of a local doctor. There are wrought iron railings to the ground floor
16 site of Davey’s Dairy. In the yard at the back were crates of different grades of milk, already bottled. With a retail shop in front
25 Halfords is a late 20th remodelling of a three-storey stock brick building which has been clad in lead.
The Ship, later the Yorkshire Grey, was on the north side of the street. It was in business until 1960 and Demolished 1961.  It had a bowling green and a bowls club attached.
26-28 The Arcade. This was converted in 1954 when it was turned into sixteen units at the rear of Ripley’s garage which had originally been built in 1924.
30 The Post Office. This was originally built in the 1890s and rebuilt 1939-41. The Post Office itself is now in the W.H.Smith building.
Millennium Clock, This is on spindly legs to which an advertising panel is fixed.
35 Thomas Cook. Shop front with a symmetrically designed brick first floor with Crittall windows. A 20th refronting of an older building. A carriage arch leads to Culyers Yard, probably a stable
39-41 Monsoon. The upper floors are decorated with an abstract 1950s style pattern.
42. This was formerly Burtons and there is a foundation stone laid in 1939 by Austin Stephen Burton. The building is in the usual Art Deco style of Burtons.  This was the site of the Chequers Inn. Before the railway came this was a stop for coaches and had been a pub from 1769 or earlier but closed in 1937. It was a timber-framed 16th building.
Chapel of St. Thomas. This was built in 1221 by the Abbot of St.Osyth on the main route from Ongar to Canterbury with an eye to the pilgrim trade in a town which had been promoted and built by the Abbey. It was a Chapel of Ease to the church at South Weald. Until the middle of the 18th it was still used for divine service. It was sold for demolition when the new church was built became the Boys National School in 1836. Most of it was demolished when the school moved.  In 1900 it was fenced in on the street side by Christopher John Hume Tower, J.P.    It is built of flint rubble with some Kentish Ragstone and Reigate stone. All that survives is part of the nave, and a stump of the tower, which unusually was located inside the nave. The footprint of the chapel is marked out with lines of rounded flints. The railings were erected in 1902 when restoration work was carried out.
National School. In 1836 St. Thomas's chapel was converted into a National school. From 1839 it was maintained by the Rev. William Tower master of Brentwood school. In 1869 new schools were opened in Love Lane, later called Coptfold Road.
Bay Tree Centre. Shopping precinct built in 1975 as Chapel Centre to the south of the ruined chapel. This is now called the Bay Tree Centre and it stands on the site of the Odeon Cinema.
The Odeon was built on the site of the chapel and the ruins of the chapel gardens were kept as a decorative feature in front of the cinema. It was Built for Oscar Deutsch’s Odeon Theatres Ltd. chain, and opened in 1938. The facade was plain with cream tiles and three large windows which let light into the circle foyer. In the auditorium Art Deco bands on the walls contained hidden lighting. It closed in 1974 and was taken over by Brentwood Council under a compulsory purchase order and demolished immediately. A twin-screen cinema was incorporated into the new shopping centre called Focus 1 & 2 and opened in 1974. In 1984 they became part of the Classic Cinemas chain and then taken over by the Cannon Group and re-named Cannon Cinemas, and later still re-named ABC.  In the late-1990’s they were taken over by Odeon Theatres and because Asbestos was found in the building it was closed in 2000.
Crown. This was a coaching inn, which was to the west of the chapel. It included a post office in 1790s. It closed in 1818 and the premises were used as a lecture room. It is thought to have existed in the 16th and may have existed as early as the 14th. In 1797 they had 3 post chaises and 13 post horses. The buildings had been demolished by 1927.
43-45 Marks and Spencer store originally built for Woolworths in 1969. It was built on the site of a mansion called The Red House. Which was demolished pre-Second World War
44, Pepperell House. One of only three Georgian buildings. It may incorporate a late medieval building.
49 site of an old house known as Franks. Demolished in the early 1950s
51 Boots is on site of the Sainsbury’s store of 1967 which was itself on the site of the Palace Cinema. It is a long three-storey building faced in prefabricated concrete panels. The Palace cinema, High Street, existed by 1914, and was owned by Dorrin and Partners. It was reopened after rebuilding in 1934, and was finally closed in 1968
57-59 Sainsbury’s in the 1920s.
60-64 a group of surviving late medieval buildings. 62 This seems to have originally been a 1400 hall with 60 and 64 being crossings together forming an H-plan house.
63-65 one of the few surviving late medieval buildings here. Rebuilt in 1973,
67 Lion and Lamb, now a shop, is an old inn refurbished between the wars with a façade of handmade red bricks.
The George, later George and Dragon, was on the eastern corner with Crown Street. It existed in 1407 and closed in 1906. The building was demolished in 1970 and was a timber framed, probably 15th structure.
82 Slug and Lettuce
86 O’Neills
89 brick façade rebuilt in the 20th. It has an old weatherboarded attic extension.
91 HSBC, a former Midland Bank branch erected in 1921, grand classical presence on the frontage,
93 White Hart. This is now called the Sugar Hut, The Georgian brickwork façade was replaced in the 20th. It has a coaching yard but dates to the late 15th.  It May be the site of an even earlier inn and 13th pottery has been found in the courtyard. It was the most important of the Brentwood coaching inns and it had an excise office in it in 1793; petty sessions were also heard there. There were Shove halfpenny championships here in the 1790s. There is a galleried rear range of about 1500.
93-95 site of the Assize House which was built in 1579 on the site later used for the Town Hall. It was used Quarter Sessions and Crown Assizes. It was a timber framed building with decorated barge boards but by 1830 it was being used as shops. The Town Hall was built in here 1864, on the site of the Assize House. It was held on lease by a limited company – the Town Hall Company which had built it. It was demolished in 1963.
94 Co-op Funeral Care may be an older building given a brick façade and sash windows in the 19th.
101 is a recent development which has recreated the look of a late medieval building with two gables facing the street. At the ground floor, there is a traditional style shop front.
102 unsuspected remains of a significant timber-framed building were found here. The timber frame only survived at first floor; its style was unusual, and suggests that it belonged to a tradition current in south Essex and the London area.
Bell Inn. This closed in 1951 and was demolished in 1970. It stood on the south side somewhere near 104. It was recorded from 1454, when its sign was repainted.
108-114 a row of older buildings, some of which are amongst the oldest in the town. They are all timber-framed
109 is a wide two-storey 19th building, with a carriage arch with its original surround is a striking feature of the building
110 is a two bay 16th-century cross-wing with a crown post roof, possibly once jettied and housing a medieval shop.
111 site of Brentford’s first supermarket. A Tesco was opened in here in 1955.
120, Bennetts Funeral Directors, possibly an earlier building remodelled. Its appearance is enhanced by a high standard of maintenance
123 Swan Hotel.  This former hotel has some Edwardian features, including dark wood panelling and leaded windows. It was rebuilt in 1935 in handmade brick
125-127b, the Litten Tree, wooden shop front within polished granite pilasters inherited from a previous use
129-129a Prezzo, has a traditional shop front set in an impressive early 19th brick façade, behind the rear there is a weather boarded outbuilding and a yard with skips.
141 Sir Charles Napier was on the corner with Weald Road and s another well detailed public house. It was built of handmade brick, with false half timbering on the first floor. Demolished
Brewery. This was owned by Thomas Hill, and later John Hill & Co. They had premises in the High Street in 1863 and later in Warley Road. It was bought up by Ind Coope in 1900.
The Marquis of Granby. This was on north side of the street, east of Weald Road. It had closed by 1829.
Heritage Column sculpture by Gary Thrussell located here in 2004. The Heritage Column was erected in April 2004. It was designed by sculptor and blacksmith Gary Thrussell and traces the history of Brentwood from its origins to modern times. It was inspired by John Fryer’s book ‘Brentwood - A Concise Pictorial History’

Ingrave Road
Cathedral of St Mary and St Helen. Roman Catholic Cathedral was dedicated in 1991. The architect Quinlan Terry was commissioned to build the church in the Classical style and Work began in 1989. It was decided to retain part of the Gothic revival church of 1861. The cathedral is lit by brass English Classical chandeliers one of which came from a church in Epping.  The Bishop’s chair was made in Pisa, and has steps of Portland stone and there is a great deal more in the church.
Church of St. Helen.  This was opened in 1837, with the aid of money from Lord Petre and Joseph S. Lescher. The original church became a school in 1861, when a larger church was built next door
Church of the Sacred Heart and St. Helen, was given by Lord Petre. In 1917, when the diocese of Brentwood was formed, the church became a cathedral. It was a ragstone building in Gothic style. It was enlarged in 1974, by John Newton, to provide for both parish and diocesan use. Meeting halls were provided on the north and west
St. Helen's Roman Catholic school. A school had been started in 1848 which in 1861 took over and enlarged the former St. Helen's chapel. It had a government grant from 1872. Eventually in the 1960s the school was transferred to new buildings elsewhere.
38 Regency House is the former bishop’s residence, now used as offices
Clergy House, in white brick
Office buildings, built in 1982 by Lawrence King and used by the Catholic Church
Convent building of 1873. There was also an orphanage here in the 19th. 
Song School. A 19th brick building originally a chapel,
Brentwood School. This is a private fee paying school, albeit with an old foundation as a local grammar school. In 1557 Sir Antony Browne bought Weald Hall, some of which remains, as a site for the school and a charter was granted by the Crown. Old Big School was built in 1568. It first operated as a boarding school from 1765, however the school was close to collapse in the early 19th but recovered and from the 1850s flourished and in the 1870s began an emphasis on sport. A chapel was built in 1868. A ‘Preparatory’ School opened in 1892. In the early 20th new buildings and sports facilities, including a swimming pool, were built – continued with a (War) Memorial Hall, the Bean Library, squash courts, gymnasium and a rifle range. Other buildings were bought or added. In the 1970s girls began to be admitted, at first only to the sixth form and many expensive facilities followed – running tracks, science centres, design centres, et al. Many pupils now do not board and there are five day houses and two boarding houses, and for girls and one for boys. The School buildings are in a range of architectural styles, mostly in red brick and oversized. The older school buildings are set back behind grass and trees.
Barnards is a Georgian house which has been part of the School since the early 20th century.
Old School House, a building dated 1773, with a bay added in 1864.
Big Old School, This is a 16th brick building with an upper floor dormitory added in 1855. It forms a long range parallel to the road
School chapel. This dates from 1868
Main school building. Built 1910 by Frederic Chancellor in a Tudor style with a central gatehouse tower
17 lodge in red brick
Otway House, built in 1878 this was originally the vicarage to for the parish church, but bought by the school, and extended. It has a boundary wall with distinctive brickwork
Martyr’s Elm. An elm tree stood here and was said to mark the spot where William Hunter was burnt at the stake in 1555. The remains of the 400 year old elm were removed in 1952. In 1936 an oak tree was planted here to mark the accession of King George VI, and stands near the spot where the elm was.
Wilson’s Corner. This is the corner building at the junction with Shenfield Road. It is the site of Wilson’s department store, a three storey shop with a clock tower which burnt down in 1909. It was rebuilt but closed in 1978.  The building is in use by a variety of shops.
Council Offices and Town Hall. This includes a clock from the demolished town hall building in the High Street. The current complex was built in 1957 and extended in 1984. A clock from Warley Barracks was mounted in the wall.
Mellon House. This was Hambro House and is a large office block in red brick
Artichoke Inn. This is now a Toby Carvery

King Edward Road
Brentwood Sea Cadets Hall
1 Kingsgate. Office block built in 1985 on the site of the Parade Cinema

Kings Road
Was previously known as Warley Lane.
Brentwood Station. This lies between Harold Wood and Shenfield Stations on the Great Eastern Railway. It was opened by the Eastern Counties Railway when they extended here in 1840 from Romford.   From 1882 it was called Brentwood and Warley which reflected the growing catchment area. The tracks through the station were increased to four in 1934 when the station was also rebuilt. Following nationalisation it was electrified in 1949. It has been known as simply Brentwood since 1969.
Goods Yard. This lay to the west of the station and reached as far as the gas works, to which there were sidings. At the western end there were also cattle sidings and pens. Other customers for the goods yard included Thomas Moy and the London Co-op.  There was a considerable incline, Brentford Bank, as the line neared and entered the goods yard and ultimately the station.  The goods yard closed in 1970.
Signal Box. During the widening of the lines in 1934 a four storey signal box was provided close to the goods yard. In the Second World War it was strengthened with a brick base. The box closed in 1971 but the brick base remains.
Railway Hotel. Owned by brewer John Hill in 19th. This was to the north of the station and may have been near the junction with Queen’s Road.
171 Highway House. Office block
Burial Ground. This dates from 1755 when Non-conformists built their New Meeting chapel having left the Old Meeting in Weald Road. The Kings Road chapel was demolished in 1847 when the congregation moved to the chapel in New Road.
161 Murphy’s Sports Bar
19 print works building. Used most recently by the Westbury Press
Mission Hall. This was in the area now covered by buildings at the rear of the Bennett’s funeral business.
Fielders Brewery was on the corner of Primrose Hill. They had two deep wells here for water and had opened, probably, in the 1850s. It was taken over in 1923 and mainly demolished.
Baptist Chapel.  This originated in 1885 and an iron hall was built in King's Road in 1886 and called Brentwood Tabernacle. In 1910 this was sold and in 1912–32, a church was built on a different site in King's Road. It was damaged by bombing in 1940, and rebuilt.
Winter Brothers brick and tile business. This was active here in 19th and the firm also operated as monumental masons. A brick kiln lay to the east in 19th in the area now covered by Chase Road.

New Road
Congregational Chapel.  This is now the United Reform Church. It is a church and church hall, built in 1847 with the hall added in 1982. It is in brick, with a stuccoed front.
Court House. This was built for the County Court in 1848 and is now a private health facility.
Brentwood Library. This Essex County Council library was opened by the Princess Royal in 1991.
Brentwood Technical School. This was opened here in 1910 by Essex County Council as a cookery and handicraft centre. It closed in 1936


Ongar Road
A Volunteer drill hall, built in Ongar Road in 1886, was sold by the Territorial Army in 1970.  The site now forms an entrance to the Sainsbury’s supermarket. The hall was the base for the 414 Battery of the 104th (Essex Yeomanry Regiment) Royal Horse Artillery, Territorial Army. A plaque in the Town Hall records their Second World War service in Palestine and how they eventually became the 14th Royal Horse Artillery
City Coach Company. This had its entrance from Ongar Road and the site became eventually the Thermos Factory. The Company had devolved from a number of companies which the City Motor Omnibus Co Ltd in the 1920s and which included many services between Kentish Town and Southend. The Company also built a Head Office and depot at Brentwood in 1938 having acquired a number of operators in that area during 1936.  They operated local services as well as and longer distance route from Southend to Wood Green and Kentish Town. The Company closed following post nationalisation in 1953.
Thermos. The thermos flask was invented in 1892 by James Dewar. The Thermos Company originated in 1904 in Tottenham and expanse rapidly with a number of units, one of which in 1938 moved to a factory in Leyton. In 1961 the Leyton factory was closed and the production based there moved to Brentwood. It is said that they occupied the buildings of the City Coach Company. They sold the site to Salisbury’s in 1996 and moved to Thetford.
17 Eclipse night club in what was The Castle pub, which closed in 2007

Primrose Hill
The Brentwood Spiritualist Church. This was founded in 1942 and members were told clairvoyantly that they would have a permanent Church, that it would be situated on a hill, in a garden, nestling under a large tree. In 1945 they rented some old army huts here and in 1955 they bought the property. There have been subsequent improvements completed in 2005.
28 Brewery Tap. 19th public house. It was once a single storey wing of a large building of Fielder’s brewery, and has since been modified.
Brentwood Methodist church. A church was built in 1845 in Primrose Hill. In 1880 it was purchased by the Brethren. It was later used by the Full Gospel church which originated in 1928. In 1957 the church took over the Brethren's chapel

Queens Road
Telephone exchange. This was set up by the post office in 1899 and built in 1932. Closed in 1973.
Glad Tidings Hall. The Assemblies of God registered the Hall, Queen's and in 1957 moved to the former Brethren's chapel in Primrose Hill.
Montpelier House. Taken over in 1912 to provide a new County High School. It had been built in 1879 to provide a girl’s boarding school by Kate Bryan.
The Convent of Mercy. This was founded in 1872 by sisters from St. Joseph's convent, Chelsea came to teach in local schools. Helen Tasker, Countess Tasker of Middleton Hall, Shenfield, built a small convent in Queen's Road. The sisters also had a boys' orphanage, endowed by the countess, and later a girls' orphanage. They continued until 1950. In 1974 the convent moved away.
The Ursuline Convent was founded in 1900, when sisters from Upton, came to Brentwood to open a high school for girls.
Ursuline Convent High School. Set up in a house called Matlock in 1900.  They later moved to a house called Fairview.  The school became comprehensive in 1979 but has recently become an academy.
Steam corn mill. This lay back from the road east of Rose Valley and is said to have been owned by a John Emery and to have had a beam engine.
Rose Mount. This was a mansion on the south side of Queens Road east of Rose Valley. It was later called “Five Wells”. It was demolished before 1960.
88 Spread Eagle. The pub probably dates from the 1860s.

Rose Valley
Brick field in the 19th
Industrial School set up by London School Board as Prospect House in 1874 – the first school of its type run by the London School Board. The building was then taken over by Joseph Hibbard, auctioneers. Following work done at the school by Rosemary Davenport Hill it was renamed The Davenport Hill School for Boys and moved to Byfleet and then Margate
Brentwood High School for Boys.  Private school run from the mid 19th. Settled on this site in the 1880s.
Air Training Corps 1483 (Brentwood) Squadron.  The Squadron was officially formed on the 28th of June 1941 and the headquarters were opened on the 20th of May 1989 by Vice Lord Lieutenant of Essex, Captain R. P. Laurie.

Seven Arches Road
Brentford County School for Girls. In 1876 a private school for girls was opened in Queen's Road, Brentwood.  In the early 20th this was taken over by Essex County Council and reopened as Brentwood County High School. In 1927 the school moved to Shenfield Common and it was later extended, it became a mixed comprehensive school in 1978. New specialist buildings have been added.

Shenfield Road
Monument. This was  erected by public subscription in 1861 to the memory of William Hunter a Protestant martyr and native of Brentwood, who, in 1555, aged nineteen, was burnt to death near here by order of Bishop Bonner for denying the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Mitre House. It dates from the 15th century and is H-plan with a hall between two cross-wings, though its actual age is disguised. Now a boarding house for Brentwood School.


St James Road
Housing. On the site of what was a malthouse for the Hill Brewery
Trading Estate, on the site of a previous Council yard. 

St Thomas Road
Church of St. Thomas. The church was built in 1883 to replace a smaller church of 1835. It had become Brentwood’s parish church in 1873.  The original church was east of the chapel of St. Osyth, and built on the site of a nursery garden. There were structural problems and was therefore rebuilt in 1882-3. It is in flint and pebble with stone dressings and has a tower and spire added in 1886 with a clock and eight bells.

The Chase
A windmill stood here in the 19th

The Parade
Parade Cinema. This belonged to Dorrin and Partners and opened in 1921. It closed after damage by bombing in 1941. It was later used as a warehouse by a Southend motor parts supplier. In the 1960s it became a discotheque called Bubbles, and was then demolished.

Weald Road
Old Meeting. In 1707 there was a Presbyterian congregation here and within ten years there was a permanent meeting-house here. The old meeting closed 1800 and had between Weald Lane and Tower Hill, approached by a passage from Weald Lane.
Bardeswell Social Club. This was the labour club and the close is on the site of sports facilities.
Western Road
First council houses built by Brentwood Urban District Council in 1902.


Wharf road
Bowling green
Tennis court


Sources
Brennand. Ilford to Shenfield
Brentwood Cathedral. Web site
Brentwood School. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Closed Pubs Project. Web site
British History. Online. Brentwood.
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Essex Chronicle. Web site
Essex Journal
Grace’s Guide. Web site
James.  Chemical Industry in Essex
London Transport Museum. Web site
Peaty. Brewery Railways
Pub History. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. Essex
Ward. Brentwood